Transfusion management of severe anaemia in African children: a consensus algorithm
British journal of haematology. 2021
The phase III Transfusion and Treatment of severe anaemia in African Children Trial (TRACT) found that conservative management of uncomplicated severe anaemia [haemoglobin (Hb) 40-60 g/l] was safe, and that transfusion volume (20 vs. 30 ml/kg whole blood equivalent) for children with severe anaemia (Hb <60 g/l) had strong but opposing effects on mortality, depending on fever status (>37·5°C). In 2020 a stakeholder meeting of paediatric and blood transfusion groups from Africa reviewed the results and additional analyses. Among all 3196 children receiving an initial transfusion there was no evidence that nutritional status, presence of shock, malaria parasite burden or sickle cell disease status influenced outcomes or modified the interaction with fever status on volume required. Fever status at the time of ordering blood was a reliable determinant of volume required for optimal outcome. Elevated heart and respiratory rates normalised irrespective of transfusion volume and without diuretics. By consensus, a transfusion management algorithm was developed, incorporating three additional measurements of Hb post-admission, alongside clinical monitoring. The proposed algorithm should help clinicians safely implement findings from TRACT. Further research should assess its implementation in routine clinical practice.
Children presenting to hospital with both uncomplicated and complicated severe anaemia enrolled in the TRACT trial (n= 3,196).
Large volume of whole blood transfusion: 30 ml/kg, (n= 1,598).
Recommended blood volume transfusion by current WHO guidelines: 20 ml/kg (n= 1,598).
Transfusion volume (20 vs. 30 ml/kg whole blood equivalent) for children with severe anaemia had strong but opposing effects on mortality, depending on fever status. There was no evidence that nutritional status, presence of shock, malaria parasite burden or sickle cell disease status influenced outcomes or modified the interaction with fever status on volume required. Fever status at the time of ordering blood was a reliable determinant of volume required for optimal outcome. Elevated heart and respiratory rates normalised irrespective of transfusion volume and without diuretics. By consensus, a transfusion management algorithm was developed, incorporating three additional measurements of Hb post-admission, alongside clinical monitoring.
Psychological intervention in children with transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia
Vox sanguinis. 2021
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia can lead to severe psychological issues in paediatric and adolescent patients. However, the psychological interventions for these patients are limited in clinical practice. We aimed to investigate the impact of a 3-month psychological intervention on the quality of life (QOL) of children with β-thalassaemia (12-18 years old) who relied on blood transfusion in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS In the current randomized controlled trial, a total of 143 paediatric or adolescent patients (12-18 years old) with transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia were recruited. They were randomized into the control group (n = 71) who received standard physiological treatment and the intervention group (n = 72) who received a 3-month intervention in addition to standard physiological treatment. The effects of the interventions on the QOL and psychological outcomes of these participants were analysed. RESULTS The 3-month intervention significantly improved the scores of PedsQoL 4.0 Generic Core Scales of paediatric patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia. It also significantly improved the psychological status and alleviated the depression among children and adolescent patients by alleviating anhedonia, negative mood and negative self-esteem among them. CONCLUSION Psychological intervention has positive effects on the treatment for children with transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia.
The safety of activated eptacog beta in the management of bleeding episodes and perioperative haemostasis in adult and paediatric haemophilia patients with inhibitors
Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2021
INTRODUCTION Haemophilia patients with inhibitors often require a bypassing agent (BPA) for bleeding episode management. Eptacog beta (EB) is a new FDA-approved recombinant activated human factor VII BPA for the treatment and control of bleeding in haemophilia A or B patients with inhibitors (≥12 years of age). We describe here the EB safety profile from the three prospective Phase 3 clinical trials performed to date. AIM: To assess EB safety, immunogenicity and thrombotic potential in children and adults who received EB for treatment of bleeding and perioperative care. METHODS Using a randomized crossover design, 27 subjects in PERSEPT 1 (12-54 years) and 25 subjects in PERSEPT 2 (1-11 years) treated bleeding episodes with 75 or 225 μg/kg EB initially followed by 75 μg/kg dosing at predefined intervals as determined by clinical response. Twelve PERSEPT 3 subjects (2-56 years) received an initial preoperative infusion of 75 μg/kg (minor procedures) or 200 μg/kg EB (major surgeries) with subsequent 75 μg/kg doses administered intraoperatively and post-operatively as indicated. Descriptive statistics were used for data analyses. RESULTS Sixty subjects who received 3388 EB doses in three trials were evaluated. EB was well tolerated, with no allergic, hypersensitivity, anaphylactic or thrombotic events reported and no neutralizing anti-EB antibodies detected. A death occurred during PERSEPT 3 and was determined to be unlikely related to EB treatment by the data monitoring committee. CONCLUSION Results from all three Phase 3 trials establish an excellent safety profile of EB in haemophilia A or B patients with inhibitors for treatment of bleeding and perioperative use.
Biological stratification of clinical disease courses in childhood immune thrombocytopenia
Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2021
BACKGROUND In childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), an autoimmune bleeding disorder, there is a need for better prediction of individual disease courses and treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE To predict the response to intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIg) and ITP disease course using genetic and immune markers. METHODS Children aged below seven years with newly diagnosed ITP (N = 147) from the TIKI study were included, which randomized children to an IVIg or observation group. A total of 46 variables were available: clinical characteristics, targeted genotyping, lymphocyte immune phenotyping, and platelet autoantibodies. RESULTS In the treatment arm, 48/80 children (60%) showed a complete response (platelets ≥100 x 10(9) /L) that lasted for at least one month (complete sustained response; CSR) and 32 exhibited no or a temporary response (absence of a sustained response; ASR). For a biological risk score, five variables were selected by regularized logistic regression that predicted ASR vs CSR: 1) hemoglobin; 2) platelet count; 3) genetic polymorphisms of FcγRIIc; 4) the presence of IgG anti-platelet antibodies; and 5) preceding vaccination. The ASR sensitivity was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.80 - 1.00) and specificity was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.53 - 0.80). In the 67 patients of the observation arm, this biological score was also associated with recovery during one-year follow-up. The addition of the biological score to a predefined clinical score further improved the discrimination of favorable ITP disease courses. CONCLUSIONS The prediction of disease courses and IVIg treatment responses in ITP is improved by using both clinical and biological stratification.
Voxelotor in adolescents and adults with sickle cell disease (HOPE): long-term follow-up results of an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial
The Lancet. Haematology. 2021
BACKGROUND For decades, patients with sickle cell disease have had only a limited number of therapies available. In 2019, voxelotor (1500 mg), an oral once-daily sickle haemoglobin polymerisation inhibitor, was approved in the USA for the treatment of sickle cell disease in patients aged 12 years and older on the basis of HOPE trial data. To further describe the applicability of voxelotor as a treatment for this chronic illness, we report the long-term efficacy and safety of this drug at 72 weeks of treatment; the conclusion of the placebo-controlled HOPE trial. METHODS HOPE is an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial done at 60 clinical sites in Canada, Egypt, France, Italy, Jamaica, Kenya, Lebanon, Netherlands, Oman, Turkey, the USA, and the UK. Patients (aged 12-65 years) with confirmed sickle cell disease, a haemoglobin concentration of 5·5-10·5 g/dL at enrolment, and who had between one and ten vaso-occlusive crisis events in the previous 12 months were enrolled. Patients receiving regularly scheduled transfusion therapy, who had received a transfusion in the previous 60 days, or who had been admitted to hospital for a vaso-occlusive crisis in the previous 14 days were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive either once-daily oral voxelotor 1500 mg, voxelotor 900 mg, or placebo for 72 weeks. Randomisation was done centrally by use of an interactive web response system, stratified by baseline hydroxyurea use (yes vs no), age group (adolescents [12 to <18 years] vs adults [18 to 65 years]), and geographic region (North America vs Europe vs other). The primary endpoint (already reported) was the proportion of patients who achieved a haemoglobin response at week 24. In this final analysis, we report prespecified long-term efficacy assessments by intention to treat, including changes in haemoglobin concentrations from baseline to week 72, changes in the concentration of haemolysis markers (absolute and percentage reticulocytes, indirect bilirubin concentrations, and lactate dehydrogenase concentrations) from baseline to week 72, the annualised incidence of vaso-occlusive crises, and patient functioning, as assessed with the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGI-C) scale. Safety was assessed in patients who received at least one dose of treatment (modified intention-to-treat population). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03036813. FINDINGS Between Dec 5, 2016, and May 3, 2018, 449 patients were screened, of whom 274 were randomly assigned to the voxelotor 1500 mg group (n=90), the voxelotor 900 mg group (n=92), or the placebo group (n=92). At week 72, the adjusted mean change in haemoglobin concentration from baseline was 1·0 g/dL (95% CI 0·7 to -1·3) in the voxelotor 1500 mg group, 0·5 g/dL (0·3 to -0·8) in the voxelotor 900 mg group, and 0·0 g/dL (-0·3 to 0·3) in the placebo group, with a significant difference observed between the voxelotor 1500 mg group and the placebo group (p<0·0001), and between the voxelotor 900 mg group and the placebo group (p=0·014). Significant improvements in markers of haemolysis, as assessed by the difference in adjusted mean percentage change from baseline at week 72 versus placebo, were observed in the voxelotor 1500 mg group in indirect bilirubin concentrations (-26·6% [95% CI -40·2 to -12·9]) and percentage of reticulocytes (-18·6% [-33·9 to -3·3]). The proportion of patients in the voxelotor 1500 mg group who were rated as "moderately improved" or "very much improved" at week 72 with the CGI-C was significantly greater than in the placebo group (39 [74%] of 53 vs 24 [47%] of 51; p=0·0057). Serious adverse events unrelated to sickle cell disease were reported in 25 (28%) of 88 patients in the voxelotor 1500 mg group, 20 (22%) of 92 patients in the voxelotor 900 mg group, and 23 (25%) of 91 patients in the placebo group. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events were infrequent (ie, occurred in <10% of patients); anaemia occurred in five or more patients (two [2%] patients in the voxelotor 1500 mg group, seven [8%] patients in the voxelotor 900 mg group, and three [3%] patients in the placebo group). Of all 274 patients, six (2%) deaths occurred during the study (two deaths in each treatment group), all of which were judged as unrelated to treatment. INTERPRETATION Voxelotor 1500 mg resulted in rapid and durable improvements in haemoglobin concentrations maintained over 72 weeks and has potential to address the substantial morbidity associated with haemolytic anaemia in sickle cell disease. FUNDING Global Blood Therapeutics.
Neonatal Uterine Bleedings: An Ignored Sign but a Possible Cause of Early-Onset Endometriosis - A Systematic Review
Biomedicine hub. 2021;6(1):6-16
OBJECTIVE Based on the hypothesis that neonatal uterine bleedings (NUB), occurring mostly in the first week after birth, could represent a pathogenetic mechanism for early-onset endometriosis, this systematic review (SR) was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence and screening strategies used to assess and quantify NUB. DESIGN Both a SR and a sample literature search in PubMed and Embase were conducted to gather information on NUB prevalence and screening techniques. This was performed by an information specialist. Only full-text articles regarding the assessment of NUB in neonates in the first 2 weeks after birth were included. No limit on language or publication data was used. MATERIALS AND METHODS The SR was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42019138121). Data was first assessed for eligibility on title and abstract by 2 blinded review authors. Any disagreements were discussed with a third reviewer if necessary. Subsequently, full-text articles were read and assessed for quality using the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook. RESULTS Out of 1,988 articles in the systematic search, 10 relevant articles were selected, of which 8 were identified through the systematic search and 2 were found through other sources. The sample search of 4,445 articles did not bring up relevant articles. Results were not comparable due to the heterogeneity of screening techniques, although data showed consensus. The prevalence of visible bleeding ranged from 3.3 to 53.8% and the prevalence of occult bleeding from 25.4 to 96.7%. The occurrence was the highest between the 3rd and 7th day postpartum (PP) and the bleeding lasted for 3-4 days on average. Various screening techniques for detecting NUB were found in the literature, including the use of hemoglobin detection devices (such as Hemastix) in the vaginal vestibulum, comparison of diapers with stains of known volume, colposcopy, and ultrasonography. CONCLUSION The reported prevalence of NUB varies considerably, with a consistent occurrence between the 3rd and the 7th day PP. Literature to assess NUB is dated. The techniques are poorly described and heterogeneous. Future research should focus on prospective cohort studies in order to attempt to correlate NUB cases to (early-onset) endometriosis.
Indirect Treatment Comparison of Damoctocog Alfa Pegol versus Turoctocog Alfa Pegol as Prophylactic Treatment in Patients with Hemophilia A
Journal of blood medicine. 2021;12:935-943
PURPOSE To assess the efficacy and FVIII consumption of BAY 94-9027 versus N8-GP in prophylaxis in adolescent and adult patients with severe hemophilia A (HA). PATIENTS AND METHODS A systematic literature review was conducted to identify studies on the efficacy of BAY-94-9027 and N8-GP for prophylaxis in patients with HA aged ≥12 years without a history of inhibitors. Eight studies met systematic literature review inclusion criteria, but only data from PROTECT VIII on BAY 94-9027 and PATHFINDER 2 on N8-GP could be used for an indirect comparison. Matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC) and simulated treatment comparison were performed. RESULTS No significant differences (unadjusted and adjusted) were observed in the mean annualized bleeding rate (ABR) for any bleed and proportion of patients with zero bleeds when comparing BAY 94-9027 to N8-GP. The adjusted treatment difference [incidence rate ratio (IRR)] in terms of ABR was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.85-1.44). The odds ratio (OR) of any bleed, measuring the relative effect of BAY 94-9027 versus N8-GP on the proportion of patients with zero bleeds, was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.60-1.77). FVIII consumption was significantly lower in BAY 94-9027 [mean adjusted difference=-1292.57 IU/kg/year (95% CI, ‒2152.44 to ‒432.70)]; a 26.7% reduction in consumption of BAY-94-9027. The results of the sensitivity analyses were similar to the main analysis for mean ABRs, percentages of patients with zero bleeds, and significant reduction in rFVIII consumption. For patients on BAY 94-9027 every-5-days and every-7-days, no differences versus every-4-days N8-GP were observed for the mean ABR for any bleed [IRR=0.90 (95% CI, 0.68‒1.20)] and proportion of patients with zero bleeds [OR=1.06 (95% CI, 0.56‒2.02)]. CONCLUSION BAY 94-9027 prophylaxis demonstrated 26.7% lower annual consumption when compared to N8-GP with similar efficacy in terms of ABR and percentage of patients with zero bleeds.
A scoping review of transition interventions for young adults with sickle cell disease
Pediatric blood & cancer. 2021;:e29135
Standardized programming for individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) transitioning from pediatric to adult-centered care does not currently exist, resulting in high rates of mortality and morbidity. This scoping review examines and evaluates the current literature on SCD transition programs and interventions. Eligible studies described an existing program for individuals with SCD aged 12-29 years preparing to transition. The Evidence Project risk-of-bias tool was used to assess article quality. We identified 30 eligible articles, of which, only two were randomized controlled trials. Many studies have incomplete reports of feasibility information, such as completion rates, patient characteristics, and attrition; all studies were limited to a single institution; and most studies were rated high for risk of bias. Progress has been made in designing and gathering initial evaluation data for SCD transition programs; however, there is a need for higher quality studies, consistent assessment, and better dissemination of programs.
Recent insight on improving the iron chelation efficacy of deferasirox by adjuvant therapy in transfusion dependent beta thalassemia children with sluggish response
Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology. 2020
Background: Deferasirox is the first line of treatment in iron overload. In spite of the many studies concerning the efficacy of deferasirox, some patients remain unresponsive to deferasirox.Methods: One hundred and sixty patients were enrolled in stratified randomized controlled study. Patients were randomly divided into four regimens, group I (n=40) received 30 mg/kg deferasirox, group II (n=40) received 20 mg omeprazole and 30 mg/kg deferasirox, group III (n=40) received 400 mg vitamin E and 30 mg/kg deferasirox and group IV (n=40) received 420 mg silymarin and 30 mg/kg deferasirox. Blood specimens were collected from each patient for up to 24 h, and then plasma deferasirox concentrations were inspected.Results: Silymarin, Vitamin E and omeprazole significantly increased the peak plasma concentration of deferasirox (P<0.001) by 27.9, 14.9 and 2.4 fold respectively as compared to deferasirox alone. The bioavailability of deferasirox was improved up to 3.03, 3.57 and 4.98-fold, respectively, following administration of omeprazole, vitamin E and silymarin compared to deferasirox alone.Conclusion: Silymarin, vitamin E and omeprazole represent promising adjuvant therapy to improve the chelation efficacy of deferasirox that might also be further applied to enhance the pharmacokinetics of deferasirox to overcome the lack of response.
Transfusion dependent beta thalassemia children with sluggish response (n=160).
Group I 30 mg/kg deferasirox. (n=40).
Group II 20 mg omeprazole and 30 mg/kg deferasirox (n=40); group III 400 mg vitamin E and 30 mg/kg deferasirox (n=40); group IV 420 mg silymarin and 30 mg/kg deferasirox (n=40).
Silymarin, Vitamin E and omeprazole significantly increased the peak plasma concentration of deferasirox by 27.9, 14.9 and 2.4 fold respectively as compared to deferasirox alone. The bioavailability of deferasirox was improved up to 3.03, 3.57 and 4.98-fold, respectively, following administration of omeprazole, vitamin E and silymarin compared to deferasirox alone.
Clinical value of different anti-D immunoglobulin strategies for preventing Rh hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn: A network meta-analysis
PLoS One. 2020;15(3):e0230073
BACKGROUND Several anti-D immunoglobulin strategies exist for preventing Rh hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. This study systematically assessed the clinical value of those therapeutic strategies. METHODS The Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang databases were searched for eligible studies that evaluated the value of different anti-D immunoglobulin strategies in preventing maternal anti-D antibody sensitization. Combined odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The network meta-analysis was conducted using Stata 14.2 and WinBUGS 1.4.3 software. RESULTS Twenty-four original studies involving 64860 patients were included. Among all therapeutic measures, injecting 300 mug anti-D immunoglobulin at 28 and 34 gestational weeks (antenatal 5/E) appeared to be the most effective measure for preventing maternal antibody sensitization (surface under the cumulative ranking curve [SUCRA] = 96.8%), while a single injection at 28 gestational weeks (SUCRA = 89.2%) was the second most effective. Administering no injection or a placebo (SUCRA = 0.0%) was the least effective intervention measure. CONCLUSION Among the therapeutic measures, antenatal 5/E appeared to be the best method for reducing the positive incidence of anti-D antibodies in the maternal serum; thus, it may be the most effective treatment for preventing fetal hemolytic disease.