Chemotherapy with or without plasmapheresis in acute renal failure due to multiple myeloma: a meta-analysis
International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2015;53((5):):391-7.
BACKGROUND/AIM: The clinical benefits of plasmapheresis in the management of multiple myeloma-induced acute renal failure remain controversial. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the clinical efficacy of chemotherapy with or without plasmapheresis in the treatment of multiple myeloma patients with renal failure. METHODS Randomized controlled trials evaluating clinical efficacy of plasmapheresis were identified by searching PubMed (from 1980 to November 2013) and EMBASE (from 1980 to November 2013). Outcomes subjected to meta-analysis were 6-month survival and dialysis-dependent rate. RESULTS Three randomized controlled studies were selected for meta-analysis. A total of 63 patients received chemotherapy only and 84 patients were given both chemotherapy and plasmapheresis. No difference was observed in 6-month survival rate between plasmapheresis and control group (75% vs. 66.7%; risk ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.76 - 1.11; p = 0.39). 6-month dialysis-dependent ratio was significantly lower in patients treated with both chemotherapy and plasmapheresis than chemotherapy only (15.6% vs. 37.2%; risk ratio, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.03 - 3.96; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION Our meta-analysis results showed that plasmapheresis used as an adjunct to chemotherapy had a benefit in the management of dialysisdependent multiple myeloma patients with renal failure.
Role of plasmapheresis in the management of myeloma kidney: A systematic review
Hemodialysis International. 2010;14((4):):355-63.
Multiple myeloma complicated by acute renal failure is a diagnosis often encountered by the practicing nephrologist. The role of plasmapheresis in such patients has been of interest for decades. Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and multiple observational trials have evaluated the potential role of plasmapheresis in the management of this condition. This systematic review presents the results of these trials regarding survival benefits, recovery from dialysis, and improvement in renal function. A comprehensive search revealed 56 articles. Of these, only 8 articles met our inclusion criteria (3 RCTs, 1 correction of results, and 4 observational trials). Two of the 3 RCTs showed no difference in survival benefit. Two of the 3 RCTs showed a greater percentage of patients stopping dialysis in the intervention group; however, these results were not reproduced in the largest trial. All the studies showed an improvement in renal function for patients receiving plasmapheresis; however, only 2 RCTs and 1 retrospective study showed a statistically significant improvement in renal function among patients who received plasmapheresis in comparison with a control group. Our systematic review does not suggest a benefit of plasmapheresis independent of chemotherapy for multiple myeloma patients with acute renal failure in terms of overall survival, recovery from dialysis, or improvement in renal function.
Plasma exchange when myeloma presents as acute renal failure: a randomized, controlled trial
Annals of Internal Medicine. 2005;143((11):):777-84.
BACKGROUND Two small, randomized trials provide conflicting evidence about the benefits of plasma exchange for patients with acute renal failure at the onset of multiple myeloma. OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of 5 to 7 plasma exchanges on a composite outcome in patients with acute renal failure at the onset of multiple myeloma. DESIGN Randomized, open, controlled trial, stratified by chemotherapy and dialysis dependence, conducted from 1998 to 2004. SETTING Hospital plasma exchange units in 14 Canadian medical centers. PARTICIPANTS 104 patients between 18 and 81 years of age with acute renal failure at the onset of myeloma. INTERVENTION Study participants were randomly assigned to conventional therapy plus 5 to 7 plasma exchanges of 50 mL per kg of body weight of 5% human serum albumin for 10 days or conventional therapy alone. Ninety-seven participants completed the 6-month follow-up. MEASUREMENTS The primary outcome was a composite measure of death, dialysis dependence, or glomerular filtration rate less than 0. 29 mL x s(-2) x m(-2) (<30 mL/min per 1. 73 m2). RESULTS At enrollment, the plasma exchange and control groups were similar for dialysis dependence, chemotherapy, sex, age, hypercalcemia, serum albumin level, 24-hour urine protein level, serum creatinine level, and Durie-Salmon staging. The primary composite end point occurred in 33 of 57 (57. 9%) patients in the plasma exchange group and in 27 of 39 (69. 2%) patients in the control group (difference between groups, 11. 3% [95% CI, -8. 3% to 29. 1%]; P = 0. 36). One third of patients in each group died. LIMITATIONS The study was small, used a composite outcome, and did not use renal biopsy as an inclusion criterion. Recruiting physicians were blinded to treatment allocation but not to treatment thereafter. CONCLUSIONS In patients with acute renal failure at the onset of multiple myeloma, there is no conclusive evidence that 5 to 7 plasma exchanges substantially reduce a composite outcome of death, dialysis dependence, or glomerular filtration rate less than 0. 29 mL. s(-2). m(-2) (<30 mL/min per 1. 73 m2) at 6 months.
Hyperviscosity syndrome: efficacy and comparison of plasma exchange by plasma separation and cascade filtration in patients with immunocytoma of Waldenstrom's type
Clinical Nephrology. 1995;43((5):):335-8.
The hyperviscosity syndrome is a common problem in patients suffering from IgM paraproteinemia. In this situation cytotoxic chemotherapy alone is insufficient and additional plasma therapy is required. Until recently, conventional plasma exchange was the only plasma therapy available. While this method has proven its efficacy, it eliminates proteins unselectively. Cascade filtration, on the other hand, has been established to remove proteins as a function of their size offering the prospect of a highly selective withdrawal of macromolecules. In the work presented, the efficacy of conventional plasma exchange and cascade filtration was evaluated performing both techniques at random in cases of hyperviscosity syndrome due to immunocytoma of Waldenstrom's type (n = 11/group). In these patients, conventional plasma exchange decreased plasma viscosity by 48%; cascade filtration was less effective (26%), correlating with a smaller decrease of IgM (conventional plasma exchange 42% vs cascade filtration 27%). The profile of other plasma proteins studied did not change significantly with either treatment. Furthermore, we observed no differences regarding serious side-effects. In conclusion, we could not demonstrate a superior effect of cascade filtration as compared to conventional plasma exchange in the treatment of hyperviscosity syndrome.
Treatment of renal failure associated with multiple myeloma. Plasmapheresis, hemodialysis, and chemotherapy
Archives of Internal Medicine. 1990;150((4):):863-9.
The aims of this study were to examine in a prospective, randomized trial the efficacy of plasmapheresis in preventing irreversible renal failure in patients with multiple myeloma and to study the renal biopsy tissues from such patients. Twenty-one patients with active myeloma and progressive renal failure were randomized to one of two groups: group 1, forced diuresis and chemotherapy (10 patients), and group 2, forced diuresis, chemotherapy, and plasmapheresis (11 patients). Plasmapheresis and chemotherapy lowered the serum myeloma protein value much more rapidly than chemotherapy alone. Of 5 patients who were oliguric and undergoing dialysis at presentation, only 3 who were treated by plasmapheresis recovered. Of 16 polyuric patients, 5 in group 1 and 7 in group 2 showed improvement in renal function. The main factor that determined irreversibility of renal failure was the severity of myeloma cast formation.
Controlled plasma exchange trial in acute renal failure due to multiple myeloma
Kidney International. 1988;33((6):):1175-80.
We studied 29 patients affected by acute renal failure due to multiple myeloma with Bence-Jones proteinuria greater than 1 g/day to evaluate the effectiveness of plasma exchange in the treatment of severe myeloma nephropathy. Renal failure was severe enough to require dialysis in 24 cases, while the remaining 5 patients showed serum creatinine levels greater than 5 mg/dl. The patients were randomly allocated to Group I (15 patients undergoing plasma exchange together with corticosteroids, cytotoxic drug, hemodialysis only when needed) or to Group II (14 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis together with corticosteroids and cytotoxic drug). In Group I Bence-Jones proteinuria decreased dramatically (P less than 0.01) with a significant increase in urine output (P less than 0.001), while Group II presented a slight reduction in Bence-Jones proteinuria without a significant increase in daily diuresis. Thirteen out the 15 Group I patients recovered renal function reaching serum creatinine levels less than or equal to 2.5 mg/dl in most cases. Only two patients in Group II improved renal failure well enough to stop dialysis. The one-year survival rate was significantly higher in Group I (66%) than in Group II (28%, P less than 0.01). We conclude that plasma exchange associated to chemotherapy rapidly removes large amounts of light chains, improves both renal function and long-term survival expectancies.