Do liberal thresholds for red cell transfusion result in improved quality of life for patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia? A randomized cross over feasibility study
Exploring the components of bleeding outcomes in transfusion trials for patients with hematologic malignancy
Clinically significant bleeding in patients with hematologic malignancies is a heterogeneous composite outcome currently defined as World Health Organization (WHO) bleeding Grades 2, 3, and 4. However, the clinical significance of some minor bleeds categorized as WHO Grades 1 and 2 remains controversial. We analyzed the number and frequency of individual signs and symptoms of WHO Grades 1 and 2 bleeds and explored their association with more severe incident bleeds graded as WHO Grades 3 and 4. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS We aggregated daily bleeding assessment data from three randomized controlled trials conducted in patients with hematologic malignancies that used bleeding as an outcome. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to identify signs and symptoms categorized as WHO Grades 1 and 2 bleeds that were associated with more severe bleeds (Grades 3 and 4). RESULTS We collected data from 315 patients (n = 5476 daily bleeding assessments; 3383 [61.8%] with a bleed documented). A total of 98.3% (3326/3383) were Grade 1 and 2 bleeds and 1.7% (57/3383) were Grades 3 and 4. Grade 1 and 2 bleeds were composed of 20 different bleeding signs and symptoms. Hematuria (hazard ratio, 16.1; 95% confidence interval, 4.4-59.2; P < .0001) was associated with incident Grade 3 or 4 bleeds. CONCLUSION In patients with hematologic malignancy, only hematuria (microscopic and/or macroscopic) was associated with more severe incident bleeds. This findings require validation in independent data sets.
Patients with haematologic malignancies and chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (3 randomised controlled trials (RCTs), n= 315).
Less severe bleeds (WHO Grades 1 and 2).
More severe bleeds (WHO Grades 3 and 4).
The total data aggregated from the 3 RCTs was 5,476 daily bleeding assessments, 61.8% with a bleed documented. A total of 98.3% were Grade 1 and 2 bleeds and 1.7% were Grades 3 and 4. Grade 1 and 2 bleeds were composed of 20 different bleeding signs and symptoms. Haematuria was associated with incident Grade 3 or 4 bleeds. In patients with haematologic malignancy, only haematuria was associated with more severe bleeds.
rhTPO combined with chemotherapy and G-CSF for autologous peripheral blood stem cells in patients with refractory/relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
Cancer management and research. 2019;11:8371-8377
Objective: The mobilization and collection of sufficient autologous peripheral blood stem cells (APBSCs) are important for the fast and sustained reconstruction of hematopoietic function after autologous transplantation. This study aims to evaluate the mobilization effect and safety of thrombopoietin (TPO) combined with chemotherapy + G-CSF for APBSCs in patients with refractory/relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Methods: A total of 78 patients were included in the present study. After receiving mobilization chemotherapy, all patients were randomly divided into two groups: TPO group (n=40), patients were given subcutaneous injection of rhTPO + G-CSF, and control group (n=38), patients were given subcutaneous injection of G-CSF. The primary endpoint was the total number of obtained CD34+ cells. The secondary endpoints were the mononuclear cell count, the proportion of target and minimum mobilization, the engraftment time of neutrophils and platelets after APBSCT, the number of platelet and red blood cell infusions, the incidence of infectious fever and fever duration, and TPO-related side effects in patients. Results: TPO participation significantly increased the total CD34+ cell count. A higher proportion of patients in the TPO group achieved the minimum and target CD34+ cells, when compared to the control group. TPO-related adverse events were not observed in either of these groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in engraftment time, the number of platelet and red blood cell transfusions, the incidence of infectious fever, and fever duration between these two groups. Conclusion: TPO combined with chemotherapy + G-CSF can safely and effectively enhance the mobilization effect for APBSCs in patients with refractory/relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Hemostatic efficacy of pathogen-inactivated- versus untreated- platelets: a randomized controlled trial
Pathogen inactivation of platelet concentrates reduces the risk of blood-borne infections. However, its effect on platelet function and hemostatic efficacy of transfusion is unclear. We conducted a randomized noninferiority trial comparing the efficacy of pathogen inactivated platelets using riboflavin and ultraviolet B illumination technology (intervention) compared to standard plasma-stored platelets (control) for the prevention of bleeding in patients with hematologic malignancies and thrombocytopenia. The primary outcome parameter was the proportion of transfusion treatment periods in which the patient had grade 2 or higher bleeding as defined by World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Between November 2010 and April 2016, 469 unique patients were randomized to 567 transfusion treatment periods (283 in the control arm, 284 in the intervention arm). There was a 3% absolute difference in grade ≥ 2 bleeding in the intention-to-treat analysis: 51% of the transfusion treatment periods in the control arm and 54% in the intervention arm (95% CI -6 to 11, p-value for noninferiority 0.012). In the per-protocol analysis, however, difference in grade ≥ 2 bleeding was 8%: 44% in the control arm and 52% in the intervention arm (95% CI -2 to 18, p-value for noninferiority 0.19). Transfusion increment parameters were about 50% lower in the intervention arm. There was no difference in the proportion of patients developing HLA class I alloantibodies. In conclusion, the noninferiority criterion for pathogen inactivated platelets was met in the intention-to-treat analysis. This finding was not demonstrated in the per protocol analysis. (The Netherlands National Trial Registry number: NTR2106).
Comparison of the hemostatic efficacy of pathogen-reduced platelets vs untreated platelets in patients with thrombocytopenia and malignant hematologic diseases: a randomized clinical trial
Jama Oncology. 2018;4((4):):468-475
Importance: Pathogen reduction of platelet concentrates may reduce transfusion-transmitted infections but is associated with qualitative impairment, which could have clinical significance with regard to platelet hemostatic capacity. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of platelets in additive solution treated with amotosalen-UV-A vs untreated platelets in plasma or in additive solution in patients with thrombocytopenia and hematologic malignancies. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Evaluation of the Efficacy of Platelets Treated With Pathogen Reduction Process (EFFIPAP) study was a randomized, noninferiority, 3-arm clinical trial performed from May 16, 2013, through January 21, 2016, at 13 French tertiary university hospitals. Clinical signs of bleeding were assessed daily until the end of aplasia, transfer to another department, need for a specific platelet product, or 30 days after enrollment. Consecutive adult patients with bone marrow aplasia, expected hospital stay of more than 10 days, and expected need of platelet transfusions were included. Interventions: At least 1 transfusion of platelets in additive solution with amotosalen-UV-A treatment, in plasma, or in additive solution. Main Outcomes and Measures: The proportion of patients with grade 2 or higher bleeding as defined by World Health Organization criteria. Results: Among 790 evaluable patients (mean [SD] age, 55 [13.4] years; 458 men [58.0%]), the primary end point was observed in 126 receiving pathogen-reduced platelets in additive solution (47.9%; 95% CI, 41.9%-54.0%), 114 receiving platelets in plasma (43.5%; 95% CI, 37.5%-49.5%), and 120 receiving platelets in additive solution (45.3%; 95% CI, 39.3%-51.3%). With a per-protocol population with a prespecified margin of 12.5%, noninferiority was not achieved when pathogen-reduced platelets in additive solution were compared with platelets in plasma (4.4%; 95% CI, -4.1% to 12.9%) but was achieved when the pathogen-reduced platelets were compared with platelets in additive solution (2.6%; 95% CI, -5.9% to 11.1%). The proportion of patients with grade 3 or 4 bleeding was not different among treatment arms. Conclusions and Relevance: Although the hemostatic efficacy of pathogen-reduced platelets in thrombopenic patients with hematologic malignancies was noninferior to platelets in additive solution, such noninferiority was not achieved when comparing pathogen-reduced platelets with platelets in plasma. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01789762.
Effect of allogeneic blood transfusion on levels of IL-6 and sIL-R2 in peripheral blood of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia
Oncology Letters. 2018;16((1)):849-852.
Effect of allogeneic blood transfusion on the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) in peripheral blood of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was investigated. A total of 91 ALL children admitted to Nanfang Hospital from June 2014 to January 2017 were selected as the study group. Patients were randomly divided into allogeneic blood transfusion group (n=38) and non-transfusion group (n=53). In addition, a total of 64 healthy children were also selected from June 2014 to January 2017 as the control group. Patients in allogeneic blood transfusion group were transfused with red blood cell suspension and machine-collected platelets, while patients in non-transfusion group were not treated with blood transfusion. Peripheral venous blood was collected before and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after blood transfusion to prepare serum. Serum IL-6 and sIL-2R levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Before transfusion, serum levels of IL-6 and sIL-2R were significantly lower in the study group than those in control group (p<0.05), and no significant differences in serum levels of IL-6 and sIL-2R were found between the allogeneic blood transfusion and non-transfusion group. After transfusion, serum levels of IL-6 and sIL-2R were stable for 12 weeks in the non-transfusion group, while IL-6 and sIL-2R levels were significantly increased in the allogeneic blood transfusion group. The results showed that serum level of IL-6 and sIL-2R was increased in ALL patients with allogeneic blood transfusion, which resulted in reduced antibody production and decreased cellular immunity. The patients had low immunity, and attention should be paid on the pathogen infection prevention.
The role of pathogen-reduced platelet transfusions on HLA alloimmunization in hemato-oncological patients
BACKGROUND Platelet transfusions can induce alloimmunization against HLA antigens. The use of pathogen-reduced platelet concentrates (PCs) was suggested to reduce HLA alloimmunization and concomitant transfusion refractoriness. METHODS This study investigated HLA alloimmunization in available samples from 448 hemato-oncological patients who were randomized for the Pathogen Reduction Evaluation and Predictive Analytical Rating Score (PREPAReS) trial to receive either untreated or pathogen-reduced PCs (Mirasol, Terumo BCT Inc.). Anti-HLA Class I and II antibodies were determined before the first platelet transfusion and weekly thereafter using multiplex assay with standard cutoffs to detect low- as well as high-level antibodies. RESULTS When using the lower cutoff, in patients who were antibody negative at enrollment, 5.4% (n = 12) developed anti-HLA Class I antibodies after receiving untreated PCs, while this was significantly higher in patients receiving pathogen-reduced PCs, 12.8% (n = 29; p = 0.009, intention-to-treat [ITT] analysis). A similar but nonsignificant trend was observed in the per-protocol (PP) analysis (5.4% vs. 10.1%; p = 0.15). HLA class II antibody formation was similar between both types of PCs in the ITT analysis, while the PP analysis showed a trend toward lower immunization after receiving pathogen-reduced PCs. Multivariate analysis identified receiving pathogen-reduced platelets as an independent risk factor for HLA Class I alloimmunization (ITT: odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 3.02 [1.42-6.51], PP: odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 2.77 [1.00-5.40]), without affecting HLA Class II alloimmunization. When using the high cutoff value, the difference in HLA Class I alloimmunization between study arms remained significant in the ITT analysis and again was not significant in the PP analysis. CONCLUSION Our data clearly indicate that Mirasol pathogen inactivation does not prevent HLA Class I or II alloimmunization after platelet transfusions.
Eltrombopag for advanced myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myeloid leukaemia and severe thrombocytopenia (ASPIRE): a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial
The Lancet. Haematology. 2017;5((1):):e34-e43. e34
BACKGROUND Thrombocytopenia is a life-threatening complication in patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). In this study (ASPIRE), we aimed to assess eltrombopag, an oral thrombopoietin receptor agonist, for thrombocytopenia (grade 4) treatment in adult patients with advanced MDS or AML. METHODS ASPIRE consisted of an open-label, double-blind phase for 8 weeks and a randomised, double-blind phase (parts 1 and 2, reported here) for 12 weeks, and an open-label extension (part 3). Eligible patients were men and women aged 18 years or older, with intermediate-2 or high-risk MDS or AML, with bone marrow blasts of 50% or less, and had either grade 4 thrombocytopenia due to bone marrow insufficiency (platelet counts <25 x 10(9) per L) or grade 4 thrombocytopenia before platelet transfusion, with 25 x 10(9) platelets per L or greater after transfusion. Additionally, eligible patients had at least one of the following within the screening period of 4 weeks: platelet transfusion, symptomatic bleeding, or platelet count of less than 10 x 10(9) per L. During part 1, patients received eltrombopag, and dose-escalation criteria for part 2 were determined. In part 2, we randomly allocated patients 2:1 using an interactive voice-response system to eltrombopag or placebo, stratified by baseline platelet count (<10 x 10(9) platelets per L vs ≥10 x 10(9) platelets per L) and disease (MDS vs AML). In parts 1 and 2, patients received supportive standard of care and initiated eltrombopag or placebo at 100 mg per day (50 mg per day for patients of east-Asian heritage) to a maximum of 300 mg per day (150 mg per day for patients of east-Asian heritage). The part 2 primary objective was assessed by a composite primary endpoint of clinically relevant thrombocytopenic events (CRTE) during weeks 5-12, defined as one of the following events, either alone or in combination: grade 3 or worse haemorrhagic adverse events; platelet counts of less than 10 x 10(9) per L; or platelet transfusions. Efficacy analyses were based on intention to treat; clinically meaningful efficacy was defined as 30% absolute difference between groups. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01440374. FINDINGS In part 1, 17 patients received eltrombopag and 11 patients completed treatment; four experienced significantly increased platelet counts, and ten had reduced platelet transfusion requirements. In part 2 we randomly allocated 145 patients to receive supportive care plus eltrombopag (n=98) or placebo (n=47); similar proportions had MDS (50 [51%] patients to eltrombopag, 22 (47%) patients to placebo) or AML (48 [49%] patients to eltrombopag, 25 [53%] patients to placebo). Average weekly CRTE proportions from weeks 5-12 were significantly lower with eltrombopag (54% [95% CI 43-64]) than with placebo (69% [57-80], odds ratio [OR] 0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.87; p=0.032) although the difference between treatment groups was less than 30%. The most common grade 3 and grade 4 adverse events were fatigue (six [6%] in the eltrombopag group and one [2%] in the placebo group), hypokalaemia (six [6%] and two [4%]), pneumonia (five [5%] and five [11%]), and febrile neutropenia (five [5%] and six [13%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 56 (58%) eltrombopag-treated patients and 32 (68%) placebo-treated patients. Seven eltrombopag recipients and two placebo recipients had serious adverse events that were suspected to be study drug-related (eltrombopag: acute kidney injury, arterial thrombosis, bone pain, diarrhoea, myocardial infarction, pyrexia, retinal vein occlusion, n=1 each; placebo: vomiting, white blood cell count increased, n=1 each). Two eltrombopag recipients (arterial thrombosis n=1; myocardial infarction n=1) and no placebo recipients experienced fatal serious adverse events suspected to be study drug-related. INTERPRETATION No new safety concerns were noted with eltrombopag and the trial met the primary objective of a reduction in CRTEs; eltrombopag might be a treatment option for thrombocy
Low-dose fludarabine with or without darbepoetin alfa in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and comorbidity: primary results of the CLL9 trial of the German CLL Study Group
Leukemia & Lymphoma. 2016;57((3)):596-603.
This study was planned as a phase 3 trial to investigate low-dose fludarabine with or without darbepoetin alfa in older patients with previously untreated or treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and comorbidity. Due to slow recruitment, the study was terminated prematurely after accrual of 97 patients who, on average, were 74 years old and had a cumulative illness rating scale (CIRS) total score of 5. We report toxicity and efficacy of the study treatment. Grade 3-5 neutropenia and infection were observed in 25% and 10% of patients, respectively. Response was seen in 73% (5% complete remissions). Median event-free and overall survival was 12.2 and 44.8 months, respectively. No differences in outcome were found for patients treated with versus without darbepoetin alfa. In subjects with progressive/recurrent CLL during or after study treatment, overall survival was similar for patients receiving chemotherapy versus chemoimmunotherapy as salvage treatment.
Thrombopoietin receptor agonist eltrombopag for advanced MDS or AML and severe thrombocytopenia: 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 2 ASPIRE study
Haematologica. 2016;101((s1)):15-16.. s130.