The impact of pathogen-reduced platelets in acute leukaemia treatment on the total blood product requirement: a subgroup analysis of an EFFIPAP randomised trial
Transfusion medicine (Oxford, England). 2022
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of pathogen-reduced (PR) platelet transfusions on blood products requirement for clinical practice. BACKGROUND PR platelets are increasing in use as standard blood products. However, few randomised trials have evaluated their impact on bleeding control or prevention. Furthermore, PR platelets recirculate less than untreated platelets. METHODS A subgroup study of the randomised clinical trial EFFIPAP compared three arms of platelet preparations (PR: P-PRP/PAS, additive solution: P-PAS and plasma P-P arms respectively). The subgroup of acute leukaemia patients, in their chemotherapy induction phase, included 392 patients (133 P-PRP/PAS arm, 132 P-PAS arm and 130 P-P arm). Blood requirements were analysed across over periods of 7 days. RESULTS The number of platelet transfusions per week was significantly higher in the P-PRP/PAS group 2.3 [1.6-3.3] compared to the control groups 1.9 [1.3-2.8] and 2.0 [1.3-3.0] for P-P and P-PAS groups respectively (p < 0.0001). However, the total number of platelets transfused per week was not different. The number of red blood cell concentrates (RBC) transfusion per week did not differ either. CONCLUSION In a homogeneous group of patients, platelet pathogen reduction resulted in an increased number of platelet units transfused per week while having no impact on the total number of platelets transfused or the number of RBC transfusion; resulting to an average requirement of 2 RBC and 2-3 platelets transfusions per week of marrow aplasia.
Risk factors for bleeding in people living with Hemophilia A and B treated with regular prophylaxis: a systematic review of the literature
Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2022
BACKGROUND Knowledge about the risk for bleeding in patients with hemophilia (PWH) would be relevant for patients, stakeholders, and policy makers. OBJECTIVES to perform a systematic review of the literature on risk assessment models (RAMs) and risk factors for bleeding in PWH on regular prophylaxis. METHODS We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception through August 2019. In duplicate, reviewers screened the articles for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed the risk for bias using the QUIPS tool. A qualitative synthesis of the results was not performed due to high heterogeneity in risk factors, outcomes definition and measurement, and statistical analysis of the results. RESULTS From 1843 search results, 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. No RAM for the risk for bleeding in PWH was found. Most studies included only PWH A or both PWH A and B and were conducted in North America or Europe. Only one study had a low risk for bias in all the domains. Eight categories of risk factors were identified. The risk for bleeding was increased when factor levels were lower and in people with a significant history of bleeding or who engaged in physical activities involving contact. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that plasma factor levels, history of bleeds, and physical activity should be considered for the derivation analysis when building a RAM for bleeding in PWH, and the role of other risk factors, including antithrombotic treatment and obesity, should be explored.
People living with haemophilia (PWH) A and B treated with regular prophylaxis (10 studies).
Systematic review on risk assessment models and risk factors for bleeding.
No risk assessment model was found. Most studies included only PWH A or both PWH A and B and were conducted in North America or Europe. Only one study had a low risk for bias in all the domains. Eight categories of risk factors were identified. The risk for bleeding was increased when factor levels were lower and in people with a significant history of bleeding or who engaged in physical activities involving contact.
The Impact of Recombinant Versus Plasma-Derived Factor VIII Concentrates on Inhibitor Development in Previously Untreated Patients With Hemophilia A: A 2021 Update of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Hemophilia A, the most common hereditary disorder, is caused by clotting factor deficiency. Challenges encountered in the current treatment of hemophilia A [factor VIII (FVIII) replacement therapy] due to inhibitor development have caused ineffective treatment as well as morbidity and mortality among patients. However, there are no studies comparing the two types of FVIII treatments in terms of inhibitor development rate. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review to devise a better treatment option with a lower risk of inhibitor development. The systematic review was conducted using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and by searching several databases. Data extraction on study characteristics and outcomes was conducted. Reviewers also conducted a risk of bias assessment on all studies. All eligible studies for quantitative analysis were then processed using RevMan 5.4.1 and the data was extrapolated into cumulative outcomes and expressed in forest and funnel plots. Nine studies were included in the meta-analysis, involving a total of 2,531 hemophilia A patients who were followed up from birth until death. A higher incidence of inhibitor development was found to be associated with recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) [odds ratio (OR)=1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-2.59; hazard ratio (HR)=1.89, 95% CI: 1.15-3.12]. The same trend was also found for high-responding inhibitors (OR=1.38, 95% CI: 0.70-2.70; HR=1.42, 95% CI: 0.84-2.39). rFVIII is associated with a higher risk of overall and high-responding inhibitor development compared to plasma-derived FVIII (pdFVIII).
No difference in myocardial iron concentration and serum ferritin with deferasirox and deferiprone in pediatric patients with hemoglobinopathies: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Transfusion clinique et biologique : journal de la Societe francaise de transfusion sanguine. 2022
OBJECTIVES Iron overload is a common complication experienced by transfusion-dependent children with hemoglobin disorders. Chelators such as deferasirox (DFX) and deferiprone (DFP) are effective in overcoming this problem. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of DFX compared to DFP in treating iron overload amongst pediatric patients with hemoglobin disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS PubMed and Cochrane Central were searched from their inception until Dec 21 2021, for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies, which assessed the efficacy of DFX compared to DFP in the treatment of inherited hemoglobin disorders. The outcomes of interest included myocardial iron concentration (MRI T2*) at the end of the trial and change in mean serum ferritin (SF) levels at the 6 and 12 months mark. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for continuous outcomes using random effects model. RESULTS A total of 5 studies comprising 607 children were included. The results of our analysis revealed no significant difference between DFX and DFP in MRI T2* at the end of treatment (WMD: -0.92;95% CI[-3.35,1.52]; p=0.46; I(2)=0). Moreover, there has been no significant difference noted in SF levels at both 6 months (WMD: 97.31; 95% CI[-236.16,430.77]; p=0.57; I(2)=0) and 12 months (WMD: 46.99; 95% CI[-191.42,285.40]; p=0.70; I(2)=0) respectively. CONCLUSION Our analysis shows no significant difference between the efficacy of DFX and DFP in the management of iron overload in children with inherited blood disorders. Future large-scale clinical trials are required to further validate our results.
Sequential eradication of Helicobacter pylori as a treatment for immune thrombocytopenia in patients with moderate thrombocytopenia: a multicenter prospective randomized phase 3 study
Annals of hematology. 2022
Due to several issues, standard treatments are not recommended for asymptomatic patients with moderate immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Since platelet responses are reported in some patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-positive ITP after eradication, we conducted a multicenter, phase 3 study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of recently established sequential eradication for these patients having moderate thrombocytopenia. Persistent or chronic ITP patients with platelet count (30 × 10(3) ~ 80 × 10(3)/μL) and confirmed active H. pylori infection were randomly assigned to a treatment and a control group. The former received 10-day sequential treatment. Eradication was assessed by urea breath test at 3 months after treatment. Primary endpoint was the overall platelet response rate at 3 months in successfully eradicated treatment group and control group. Secondary endpoints were platelet response time, H. pylori eradication success rate, etc. The patient enrollment terminated early because of the change of national insurance and treatment guideline for H. pylori-positive patients in Korea during the study. Of the 28 H. pylori-positive ITP patients, 17 were randomized to the treatment group, and eradication was achieved for 15 (88.2%) at 3 months, and seven in control group after withdrawal. Statistically, significant difference in platelet response rates between the two groups were observed (p = 0.017). Our study verifies that H. pylori eradication was an effective ITP treatment for patients with H. pylori-associated moderate ITP. This sequential eradication regimen showed not only a high H. pylori eradication rate, but also a remarkable platelet response for ITP patients. Trial registration number and date of registration for these prospectively registered trials is ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03177629 and June 6, 2017.
Health State Utilities for Sickle Cell Disease: A Catalog Prepared From a Systematic Review
Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. 2022;25(2):276-287
OBJECTIVES Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a complex, chronic condition that impairs health-related quality of life of affected individuals and their caregivers. As curative therapies emerge, comprehensive cost-effectiveness models will inform their value. These models will require descriptions of health states and their corresponding utility values that accurately reflect health-related quality of life over the disease trajectory. The objectives of this systematic review were to develop a catalog of health state utility (HSU) values for SCD, identify research gaps, and provide future directions for preference elicitation. METHODS Records were identified through searches of PubMed and Embase, Tufts Medical Center Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry, reference lists of relevant articles, and consultation with SCD experts (2008-2020). We removed duplicate records and excluded ineligible studies. For included studies, we summarized the study characteristics, methods used for eliciting HSUs, and HSU values. RESULTS Five studies empirically elicited utilities using indirect methods (EQ-5D) (n = 3) and Short Form-6 Dimension (n = 2); these represent health states associated with general SCD (n = 1), SCD complications (n = 2), and SCD treatments (n = 3). Additionally, we extracted HSUs from 7 quality-adjusted life-years-based outcome research studies. The HSU among patients with general SCD without specifying complications ranged from 0.64 to 0.887. Only 36% of the HSUs used in the quality-adjusted life-year-based outcomes research studies were derived from individuals with SCD. No study estimated HSUs in caregivers. CONCLUSIONS There is a dearth of literature of HSUs for use in SCD models. Future empirical studies should elicit a comprehensive set of HSUs from individuals with SCD and their caregivers.
Sirolimus plus prednisolone vs sirolimus monotherapy for kaposiform hemangioendothelioma: a randomized clinical trial
The Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP) in kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is characterized by life-threatening thrombocytopenia and consumptive coagulopathy. This study compared the efficacy and safety of sirolimus plus prednisolone versus sirolimus monotherapy as treatment strategies for KHE with KMP in the largest cohort to date. Participants were randomized to receive either sirolimus in combination with a short course of prednisolone or sirolimus monotherapy for at least 12 months. The primary outcome was defined as achievement of a durable platelet response (platelet count >100×109/L) at week 4. Participants completed efficacy assessments 2 years after the initial treatment. At week 4, a durable platelet response was achieved by 35 of 37 patients given sirolimus and prednisolone compared with 24 of 36 patients given sirolimus monotherapy (difference 27.9%; 95% CI, 10.0% to 44.7%). Compared with the sirolimus monotherapy group, the combination treatment group showed improvements in terms of measures of durable platelet responses at all points during the initial 3-week treatment period, median platelet counts during weeks 1 to 4, increased numbers of patients achieving fibrinogen stabilization at week 4, and objective lesion responses at month 12. Patients receiving combination therapy had fewer blood transfusions and a lower total incidence of disease sequelae than patients receiving sirolimus alone. The frequencies of total adverse events and grade 3-4 adverse events during treatment were similar in both groups. The responses seen in patients with KHE with KMP were profound and encouraging, suggesting that sirolimus plus prednisolone should be considered a valid treatment for KHE with KMP. ClinicalTrial.gov, number NCT03188068.
Effects of replacement therapies with clotting factors in patients with hemophilia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
PloS one. 2022;17(1):e0262273
BACKGROUND Different prophylactic and episodic clotting factor treatments are used in the management of hemophilia. A summarize of the evidence is needed inform decision-making. OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of factor replacement therapies in patients with hemophilia. METHODS We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Central Cochrane Library, and Scopus. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to December 2020, which compared different factor replacement therapies in patients with hemophilia. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed whenever possible. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021225857). RESULTS Nine RCTs were included in this review, of which six compared episodic with prophylactic treatment, all of them performed in patients with hemophilia A. Pooled results showed that, compared to the episodic treatment group, the annualized bleeding rate was lower in the low-dose prophylactic group (ratio of means [RM]: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.43), intermediate-dose prophylactic group (RM: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.36), and high-dose prophylactic group (RM: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.13). With significant difference between these subgroups (p = 0.003, I2 = 82.9%). In addition, compared to the episodic treatment group, the annualized joint bleeding rate was lower in the low-dose prophylactic group (RM: 0.17, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.43), intermediate-dose prophylactic group (RM of 0.14, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.27), and high-dose prophylactic group (RM of 0.08, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.16). Without significant subgroup differences. The certainty of the evidence was very low for all outcomes according to GRADE methodology. The other studies compared different types of clotting factor concentrates (CFCs), assessed pharmacokinetic prophylaxis, or compared different frequencies of medication administration. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that prophylactic treatment (at either low, intermediate, or high doses) is superior to episodic treatment for bleeding prevention. In patients with hemophilia A, the bleeding rate seems to have a dose-response effect. However, no study compared different doses of prophylactic treatment, and all results had a very low certainty of the evidence. Thus, future studies are needed to confirm these results and inform decision making.
Medical and Non-medical Costs of Sickle Cell Disease and Treatments from a US Perspective: A Systematic Review and Landscape Analysis
PharmacoEconomics - open. 2022
BACKGROUND Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a complex genetic disorder that manifests in infancy and progresses throughout life in the form of acute and chronic complications. As the upfront costs of potentially curative, genetic therapies will likely be high, an assessment and comprehensive characterization of the medical and non-medical cost burden will inform future decision making. OBJECTIVE We sought to systematically summarize the existing literature surrounding SCD medical and non-medical costs. METHODS We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE (2008-2020) and identified US-based studies that detailed medical or non-medical costs. Eligible studies provided empirical estimates about any aspect of cost or SCD individuals of all ages and their caregivers. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and costs were adjusted to 2019 US$. RESULTS Search queries returned 479 studies, with 342 from medical burden searches and 137 from non-medical burden searches, respectively. Herein, we report the results of the 40 studies that contained relevant cost information: 39 detailed medical costs and 1 detailed non-medical costs. Costs were higher for SCD patients when compared with non-SCD individuals (cost difference range: $6636-$63,436 annually). The highest medical cost component for SCD patients was inpatient ($11,978-$59,851 annually), followed by outpatient and then pharmacy. No studies characterized the cost burden throughout the lifetime disease trajectory of an SCD individual, and no studies captured caregiver or productivity costs. CONCLUSION Our results reveal an incomplete characterization of medical and non-medical costs within SCD. A deeper understanding of the medical and non-medical cost burden requires completion of additional studies that capture the burden across the patient's lifetime, in addition to expression of the impact of existing and emergent health technologies on disease trajectory.
Efficacy of combined immunosuppression with or without eltrombopag in children with newly diagnosed aplastic anemia
Blood advances. 2022
We compared the efficacy and safety of eltrombopag (ELTR) combined with immunosuppressive therapy (IST) and IST alone in treatment-naïve children with severe (SAA) and very severe (vSAA) aplastic anemia. Ninety-eight pediatric patients were randomized to receive horse antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporin A with (n=49) or without (n=49) ELTR. The primary endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR) at 4 months. After 4 months, nonresponders were crossed over to the alternative group. In all patients, the ORR in ELTR+IST and IST groups was similar (65% vs. 53%, p=0.218); however, the complete response (CR) rate was significantly higher in ELTR+IST group (31% vs. 12%, p=0.027). In severity subgroups, the ORR was 89% vs. 57% (p=0.028) in favor of IST+ELTR in SAA, but it did not differ in patients with vSAA (52% vs. 50%, p=0.902). At 6 months after the crossover, 61% of initial ELTR(-) patients achieved a response compared to 17% of initial ELTR(+) patients (p=0.016). No significant difference in ELTR+IST and IST groups was observed in the 3-year OS (89% vs. 91%, p=0.673) or the 3-year EFS (53% vs. 41%, p=0.326). There was no unexpected toxicity related to ELTR. Adding ELTR to standard IST was well tolerated and increased the CR rate. The greatest benefit from ELTR combined with IST was observed in patients with SAA, but not in those with vSAA. The second course of IST resulted in a high ORR in initial ELTR(-) patients who added ELTR and had limited efficacy among patients who received ELTR upfront. Clinicaltrials.gov #NCT03413306.