Preoperative Transfusion in Sickle Cell Disease Children Undergoing Adenotonsillectomy
Indian journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery : official publication of the Association of Otolaryngologists of India. 2023;75(2):227-235
OBJECTIVE To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing two pre-operative transfusion regimens (conservative versus aggressive) in children with sickle cell disease(SCD) undergoing adenotonsillectomy in terms of post-operative complications, complications related to SCD and transfusion related complications. DATA SOURCES AND REVIEW METHODS A literature review was performed through PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Ovid databases using the following phrases: (Adenotonsillectomy OR Tonsillectomy) AND (Sickle Cell Disease OR Sickle Cell Trait). Using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, seven articles were selected for systemic review and two control trials were included in meta-analysis. RESULTS Out of a total of 3,146 results, seven articles were selected for review and two controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of primary and secondary hemorrhage between the aggressive and conservative transfusion regimens (RR = 3.1, CI = 0.84-11.4, p-value = 0.089). The rate of sickle cell disease related complications including vaso-occlusive crisis and acute chest syndrome was also not statistically significant between the two transfusion groups (RR = 1.4, CI = 0.7-2.8, p-value = 0.339). Even though, the transfusion related complications did not reach statistical significance, there was a higher complication rate in the group receiving aggressive blood transfusion. CONCLUSION In SCD children undergoing adenotonsillectomy, an aggressive transfusion regimen that focuses on reducing the Hemoglobin S ratio to below 30% has not been shown to be more effective in reducing post-operative complications when compared to a conservative transfusion regimen. Therefore, it is reasonable to utilize a conservative transfusion regimen, thereby reducing the transfusion-associated risks.
The Role of Non-genetic Therapies to Reduce the Incidence of Sickle Cell Crisis: A Systematic Review
Sickle cell anemia is a hemoglobinopathy that causes complications such as Vaso-Occlusive Crisis (VOC), stroke, priapism, Acute Chest Syndromes (ACS), and bone infarcts due to blood vessel occlusion, resulting in hypoxia, ischemia, and inflammation. Preventing these incidents improves the quality of life and lowers mortality rates in Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) patients. This systematic review aims to describe the drugs, their mechanisms of action, dosages, changes in hemoglobin parameters, decrease in VOCs, delay the time for the next VOC, decrease in the length of hospital stay, and side effects associated with these drugs. This review adheres to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) 2020 guidelines. For this review, we searched the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases and screened them for full free texts published in English and studied in humans in the last five years beginning in 2018. Randomized clinical trials (RCT), observational studies, meta-analyses, systemic reviews, and traditional reviews were all included in the search. According to the type of study, quality assessment tools are used, and eight papers are chosen. Full-text articles from these papers are studied, analyzed, and tabulated. We discussed seven interventions that are used to treat sickle cell disease. Voxelotor, crizanlizumab, L-glutamate, long-term blood transfusions, Zinc (Zn), Niprisan®, and Ciklavit* were found to reduce the number and severity of VOC. We discovered that VOCs containing L -glutamate reduced the length of hospitalization. Magnesium (Mg) did not affect the number and severity of VOCs. This review includes a few articles for the study. Future papers on this subject should include a large sample size and many papers. More clinical trials are required to evaluate the dosages and outcomes of using these drugs in combination to prevent VOCs.
Interventions for chronic kidney disease in people with sickle cell disease
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2023;8(8):Cd012380
BACKGROUND Sickle cell disease (SCD), one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders, is caused by the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta-globin) genes. SCD can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Kidney disease is a frequent and potentially severe complication in people with SCD. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as abnormalities of kidney structure or function present for more than three months. Sickle cell nephropathy refers to the spectrum of kidney complications in SCD. Glomerular damage is a cause of microalbuminuria and can develop at an early age in children with SCD, with increased prevalence in adulthood. In people with sickle cell nephropathy, outcomes are poor as a result of the progression to proteinuria and chronic kidney insufficiency. Up to 12% of people who develop sickle cell nephropathy will develop end-stage renal disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2017. OBJECTIVES To assess the effectiveness of any intervention for preventing or reducing kidney complications or chronic kidney disease in people with sickle cell disease. Possible interventions include red blood cell transfusions, hydroxyurea, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), either alone or in combination. SEARCH METHODS We searched for relevant trials in the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, seven other databases, and two other trials registers. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing interventions to prevent or reduce kidney complications or CKD in people with SCD. We applied no restrictions related to outcomes examined, language, or publication status. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, assessed the risk of bias, and assessed the certainty of the evidence (GRADE). MAIN RESULTS We included three RCTs with 385 participants. We rated the certainty of the evidence as low to very low across different outcomes according to GRADE methodology, downgrading for risk of bias concerns, indirectness, and imprecision. Hydroxyurea versus placebo One RCT published in 2011 compared hydroxyurea to placebo in 193 children aged nine to 18 months. We are unsure if hydroxyurea compared to placebo reduces or prevents progression of kidney disease assessed by change in glomerular filtration rate (mean difference (MD) 0.58 mL/min /1.73 m(2), 95% confidence interval (CI) -14.60 to 15.76; 142 participants; very low certainty). Hydroxyurea compared to placebo may improve the ability to concentrate urine (MD 42.23 mOsm/kg, 95% CI 12.14 to 72.32; 178 participants; low certainty), and may make little or no difference to SCD-related serious adverse events, including acute chest syndrome (risk ratio (RR) 0.39, 99% CI 0.13 to 1.16; 193 participants; low certainty), painful crisis (RR 0.68, 99% CI 0.45 to 1.02; 193 participants; low certainty); and hospitalisations (RR 0.83, 99% CI 0.68 to 1.01; 193 participants; low certainty). No deaths occurred in either trial arm and the RCT did not report quality of life. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors versus placebo One RCT published in 1998 compared an ACEI (captopril) to placebo in 22 adults with normal blood pressure and microalbuminuria. We are unsure if captopril compared to placebo reduces proteinuria (MD -49.00 mg/day, 95% CI -124.10 to 26.10; 22 participants; very low certainty). We are unsure if captopril reduces or prevents kidney disease as measured by creatinine clearance; the trial authors stated that creatinine clearance remained constant over six months in both groups, but provided no comparative data (very low certainty). The RCT did not report serious adverse events, all-cause mortality, or quality of life. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors versus vitamin C One RCT published in 2020 compared an ACEI (lisinopril) with vitamin C in 170 children aged one to 18 years with normal blood pressure and microalbuminuria. It reported no data we could analyse. We are unsure if lisinopril compared to vitamin C reduces proteinuria in this population: the large drop in microalbuminuria in both arms of the trial after only one month on treatment may have been due to an overestimation of microalbuminuria at baseline rather than a true effect. The RCT did not report serious adverse events, all-cause mortality, or quality of life. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS We are unsure if hydroxyurea improves glomerular filtration rate or reduces hyperfiltration in children aged nine to 18 months, but it may improve their ability to concentrate urine and may make little or no difference to the incidence of acute chest syndrome, painful crises, and hospitalisations. We are unsure if ACEI compared to placebo has any effect on preventing or reducing kidney complications in adults with normal blood pressure and microalbuminuria. We are unsure if ACEI compared to vitamin C has any effect on preventing or reducing kidney complications in children with normal blood pressure and microalbuminuria. No RCTs assessed red blood cell transfusions or any combined interventions to prevent or reduce kidney complications. Due to lack of evidence, we cannot comment on the management of children aged over 18 months or adults with any known genotype of SCD. We have identified a lack of adequately designed and powered studies, although we found four ongoing trials since the last version of this review. Only one ongoing trial addresses renal function as a primary outcome in the short term, but such interventions have long-term effects. Trials of hydroxyurea, ACEIs or red blood cell transfusion in older children and adults are urgently needed to determine any effect on prevention or reduction of kidney complications in people with SCD.
Children and adults with sickle cell disease (3 randomised controlled trials, n= 385).
Interventions to prevent or reduce kidney complications or chronic kidney disease, including: hydroxyurea, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), either alone or in combination.
This systematic review is an update of a review first published in 2017. The authors rated the certainty of the evidence as low to very low across different outcomes. The authors are unsure if hydroxyurea improves glomerular filtration rate or reduces hyperfiltration in children aged nine to 18 months, but it may improve their ability to concentrate urine and may make little or no difference to the incidence of acute chest syndrome, painful crises, and hospitalisations. The authors are unsure if ACEI compared to placebo has any effect on preventing or reducing kidney complications in adults with normal blood pressure and microalbuminuria. The authors are unsure if ACEI compared to vitamin C has any effect on preventing or reducing kidney complications in children with normal blood pressure and microalbuminuria.
Evidence-based interventions for reducing sickle cell disease-associated morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: A scoping review
SAGE open medicine. 2023;11:20503121231197866
OBJECTIVE Sickle cell disease is a lifelong illness affecting millions of people globally, but predominantly burdensome in sub-Saharan Africa, where most affected children do not live to adulthood, despite available evidence-based interventions that reduce the disease burden in high-income countries. METHOD We reviewed studies evaluating evidence-based interventions that decrease sickle cell disease-related morbidity and mortality among children living in sub-Saharan Africa. We used the Joanna Briggs scoping review methodological framework and grouped identified evidence-based interventions into preventative pharmacotherapeutic agents, newborn screening and comprehensive healthcare, disease-modifying agents, nutritional supplementation, systemic treatment, supportive agents and patient/carer/population education. RESULTS We included 36 studies: 18 randomized controlled trials, 11 observational studies, 5 before-and-after studies and 2 economic evaluation studies, with most of the studies performed in West African countries. Included studies suggest evidence-based interventions effectively to reduce the common morbidities associated with sickle cell disease such as stroke, vaso-occlusive crisis, acute chest syndrome, severe anaemia and malaria infection. Evidence-based interventions also improve survival among study participants. Specifically, our review shows hydroxyurea increases haemoglobin and foetal haemoglobin levels, a finding with practical implications given the challenges with blood transfusion in this setting. The feasibility of implementing individual interventions is hampered by challenges such as affordability, accessibility and the availability of financial and human resources. CONCLUSION Our review suggests that regular use of low-dose hydroxyurea therapy, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine chemoprophylaxis, L-arginine and Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and establishment of specialist stand-alone sickle cell clinics could reduce the sickle cell disease-associated morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa countries.
Experimental and approved treatments for skin photosensitivity in individuals with erythropoietic protoporphyria or X-linked protoporphyria: A systematic review
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie. 2022;158:114132
Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) and X-linked protoporphyria (XLP) are characterized by skin photosensitivity caused by accumulation of protoporphyrin IX. We aimed to review the clinical evidence of efficacy and safety of skin photosensitivity treatments in individuals with EPP or XLP. We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov. A total of 40 studies with data on 18 treatment modalities were included. Comprehensive treatment safety data were obtained from the European Medicines Agency and the United States Food and Drug Administration. The studies used different outcome measures to evaluate the sensitivity without a generally accepted method to assess treatment effect on skin photosensitivity. Of the included studies, 13 were controlled trials. Gathered, the trials showed moderate positive effect of inorganic sunscreen application and subcutaneous implant of afamelanotide and no effect of organic sunscreen application, or oral treatment with beta-carotene, cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, vitamin C, or warfarin. Studies without control groups suggested treatment effect of foundation cream, dihydroxyacetone/lawsone cream, narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy, erythrocyte transfusion, extracorporeal erythrocyte photodynamic therapy, or oral treatment with zinc sulphate, terfenadine, cimetidine, or canthaxanthin, but the real effect is uncertain. Assessment of treatment effect on photosensitivity in patients with EPP or XLP carries a high risk of bias since experienced photosensitivity varies with both weather conditions, exposure pattern, and pigmentation. Controlled trials of promising treatment options are important although challenging in this small patient population.
Health related quality of life in children with sickle cell disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Blood reviews. 2022;:100982
This review had three aims: 1) describe the measures used to assess health-related quality of life (HRQL) in pediatric patients diagnosed with sickle cell disease (SCD); 2) document the biopsychosocial factors related to HRQL in pediatric patients diagnosed with SCD; and 3) complete a meta-analysis comparing HRQL in pediatric patients diagnosed with SCD to healthy controls. Included studies were published in English, quantitatively assessed HRQL as a primary aim, in both SCD and controls, and included participants between 0 and 21 years of age. The final review included 66 articles, with a total of 8642 participants with SCD, 4 months-21 years of age, and 62,458 controls, 5-27 years of age. HRQL was predominately measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Generic Core and Sickle Cell Disease Module. Meta-analyses revealed children with SCD had significantly worse HRQL compared to healthy controls (standardized mean difference = -0.93, 95% CI = -1.25, -0.61, p < 0.00001). Worse HRQL was associated with more severe SCD, female sex, and pain. The findings indicate that children with SCD are at risk for worse HRQL compared to their healthy peers and their HRQL may be impacted by several biopsychosocial factors. Future research is needed to examine how sociocultural factors uniquely impact this population and their overall quality of life.
Management of acute chest syndrome in patients with sickle cell disease: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials
Expert review of hematology. 2022;:1-12
INTRODUCTION Acute chest syndrome (ACS) accounts for the highest mortality in Sickle cell disease patients. Early diagnosis and timely management of ACS results in better outcomes. However, the effectiveness of most treatment modalities for ACS management has not been established. AREAS COVERED To review the treatment modalities management protocols and highlight the effectiveness of each option a literature search was done. Randomized controlled trials that assessed the efficacy of different treatment modalities in ACS management in SCD patients were chosen and reviewed. EXPERT OPINION 11 randomized controlled trials were found that evaluated the efficacy of incentive spirometry, positive expiratory pressure device, intravenous dexamethasone, oral vs. intravenous morphine, inhaled nitric oxide, unfractionated heparin, and blood transfusion in the prevention or treatment of ACS. Although there are guidelines for ACS treatment, the available evidence is very limited to delineating the effectiveness of various interventions in ACS management. More high-quality studies and trials with a larger patient population can benefit this area to support the recommendations with stronger evidence.
Extramedullary haematopoiesis in patients with transfusion dependent β-thalassaemia (TDT): a systematic review
Annals of medicine. 2022;54(1):764-774
INTRODUCTION Around 5% of the world's population is expected to have some degree and type of thalassaemia. Beta thalassaemia (BT) occurs due to a deficient production of the beta-globin chain of haemoglobin. Extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) is one of the complications of BT, mainly observed in minor/intermedia subtypes. EMH is the production of blood cells outside the marrow as a compensatory response to longstanding hypoxia. Due to chronic transfusions, it is not expected in patients with beta-thalassaemia major (BTM). However, there are increasingly reported cases of EMH in BTM. The incidence of EMH in BTM is thought to be <1%. We aim to pool the available data and provide cumulative evidence on the occurrence of EMH in BTM patients. METHODS This is a systematic review of case reports, series, and retrospective studies that presented data on the occurrence of EMH in BTM patients. Data were recorded and analyzed in Microsoft Excel 2016 and SPSS 26. The protocol has been registered in PROSPERO CRD42021242943. RESULTS Data from 253 cases of EMH in BTM patients were extracted with a mean age of 35.3 years. Mean haemoglobin at presentation with EMH was 8.2 mg/dL. Lower limb weakness was the most common presenting feature (N = 23) (paraspinal EMH). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was the most widely used diagnostic modality (226). Overall, blood transfusion was the commonest reported treatment (30), followed by radiotherapy (20), surgery (15), hydroxyurea (12), steroids (6), and exchange transfusion (2). An outcome was reported in 20% of patients, all recovered, except one who died as a result of nosocomial infection. CONCLUSION EMH is rare in BTM and can occur in any organ system with varied clinical features. MRI can effectively diagnose EMH, and conservative management has similar results compared to invasive treatments. Larger studies, focussing on outcomes may enhance guidelines on preventive and therapeutic strategies for managing EMH in BTM.KEY MESSAGESExtramedullary haematopoiesis is a rare complication in beta thalassaemia. Although it is more common in non-transfusion dependent thalassaemia, increasingly reported cases suggest a higher prevalence of EMH in TDT than what is known before.There are no clear guidelines on the management of EMH in TDT, with reported patients showing similar outcomes with conservative invasive treatment modalities.More extensive and preferably prospectively designed studies are required focussing on the management of EMH and its outcomes in patients with TDT to formulate evidence-based guidelines.
Overview of current progress and challenges in diagnosis, and management of pediatric sickle cell disease in Democratic Republic of the Congo
Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2022;27(1):132-140
OBJECTIVES Sickle cell disease (SCD) encompasses health complications, primarily affecting the hematologic system and leading to high death rates in childhood. As a rule, the World Health Organisation (WHO) stepwise gold-standard about the strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of SCD must be multidimensional. This overview aimed to highlight current advances and challenges linked to strategic issues, diagnosis, the prevalence, and treatment of pediatric cases in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly the Democratic Republic of the Congo. METHODS We searched data on Google Scholar, Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and ResearchGate. RESULTS The laboratory diagnosis of SCD has progressed from conventional electrophoresis to rapid point-of-care tests that allows early neonate screening. HemoTypeSC(TM) is an affordable test for neonatal screening in DRC. The pediatric SCD prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa lay within 1-7.7% of homozygous(SS) and 15-40% of the heterozygous(AS) forms of SCD, depending on the method used and the ethnic population tested. Various supportive management protocols for comorbidities and complications exist, but they are not standardized in the Region. CONCLUSION Notwithstanding some progress accomplished, the disease is still challenging in Sub-Saharan Africa due to limited early diagnostic testing and a lack of specific medications. There is a need for harmonizing therapeutic protocols and conducting controlled valid clinical trials.
Red blood cell transfusion in myelodysplastic syndromes: A systematic review
Transfusion medicine (Oxford, England). 2021
Patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) frequently receive red blood cell (RBC) transfusions for anaemia resulting from ineffective erythropoiesis. While RBC transfusions may rapidly increase haemoglobin values, their impact on clinical and health services outcomes in MDS patients has not previously been summarized. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to evaluate risks and benefits of RBC transfusions in MDS patients. We searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL) from inception through June 4, 2021 to identify studies reporting data on RBC transfusions in MDS patients. Full text publications that assessed RBC transfusions as an intervention and reported at least one clinical, laboratory, or healthcare outcome associated with transfusion were included. Study characteristics, transfusion information and transfusion-related outcomes were extracted and reported. We identified 1243 original studies, of which 38 met eligibility requirements and were included. Fourteen reported on survival following diagnosis of MDS, with the majority reporting poorer survival among patients receiving or requiring more frequent transfusions. Nine reported on transfusion-related iron overload and its complications. Other outcomes included rates of allo/autoimmunization and adverse transfusion reactions, and healthcare costs incurred by patients with a greater transfusion burden. Only two studies reported on symptom relief following transfusion. This review underscores transfusion dependence as a negative prognostic factor for MDS patients and highlights the paucity of evidence surrounding quality of life and symptom-related outcomes following RBC transfusions in this population. Further study of patient-important outcomes associated with transfusion in MDS patients is warranted to improve therapeutic recommendations and inform resource allocation.
Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), (38 studies, n= 11,101).
Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions.
Various comparators including not receiving RBC transfusions, transfusion thresholds, and RBC transfusion prophylactically matched/not matched.
Fourteen studies reported data on survival following diagnosis of MDS, and the majority reported an inverse relationship between RBC transfusion and survival. Three studies found no significant differences in overall survival in MDS patients who received a greater number of RBC transfusions. From the 9 studies reporting on transfusion-related iron overload and its complications, 3 studies found an increased risk including presentations of cardiomyopathy/heart failure, conduction disorders, diabetes and liver disease. Five studies measuring health care utilization related to transfusion found a higher healthcare utilization, including emergency visits and hospitalizations in MDS patients.