Palliative Radiotherapy for Haemostasis in Malignancy: a Systematic Review
Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain)). 2023
AIMS: Palliative radiotherapy is commonly used to achieve haemostasis for malignancy-induced haemorrhages. Our study aimed to examine the efficacy of palliative radiotherapy in the control of haemorrhages caused by various types of malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS A systematic review of the literature was conducted to determine the level of evidence for the use of palliative radiotherapy in achieving haemostasis. Searches of the Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases were completed for studies published between January 1947 and May 2017. Studies that reported either a qualitative or a quantitative effect of radiotherapy were selected for inclusion during the review process. RESULTS In total, 836 abstracts were screened; 13 prospective and 45 retrospective studies met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Selected studies were sorted based on the underlying tumour type to provide readers the opportunity to compare dose and fractionation schedules. Significant variations in reporting of outcomes and low total patient numbers did not allow for a quantitative analysis to be carried out. A higher median dose and a hypofractionated schedule seem to provide numerically higher rates of control based on the available data. CONCLUSIONS Palliative radiotherapy is useful in the management of bleeding related to advanced and incurable malignancies. Brachytherapy seems to be effective in haemostasis of certain malignancies, especially that of gynaecological origin. Treatment should be tailored to individual patient situations given the palliative goals of any such therapy. Further prospective studies could help to delineate optimal dose and fractionation schedules.
Efficacy of topical hemostatic agents in malignancy-related gastrointestinal bleeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Gastrointestinal endoscopy. 2022
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Despite advances in endoscopic therapies, malignancy-related gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding remains difficult to manage with high rates of treatment failure and rebleeding. Topical hemostatic agents (THA) are easier to apply to the wide bleeding surface of tumors. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of THAs in malignancy-related GI bleed. METHODS We conducted a comprehensive search of multiple electronic databases to identify studies reporting on the use of THAs in malignancy-related GI bleeding. The primary outcome was the achievement of hemostasis; secondary outcomes were early rebleeding (≤ 3 days), delayed rebleeding (>3 days), aggregate rebleeding, all-cause mortality, and GI bleed related mortality. A meta-analysis of proportions was done for all outcomes. RESULTS Out of 355 citations, total 16 studies with 530 patients were included. Primary hemostasis was achieved in 94.1% (95% CI: 91.5 - 96.0%). Early rebleeding was seen in 13.9% (95% CI: 9.7 - 19.4%) while delayed rebleeding was seen in 11.4% (95% CI: 5.8 - 21.1%). Aggregate rebleeding was seen in 24.2% (95% CI:18.5 - 31.0%). All-cause mortality was 33.1% (95% CI: 23.7 - 44.0%) while GI bleed related mortality occurred in 5.9% (95% CI: 2.2% - 14.8%). CONCLUSIONS THAs are highly effective for achieving primary hemostasis in malignancy-related GI bleeding. It should be considered as an alternative to traditional endotherapy methods in malignancy-related GI bleeds. Future studies should be designed to evaluate its efficacy and safety as a primary method of hemostasis as compared to traditional endotherapy measures.
A prospective randomized trial: the influence of intraoperative application of fibrin glue after radical inguinal/iliacal lymph node dissection on postoperative morbidity
European Journal of Surgical Oncology : the Journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology. 2009;35((8):):884-9.
BACKGROUND Effects of intraoperative application of fibrin glue following combined radical inguinal and iliacal lymph node dissection (RILND) on the amount of postoperative lymphatic secretion are discussed controversially. To detect whether fibrin glue application results in a decreased lymphatic secretion following RILND a randomized patient blinded clinical trial was conducted. METHOD Between September 2003 and September 2006 58 patients with stage IV melanoma underwent therapeutic RILND and were randomized into two groups. 29 Patients received 4 cc fibrin glue after RILND whereas 29 patients were only irrigated with saline 0. 9 percent. Postoperatively all patients received two inguinal and one iliacal closed suction drain. The main outcome criteria were the duration of drain placement in the wound. Minor criteria were the total amount of secretion and the length of hospital stay. RESULTS There was no difference between the treatment and the control group in the duration of drain placement (fibrin group: 4 days (1-27); control group 5 days (1-26); p=0. 64). The total amount of fluid was 310 cc (30-6005) in the fibrin group vs. 365 cc (30-3945 cc) in the control group (p=0. 9) and the length of hospital stay 10 days (3-41) (group 1) compared to 11 days (3-41) (p=0. 99) were not different between both groups either. CONCLUSION Intraoperative application of 4 cc fibrin glue does not reduce the length of drain placement, drain output or hospitalisation of patients undergoing RILND with melanoma metastasis to the lymph node basin.