Safety and efficacy of thalidomide in patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia: a randomized clinical trial
Signal transduction and targeted therapy. 2021;6(1):405
Thalidomide induces γ-globin expression in erythroid progenitor cells, but its efficacy on patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia (TDT) remains unclear. In this phase 2, multi-center, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, we aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of thalidomide in TDT patients. A hundred patients of 14 years or older were randomly assigned to receive placebo or thalidomide for 12 weeks, followed by an extension phase of at least 36 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change of hemoglobin (Hb) level in the patients. The secondary endpoints included the red blood cell (RBC) units transfused and adverse effects. In the placebo-controlled period, Hb concentrations in patients treated with thalidomide achieved a median elevation of 14.0 (range, 2.5 to 37.5) g/L, whereas Hb in patients treated with placebo did not significantly change. Within the 12 weeks, the mean RBC transfusion volume for patients treated with thalidomide and placebo was 5.4 ± 5.0 U and 10.3 ± 6.4 U, respectively (P < 0.001). Adverse events of drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue, pyrexia, sore throat, and rash were more common with thalidomide than placebo. In the extension phase, treatment with thalidomide for 24 weeks resulted in a sustainable increase in Hb concentrations which reached 104.9 ± 19.0 g/L, without blood transfusion. Significant increase in Hb concentration and reduction in RBC transfusions were associated with non β0/β0 and HBS1L-MYB (rs9399137 C/T, C/C; rs4895441 A/G, G/G) genotypes. These results demonstrated that thalidomide is effective in patients with TDT.
Pre-procedural use of thrombopoietin-receptor agonists in cirrhosis and severe thrombocytopenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver. 2021
BACKGROUND Severe thrombocytopenia in cirrhosis can preclude invasive procedures. Platelet transfusion is recommended if platelet count pre-procedure is potential alternative to platelet transfusion is thrombopoietin-receptor (TPO) agonists. AIM: Evaluate TPO-agonist efficacy and safety in cirrhotic patients with severe thrombocytopenia undergoing invasive procedures. METHODS Randomized control trials (RCT) from electronic reference databases were searched from inception till December 2019. PRISMA guidelines were followed. Primary outcome was platelet transfusion avoidance. Secondary outcomes were weighted mean difference (WMD) in platelet count from baseline to pre-procedure and rates of major adverse events (AE). Pooled Odds Ratio (OR) were estimated using a random-effects model. RESULTS Six RCTs with 1,229 patients were included. All studies had low risk of bias. Compared with placebo, those treated with TPO-agonists had a pooled OR of 0.12(0.08-0.17), P<0.01 for platelet transfusion avoidance, and WMD in platelet count (x10 3 /µL) of 35.6(28.6-42.7), P<0.01. Major AE did not differ between groups [Pooled OR: 0.87(0.47-1.62), P=0.66]. CONCLUSION Compared to placebo, TPO-agonists used in cirrhotic patients with severe thrombocytopenia prior to elective invasive procedures had 88% reduced odds of requiring peri-procedural platelet transfusion and increased platelet count pre-procedure, with no difference in AE rates.
Comparison of Published Guidelines for the Diagnosis and the Management of Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia
Critical care explorations. 2021;3(9):e0519
The development of thrombocytopenia and thrombosis after the administration of the AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson/Janssen vaccines has been recently described. This new condition has been called vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia. The objective of this review is to summarize the clinical characteristics and therapeutic options of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia based on available published case series. Furthermore, we provide a comparison of the diagnostic pathway and treatment recommendations provided by six major medical societies. DATA SOURCES We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. STUDY SELECTION We included case series and case reports on patients who developed vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia. We also included guidelines for the diagnosis and management of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia from major medical societies. DATA EXTRACTION We examined baseline risk factors, symptoms, physical signs, laboratory and imaging findings, and treatment in patients with vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia reported in the case series. We also analyzed the diagnostic and treatment recommendations provided by major societal guidelines on the management of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia. DATA SYNTHESIS Patients who developed vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia were more likely to be young women (age 20-50) who were given the AstraZeneca or Johnson & Johnson/Janssen 4-28 days prior to presentation. Patients showed signs, symptoms, and imaging findings consistent with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and splanchnic thrombosis. Laboratory findings showed thrombocytopenia, low fibrinogen, and elevate d-dimer levels, while positive platelet factor 4 antibodies were always positive. Major societal guidelines recommend avoidance of heparin and platelets. Treatment with nonheparin anticoagulants and IV immunoglobulin is also recommended. CONCLUSIONS Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia is a rare but highly morbid complication related to the administration of the AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson/Janssen vaccines. Clinicians should be prepared for the early identification of patients with suspicious symptoms and prompt treatment should be initiated to avoid catastrophic deterioration. Major societal guidelines provide useful recommendations for the diagnosis and management of patients with vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia.
Interventions for treating leg ulcers in people with sickle cell disease
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2021;1(1):Cd008394
BACKGROUND The frequency of skin ulceration makes an important contributor to the morbidity burden in people with sickle cell disease. Many treatment options are available to the healthcare professional, although it is uncertain which treatments have been assessed for effectiveness in people with sickle cell disease. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. OBJECTIVES To assess the clinical effectiveness and harms of interventions for treating leg ulcers in people with sickle cell disease. SEARCH METHODS We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register. We searched LILACS (1982 to January 2020), ISI Web of Knowledge (1985 to January 2020), and the Clinical Trials Search Portal of the World Health Organization (January 2020). We checked the reference lists of all the trials identified. We also contacted those groups or individuals who may have completed relevant randomised trials in this area. Date of the last search of the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 13 January 2020; date of the last search of the Cochrane Wounds Group Trials Register: 17 February 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised controlled trials of interventions for treating leg ulcers in people with sickle cell disease compared to placebo or an alternative treatment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion. All three authors independently assessed the risk of bias of the included studies and extracted data. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS Six studies met the inclusion criteria (198 participants with 250 ulcers). Each trial investigated a different intervention and within this review we have grouped these as systemic pharmaceutical interventions (L-cartinine, arginine butyrate, isoxsuprine) and topical pharmaceutical interventions (Solcoseryl(®) cream, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide dressing and topical antibiotics). No trials on non-pharmaceutical interventions were included in the review. All trials had an overall unclear or high risk of bias, and drug companies sponsored four of them. We were unable to pool findings due to the heterogeneity in outcome definitions, and inconsistency between the units of randomisation and analysis. Three interventions reported on the change in ulcer size (arginine butyrate, RGD peptide, L-cartinine). Of these, only arginine butyrate showed a reduction of ulcer size compared with a control group, mean reduction -5.10 cm² (95% CI -9.65 to -0.55), but we are uncertain whether this reduces ulcer size compared to standard care alone as the certainty of the evidence has been assessed as very low. Three trials reported on complete leg ulcer closure (isoxsuprine, arginine butyrate, RGD peptide matrix; very low quality of evidence). None reported a clinical benefit. No trial reported on: the time to complete ulcer healing; ulcer-free survival following treatment for sickle cell leg ulcers; quality of life measures; incidence of amputation or harms. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Given the very low quality of the evidence identified in this updated Cochrane Review we are uncertain whether any of the assessed pharmaceutical interventions reduce ulcer size or result in leg ulcer closure in treated participants compared to controls. However, this intervention was assessed as having a high risk of bias due to inadequacies in the single trial report. Other included studies were also assessed as having an unclear or high risk of bias. The harm profile of the all interventions remains inconclusive.
Immunoadsorption for the Treatment of Acquired Hemophilia: New Observational Data, Systematic Review, and Meta-Analysis
Transfusion medicine reviews. 2021
The treatment of patients with acquired hemophilia is challenging due to life-threatening hemorrhages, delayed response, and adverse effects to immunosuppressive agents. Even though immunoadsorption (IA) rapidly removes autoantibodies against factor VIII, this intervention's effectiveness is still a matter of debate. We aimed to study important outcomes of IA as adjunctive treatment in patients with acquired hemophilia. We performed comprehensive literature searches in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Clinical and laboratory data of all patients treated in our institution were additionally included. Literature searching yielded 498 records, of which 10 studies describing 106 patients were finally included. The number of patients varied from 1 to 65, and patients' ages ranged between 14 and 89. Treatment criteria in most patients were (1) failed response to immunosuppressive treatment alone, and/or (2) uncontrollable bleeding episodes, and/or (3) high inhibitor titer. Methodological quality was moderate. The number of IA sessions varied from 1 to 24. Within our institution, 12 patients have been treated since 2002; median age was 76 years (range 34-86); median titer of factor VIII inhibitor was 20 Bethesda units (range 3-214). Pooled estimates, modeling a random-effect binominal distribution incorporating the Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation, were 86% in case of factor VIII recovery (95% confidence interval 76%-94%), 95% for reduction of factor VIII inhibitor (83%, 100%), and 7% in case of death (0%, 18%). Our data suggest that IA might be a beneficial adjunctive treatment in patients with high-risk acquired hemophilia, but future studies shall confirm this observation.
The safety of activated eptacog beta in the management of bleeding episodes and perioperative haemostasis in adult and paediatric haemophilia patients with inhibitors
Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2021
INTRODUCTION Haemophilia patients with inhibitors often require a bypassing agent (BPA) for bleeding episode management. Eptacog beta (EB) is a new FDA-approved recombinant activated human factor VII BPA for the treatment and control of bleeding in haemophilia A or B patients with inhibitors (≥12 years of age). We describe here the EB safety profile from the three prospective Phase 3 clinical trials performed to date. AIM: To assess EB safety, immunogenicity and thrombotic potential in children and adults who received EB for treatment of bleeding and perioperative care. METHODS Using a randomized crossover design, 27 subjects in PERSEPT 1 (12-54 years) and 25 subjects in PERSEPT 2 (1-11 years) treated bleeding episodes with 75 or 225 μg/kg EB initially followed by 75 μg/kg dosing at predefined intervals as determined by clinical response. Twelve PERSEPT 3 subjects (2-56 years) received an initial preoperative infusion of 75 μg/kg (minor procedures) or 200 μg/kg EB (major surgeries) with subsequent 75 μg/kg doses administered intraoperatively and post-operatively as indicated. Descriptive statistics were used for data analyses. RESULTS Sixty subjects who received 3388 EB doses in three trials were evaluated. EB was well tolerated, with no allergic, hypersensitivity, anaphylactic or thrombotic events reported and no neutralizing anti-EB antibodies detected. A death occurred during PERSEPT 3 and was determined to be unlikely related to EB treatment by the data monitoring committee. CONCLUSION Results from all three Phase 3 trials establish an excellent safety profile of EB in haemophilia A or B patients with inhibitors for treatment of bleeding and perioperative use.
Crizanlizumab for the Prevention of Vaso-Occlusive Pain Crises in Sickle Cell Disease
The Journal of pharmacy technology : jPT : official publication of the Association of Pharmacy Technicians. 2021;37(4):209-215
Objective: To review the efficacy and safety of crizanlizumab (Adakveo) in the prevention of vaso-occlusive pain crises in sickle cell disease. Data Sources: An English-language literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Ovid (1946 to January 2021) was completed using the terms crizanlizumab, SEG101, SelG1, and sickle cell disease. Manufacturer prescribing information, article bibliographies, and data from clinicaltrials.gov were incorporated in the reviewed data. Study Selection/Data Extraction: All studies registered on clinicaltrials.gov were incorporated in the reviewed data. Data Synthesis: Crizanlizumab is the first monoclonal antibody approved for sickle cell disease to reduce the frequency of vaso-occlusive crises. One phase 2 clinical trial and a post hoc analysis of the trial have been published. Relevance to Patient Care and Clinical Practice: Crizanlizumab is a monthly intravenous infusion approved by the Food and Drug Administration for patients with sickle cell disease 16 years of age and older to reduce the frequency of vaso-occlusive crises. Conclusion: Crizanlizumab appears to be an efficacious therapy for patients with sickle cell disease to reduce the frequency of vaso-occlusive crises. Concerns include drug cost and administration. Long-term benefits and risks have not been determined.
Matching-Adjusted Indirect Comparison of Efficacy and Consumption of rVIII-SingleChain Versus Two Recombinant FVIII Products Used for Prophylactic Treatment of Adults/Adolescents with Severe Haemophilia A
Advances in therapy. 2021
INTRODUCTION Given the relatively small number of patients with haemophilia A, head-to-head comparisons between recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) products are difficult to conduct. This study compared the efficacy and consumption of rVIII-SingleChain (lonoctocog alfa, AFSTYLA(®)) with rAHF-PFM (octocog alfa, Advate(®)) and rFVIIIFc (efmoroctocog alfa, Elocta(®)), for the prophylaxis and treatment of bleeding episodes in previously treated adolescents/adults with severe haemophilia A, through a matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC). METHODS A systematic literature review identified published clinical trials for rAHF-PFM and rFVIIIFc. Individual patient data for rVIII-SingleChain were used to match baseline patient characteristics to those from published trials, using an approach similar to propensity score weighting. After matching, annualized bleeding rates (ABR), percentage of patients with zero bleeds, and rFVIII consumption were compared across trial populations. RESULTS Published data were identified from two rAHF-PFM trials and one rFVIIIFc trial. rVIII-SingleChain had similar ABR (risk ratio [RR]: 0.74 [0.16; 3.48]; RR: 1.18 [0.85; 1.65]) and percentage of patients with zero bleeds (odds ratio [OR]: 1.34 [0.56; 3.22]; OR: 0.78 [0.47; 1.31]) versus rAHF-PFM and rFVIIIFc, respectively. Annual rVIII-SingleChain consumption was significantly lower than rAHF-PFM (mean difference: - 1507.66 IU/kg/year [- 2011.71; - 1003.61]) and equivalent to rFVIIIFc (RR: 0.96 [0.62; 1.49]). CONCLUSION Although limited to published information for comparator trials, these results suggest that with an annualized rFVIII consumption comparable to rFVIIIFc, but significantly lower than rAHF-PFM, routine prophylaxis with rVIII-SingleChain is able to maintain a similar ABR and percentage of patients with zero bleeds, attesting to the long-acting nature of rVIII-SingleChain.
Eltrombopag for Post-Transplantation Thrombocytopenia: Results of Phase II Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Transplantation and cellular therapy. 2021;27(5):430.e1-430.e7
Prolonged thrombocytopenia occurs in up to 37% of patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and is associated with adverse prognosis and increased risk of bleeding. Eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, can increase platelet counts in thrombocytopenic patients. We conducted a phase II study, adaptively randomizing patients at ≥35 days post-HSCT to receive placebo or eltrombopag at a platelet count ≤20,000/µL for 7 days or platelet transfusion-dependent and a neutrophil count ≥1500/µL. Sixty patients were randomized to eltrombopag (n = 42) or placebo (n = 18) and received at least 1 dose. Fifteen patients (36%) in the eltrombopag arm achieved a platelet count of ≥30,000/µL, compared with 5 patients (28%) in the placebo arm, with a posterior probability of 0.75. (The protocol required this probability to be >0.975 to declare a winner; thus, the results are inconclusive.) However, 9 patients (21%) in the eltrombopag arm achieved a platelet count of ≥50,000/µL, compared with no patients in the placebo arm (P = .046). The overall survival, progression-free survival, relapse rate, and nonrelapse mortality were similar in the 2 arms. In conclusion, compared with placebo, treatment with eltrombopag led to a higher percentage of patients achieving a platelet count of ≥50,000/µL in patients with persistent thrombocytopenia after HSCT.
Biological stratification of clinical disease courses in childhood immune thrombocytopenia
Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2021
BACKGROUND In childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), an autoimmune bleeding disorder, there is a need for better prediction of individual disease courses and treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE To predict the response to intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIg) and ITP disease course using genetic and immune markers. METHODS Children aged below seven years with newly diagnosed ITP (N = 147) from the TIKI study were included, which randomized children to an IVIg or observation group. A total of 46 variables were available: clinical characteristics, targeted genotyping, lymphocyte immune phenotyping, and platelet autoantibodies. RESULTS In the treatment arm, 48/80 children (60%) showed a complete response (platelets ≥100 x 10(9) /L) that lasted for at least one month (complete sustained response; CSR) and 32 exhibited no or a temporary response (absence of a sustained response; ASR). For a biological risk score, five variables were selected by regularized logistic regression that predicted ASR vs CSR: 1) hemoglobin; 2) platelet count; 3) genetic polymorphisms of FcγRIIc; 4) the presence of IgG anti-platelet antibodies; and 5) preceding vaccination. The ASR sensitivity was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.80 - 1.00) and specificity was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.53 - 0.80). In the 67 patients of the observation arm, this biological score was also associated with recovery during one-year follow-up. The addition of the biological score to a predefined clinical score further improved the discrimination of favorable ITP disease courses. CONCLUSIONS The prediction of disease courses and IVIg treatment responses in ITP is improved by using both clinical and biological stratification.