A Systematic Literature Review of the Relationship between Serum Ferritin and Outcomes in Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2022;11(3)
Anemia is the most common form of cytopenia in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), who require chronic red blood cell transfusions and may present high serum ferritin (SF) levels as a result of iron overload. To better understand the potential effects of high SF levels, we conducted a systematic literature review (SLR) to identify evidence on the relationship between SF levels and clinical, economic, or humanistic outcomes in adult patients with MDS. Of 267 references identified, 21 were included. No studies assessing SF levels and their relationship with humanistic or economic outcomes were identified. Increased SF levels were an indicator of worse overall survival and other worsened outcomes; however, the association was not consistently significant. SF levels were a significant prognostic factor for relapse incidence of MDS and showed a significant positive correlation with number of blood units transfused but were not associated with progression to acute myeloid leukemia or the time to transformation. Higher SF levels were also an indicator of a lower likelihood of leukemia-free survival, relapse-free survival, and event-free survival. The SLR suggests that SF levels are associated with clinical outcomes in MDS, with higher levels correlated with number of blood units transfused, frequently indicating worse outcomes.
A prospective phase II randomized study of deferasirox to prevent iatrogenic iron overload in patients undertaking induction/consolidation chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia
British Journal of Haematology. 2013;161((6):):794-801.
This prospective randomized phase II study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of deferasirox in preventing iatrogenic iron overload in patients receiving induction/consolidation chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) ize. Serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and CRP were measured pre-, mid- and post- each chemotherapy cycle. Patients were randomized to receive either therapy with deferasirox vs. no deferasirox therapy once serum ferritin increased to >500ug/l. The trial was stopped prematurely due to excess gastrointestinal (GI) and infectious toxicity demonstrable in the deferasirox arm, after 10 patients had been randomized to deferasirox and 6 patients to the control arm. Overall, deferasirox was poorly tolerated, with median maximum tolerated dose only 13.8 mg/kg/d and no patient able to tolerate doses >20mg/kg/d. Median duration of deferasirox therapy was only 72d (range 19-130d), with 9/10 patients requiring unplanned dose interruptions and 4/10 patients unable to continue the drug predominantly due to GI effects. Although all 3 treatment-related deaths occurred in the deferasirox arm (P=0.25), median overall survival was similar between treatment arms. Use of deferasirox to prevent iatrogenic iron overload in AML patients undertaking induction/consolidation is poorly tolerated and appears to be associated with excess GI and infectious toxicity. 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Safety and efficacy of subcutaneous bolus injection of deferoxamine in adult patients with iron overload
We compared 48-hour urinary iron excretion after a twice-daily subcutaneous bolus injection of deferoxamine and after 12 hours of subcutaneous continuous infusion of the drug in 27 patients with iron overload (mean age, 55.7 years). In most patients, the iron overload was due to multiple transfusions administered during chemotherapy or as part of supportive care for a hematologic or oncologic disorder. One patient had sickle cell anemia and 1 had hereditary hemochromatosis and spherocytosis. Similar urinary iron excretion was observed with the 2 methods of administration; mean +/- SD values were 6935.3 +/- 3832.3 microg/48 hours with subcutaneous bolus injection and 6630.4 +/- 3606.9 microg/48 hours with subcutaneous continuous infusion (P =.3). Twenty-six patients (96.3%) chose to continue therapy with bolus injection. The long-term efficacy of bolus injection was evaluated by measuring the serum ferritin concentration at regular intervals for a follow-up time of 20.1 +/- 4.5 months. Ferritin concentration decreased to below 1000 microg/L in 73% of the patients and to below 500 microg/L in 42% and became normal in 26%. Best results were obtained in patients who were no longer receiving blood transfusions when chelation therapy was initiated. Three of 26 patients (11.5%) had mild, transient side effects after bolus injection. Larger prospective, randomized studies must be conducted before deferoxamine bolus injection can be routinely recommended for patients with iron overload. (Blood. 2000;95:2776-2779)