Eltrombopag Added to Immunosuppression in Severe Aplastic Anemia
The New England journal of medicine. 2022;386(1):11-23
BACKGROUND A single-group, phase 1-2 study indicated that eltrombopag improved the efficacy of standard immunosuppressive therapy that entailed horse antithymocyte globulin (ATG) plus cyclosporine in patients with severe aplastic anemia. METHODS In this prospective, investigator-led, open-label, multicenter, randomized, phase 3 trial, we compared the efficacy and safety of horse ATG plus cyclosporine with or without eltrombopag as front-line therapy in previously untreated patients with severe aplastic anemia. The primary end point was a hematologic complete response at 3 months. RESULTS Patients were assigned to receive immunosuppressive therapy (Group A, 101 patients) or immunosuppressive therapy plus eltrombopag (Group B, 96 patients). The percentage of patients who had a complete response at 3 months was 10% in Group A and 22% in Group B (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 7.8; P = 0.01). At 6 months, the overall response rate (the percentage of patients who had a complete or partial response) was 41% in Group A and 68% in Group B. The median times to the first response were 8.8 months (Group A) and 3.0 months (Group B). The incidence of severe adverse events was similar in the two groups. With a median follow-up of 24 months, a karyotypic abnormality that was classified as myelodysplastic syndrome developed in 1 patient (Group A) and 2 patients (Group B); event-free survival was 34% and 46%, respectively. Somatic mutations were detected in 29% (Group A) and 31% (Group Β) of the patients at baseline; these percentages increased to 66% and 55%, respectively, at 6 months, without affecting the hematologic response and 2-year outcome. CONCLUSIONS The addition of eltrombopag to standard immunosuppressive therapy improved the rate, rapidity, and strength of hematologic response among previously untreated patients with severe aplastic anemia, without additional toxic effects. (Funded by Novartis and others; RACE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02099747; EudraCT number, 2014-000363-40.).
Patients with severe aplastic anaemia (n= 197).
Immunosuppressive therapy plus eltrombopag (n= 96).
Immunosuppressive therapy (n= 101).
The percentage of patients who had a complete response at 3 months was 10% for patients in the immunosuppressive therapy group, and 22% for patients in the immunosuppressive therapy plus eltrombopag group. At 6 months, the overall response rate (the percentage of patients who had a complete or partial response) was 41% for those receiving immunosuppressive therapy, and 68% for those receiving immunosuppressive therapy plus eltrombopag. The median times to the first response were 8.8 months (immunosuppressive therapy group) and 3.0 months (immunosuppressive therapy plus eltrombopag group). The incidence of severe adverse events was similar in all patients.
A Systematic review on diagnostic methods of red cell membrane disorders in Asia
International journal of laboratory hematology. 2022
Membranopathies are a group of inherited blood disorders where the diagnosis could form a challenge due to phenotype-genotype heterogeneity. In this review, the usage and limitations of diagnostic methods for membranopathies in Asian countries were evaluated. A systematic review was done using articles from PubMed, Google Scholar, and EBSCO from 2000 to 2020. Thirty-six studies conducted in seven Asian countries had used different diagnostic methods to confirm membranopathies. In 58.3% of studies, full blood count (FBC), reticulocyte count, and peripheral blood smear (PBS) were used in preliminary diagnosis. The combination of the above three with osmotic fragility (OF) test was used in 38.8%. The flowcytometric osmotic fragility (FC-OF) test was used in 27.7% where it showed high sensitivity (92%-100%) and specificity (96%-98%). The eosin-5-maleimide (EMA) assay was used in 68.1% with high sensitivity (95%-100%) and specificity (93%-99.6%). About 36.1% of studies had used sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) as a further diagnostic method to detect defective proteins. Genetic analysis to identify mutations was done using Sanger sequencing, next-generation sequencing (NGS), and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 33.3%, 22.2%, and 13.8% of studies, respectively. The diagnostic yield of NGS ranged from 63% to 100%. Proteomics was used in 5.5% of studies to support the diagnosis of membranopathies. A single method could not diagnose all membranopathies. Next-generation sequencing, Sanger sequencing, and proteomics will supplement the well-established screening and confirmatory methods, but not replace them in hereditary hemolytic anemia assessment.
Safety of Ferric Carboxymaltose in Children: Report of a Case Series from Greece and Review of the Literature
Paediatric drugs. 2022
BACKGROUND Parenteral iron is generally considered safe in adults, and severe adverse events are extremely rare. Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), a third-generation parenteral iron product, is not licensed for pediatric use. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to present our data on the safety of FCM in children with iron deficiency (ID) and/or iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and to investigate through a systematic literature review articles reporting on the safety of FCM use in children with ID/IDA. PATIENTS AND METHODS Safety data regarding children treated with FCM for ID/IDA from four pediatric departments in Greece over a 26-month period are presented. Additionally, a literature search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar on December 4, 2021 for articles reporting on the use of FCM in children with ID/IDA. Review articles, guidelines, case reports/case series, and reports on the use of FCM for conditions other than ID/IDA were excluded. Identified articles were screened for all reported adverse events (AE) that were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 5.0. RESULTS In our cohort, 37 children with ID/IDA received 41 FCM infusions. All infusions were tolerated well. In addition, 11 articles reporting 1231 infusions of FCM in 866 children were identified in the literature. Among them, 52 (6%) children developed AE that were graded as mild or moderate (grades I-III). CONCLUSIONS Our patient cohort and this literature review provide further evidence for the good safety profile of FCM in children, although well-designed prospective clinical trials with appropriate safety endpoints are still required.
Efficacy and safety of intravenous iron with different frequencies for renal anaemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2022
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous iron supplementation in patients with renal anaemia. METHODS We searched the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from their inception until 17 September 2021, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous iron at different frequencies. The observed efficacy indicators included transfer saturation (TSAT), serum ferritin (SF) and haemoglobin (HGB). Outcomes of interest included allergies, infections, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Of the 751 eligible studies, 7 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The RCTs showed that there were no significant differences between the low-frequency high-dose group (1-2 doses, >200 mg/dose) and the high-frequency low-dose group (4-5 doses, ≤200 mg/dose) in the increase in TSAT (WMD = 1.90; 95% CI = -2.04 to 5.84; I(2) = 0%), SF (WMD = 15.70; 95% CI = -32.20 to 70.61; I(2) = 0%) and HGB (WMD = -0.00; 95% CI = -0.43 to 0.42; I(2) = 0%). There was also no significant difference in the occurrence of outcome events, including allergies (RR = 1.84; 95% CI = 0.95 to 3.57; I(2) = 45%), infections (RR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.20-1.86; I(2) = 0%), cardiovascular events (RR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.67-1.15; I(2) = 48%) and all-cause mortality (RR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.40-1.35; I(2) = 0%). WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION Frequencies of intravenous iron supplementation with similar doses share similar safety and efficacy in patients with renal anaemia. However, a single dose or two doses of intravenous iron are more cost-effective and patient friendly. These findings may provide evidence for the clinical application of intravenous iron supplementation for patients with renal anaemia.
Serum or plasma ferritin concentration as an index of iron deficiency and overload
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2021;5(5):Cd011817
BACKGROUND Reference standard indices of iron deficiency and iron overload are generally invasive, expensive, and can be unpleasant or occasionally risky. Ferritin is an iron storage protein and its concentration in the plasma or serum reflects iron stores; low ferritin indicates iron deficiency, while elevated ferritin reflects risk of iron overload. However, ferritin is also an acute-phase protein and its levels are elevated in inflammation and infection. The use of ferritin as a diagnostic test of iron deficiency and overload is a common clinical practice. OBJECTIVES To determine the diagnostic accuracy of ferritin concentrations (serum or plasma) for detecting iron deficiency and risk of iron overload in primary and secondary iron-loading syndromes. SEARCH METHODS We searched the following databases (10 June 2020): DARE (Cochrane Library) Issue 2 of 4 2015, HTA (Cochrane Library) Issue 4 of 4 2016, CENTRAL (Cochrane Library) Issue 6 of 12 2020, MEDLINE (OVID) 1946 to 9 June 2020, Embase (OVID) 1947 to week 23 2020, CINAHL (Ebsco) 1982 to June 2020, Web of Science (ISI) SCI, SSCI, CPCI-exp & CPCI-SSH to June 2020, POPLINE 16/8/18, Open Grey (10/6/20), TRoPHI (10/6/20), Bibliomap (10/6/20), IBECS (10/6/20), SCIELO (10/6/20), Global Index Medicus (10/6/20) AIM, IMSEAR, WPRIM, IMEMR, LILACS (10/6/20), PAHO (10/6/20), WHOLIS 10/6/20, IndMED (16/8/18) and Native Health Research Database (10/6/20). We also searched two trials registers and contacted relevant organisations for unpublished studies. SELECTION CRITERIA We included all study designs seeking to evaluate serum or plasma ferritin concentrations measured by any current or previously available quantitative assay as an index of iron status in individuals of any age, sex, clinical and physiological status from any country. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We followed standard Cochrane methods. We designed the data extraction form to record results for ferritin concentration as the index test, and bone marrow iron content for iron deficiency and liver iron content for iron overload as the reference standards. Two other authors further extracted and validated the number of true positive, true negative, false positive, false negative cases, and extracted or derived the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for each threshold presented for iron deficiency and iron overload in included studies. We assessed risk of bias and applicability using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS)-2 tool. We used GRADE assessment to enable the quality of evidence and hence strength of evidence for our conclusions. MAIN RESULTS Our search was conducted initially in 2014 and updated in 2017, 2018 and 2020 (10 June). We identified 21,217 records and screened 14,244 records after duplicates were removed. We assessed 316 records in full text. We excluded 190 studies (193 records) with reasons and included 108 studies (111 records) in the qualitative and quantitative analysis. There were 11 studies (12 records) that we screened from the last search update and appeared eligible for a future analysis. We decided to enter these as awaiting classification. We stratified the analysis first by participant clinical status: apparently healthy and non-healthy populations. We then stratified by age and pregnancy status as: infants and children, adolescents, pregnant women, and adults. Iron deficiency We included 72 studies (75 records) involving 6059 participants. Apparently healthy populations Five studies screened for iron deficiency in people without apparent illness. In the general adult population, three studies reported sensitivities of 63% to 100% at the optimum cutoff for ferritin, with corresponding specificities of 92% to 98%, but the ferritin cutoffs varied between studies. One study in healthy children reported a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 77%. One study in pregnant women reported a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 100%. Overall confidence in these estimates was very low because of potential bias, indirectness, and sparse and heterogenous evidence. No studies screened for iron overload in apparently healthy people. People presenting for medical care There were 63 studies among adults presenting for medical care (5042 participants). For a sample of 1000 subjects with a 35% prevalence of iron deficiency (of the included studies in this category) and supposing a 85% specificity, there would be 315 iron-deficient subjects correctly classified as having iron deficiency and 35 iron-deficient subjects incorrectly classified as not having iron deficiency, leading to a 90% sensitivity. Thresholds proposed by the authors of the included studies ranged between 12 to 200 µg/L. The estimated diagnostic odds ratio was 50. Among non-healthy adults using a fixed threshold of 30 μg/L (nine studies, 512 participants, low-certainty evidence), the pooled estimate for sensitivity was 79% with a 95% confidence interval of (58%, 91%) and specificity of 98%, with a 95% confidence interval of (91%, 100%). The estimated diagnostic odds ratio was 140, a relatively highly informative test. Iron overload We included 36 studies (36 records) involving 1927 participants. All studies concerned non-healthy populations. There were no studies targeting either infants, children, or pregnant women. Among all populations (one threshold for males and females; 36 studies, 1927 participants, very low-certainty evidence): for a sample of 1000 subjects with a 42% prevalence of iron overload (of the included studies in this category) and supposing a 65% specificity, there would be 332 iron-overloaded subjects correctly classified as having iron overload and 85 iron-overloaded subjects incorrectly classified as not having iron overload, leading to a 80% sensitivity. The estimated diagnostic odds ratio was 8. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS At a threshold of 30 micrograms/L, there is low-certainty evidence that blood ferritin concentration is reasonably sensitive and a very specific test for iron deficiency in people presenting for medical care. There is very low certainty that high concentrations of ferritin provide a sensitive test for iron overload in people where this condition is suspected. There is insufficient evidence to know whether ferritin concentration performs similarly when screening asymptomatic people for iron deficiency or overload.
Role of gene therapy in Fanconi anemia: A systematic and literature review with future directions
Hematology/oncology and stem cell therapy. 2021
Gene therapy (GT) has been reported to improve bone marrow function in individuals with Fanconi anemia (FA); however, its clinical application is still in the initial stages. We conducted this systematic review, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, to assess the long-term safety and clinical outcomes of GT in FA patients. Electronic searches from PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were conducted and full texts of articles meeting our inclusion criteria were reviewed. Three clinical trials were included, with a total of nine patients and mean age of 10.7 ± 5.7 years. All patients had lentiviral-mediated GT. A 1-year follow-up showed stabilization in blood lineages, without any serious adverse effects from GT. A metaregression analysis could not be conducted, as very little long-term follow-up data of patients was observed, and the median survival rate could not be calculated. Thus, we can conclude that GT seems to be a safe procedure in FA; however, further research needs to be conducted on the longitudinal clinical effects of GT in FA, for a better insight into its potential to become a standard form of treatment.
Long-Term Effectiveness of Oral Ferric Maltol vs Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose for the Treatment of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Randomized Controlled Noninferiority Trial
Inflammatory bowel diseases. 2021
BACKGROUND Iron-deficiency anemia is common in inflammatory bowel disease, requiring oral or intravenous iron replacement therapy. Treatment with standard oral irons is limited by poor absorption and gastrointestinal toxicity. Ferric maltol is an oral iron designed for improved absorption and tolerability. METHODS In this open-label, phase 3b trial (EudraCT 2015-002496-26 and NCT02680756), adults with nonseverely active inflammatory bowel disease and iron-deficiency anemia (hemoglobin, 8.0-11.0/12.0 g/dL [women/men]; ferritin, <30 ng/mL/<100 ng/mL with transferrin saturation <20%) were randomized to oral ferric maltol 30 mg twice daily or intravenous ferric carboxymaltose given according to each center's standard practice. The primary endpoint was a hemoglobin responder rate (≥2 g/dL increase or normalization) at week 12, with a 20% noninferiority limit in the intent-to-treat and per-protocol populations. RESULTS For the intent-to-treat (ferric maltol, n = 125/ferric carboxymaltose, n = 125) and per-protocol (n = 78/88) analyses, week 12 responder rates were 67% and 68%, respectively, for ferric maltol vs 84% and 85%, respectively, for ferric carboxymaltose. As the confidence intervals crossed the noninferiority margin, the primary endpoint was not met. Mean hemoglobin increases at weeks 12, 24, and 52 were 2.5 vs 3.0 g/dL, 2.9 vs 2.8 g/dL, and 2.7 vs 2.8 g/dL with ferric maltol vs ferric carboxymaltose. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 59% and 36% of patients, respectively, and resulted in treatment discontinuation in 10% and 3% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Ferric maltol achieved clinically relevant increases in hemoglobin but did not show noninferiority vs ferric carboxymaltose at week 12. Both treatments had comparable long-term effectiveness for hemoglobin and ferritin over 52 weeks and were well tolerated.
Role of Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents in the Treatment of Anemia: a Literature Review
Clinical laboratory. 2021;67(4)
BACKGROUND Erythropoiesis stimulating agents are exogenous erythropoietin medications that are used to stimulate the bone marrow red blood cells' production for the management of anemia of chronic kidney disease, some anticancer drugs, myelodysplastic syndrome, and others. Currently, there are different erythropoiesis stimulating agents accessible in the market. The objective of this narrative literature review is to summarize the role of some erythropoiesis stimulating agents in the treatment of anemia. METHODS The following method was used to prepare this narrative literature review. The comprehensive computerized search of literatures was carried out using PubMed, Cochrane library, Google scholar, and Science direct. Keywords such as recombinant human erythropoietin, epoetin, darbepoetin, continuous erythropoietin receptor agonist, pegzyrepoetin alfa, erythropoiesis stimulating agents in combination with anemia/anaemia were used. The pertinent original and review full articles which are written in the English language were included in this narrative review. RESULTS From the discussions of the literature, erythropoiesis stimulating agents that are produced by different biosimilar manufacturers have different clinical characteristics and stabilities as a result of their chemical modifications. The chemical modifications of erythropoiesis stimulating agents like glycosylation and polyethylene glycosylation determine the half-life, affinity to erythropoietin receptor, and immune response of the agents. Erythro-poiesis stimulating agents are categorized as short-acting and long-acting agents due to their chemical structures that influence the clinical efficacy and safety of the agents. CONCLUSIONS The effectiveness of the agents is different in different patients depending on the individual characteristics and etiologies of anemia. The agents not only have the benefits but also, they have the risks for the patients. Hence, the risks and benefits of erythropoiesis stimulating agents must be given special consideration in the managements of anemia to get maximum efficacy for anemic patients. The treatment is dependent on hemoglobin levels of individual patients. The physician must follow the patients during and after therapy using erythropoiesis stimulating agents.
Lenalidomide-Epoetin Alfa Versus Lenalidomide Monotherapy in Myelodysplastic Syndromes Refractory to Recombinant Erythropoietin
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2021;:Jco2001691
PURPOSE Impaired response to erythropoietin underlies ineffective erythropoiesis and anemia in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We investigated whether treatment with lenalidomide (LEN), which augments erythropoietin receptor signaling in vitro, can restore and improve hemoglobin response to epoetin (EPO) alfa in patients with lower-risk, non-del(5q) MDS who have anemia that is refractory to or have low probability of benefit from treatment with recombinant erythropoietin. METHODS In a phase III, US intergroup trial, we randomly assigned patients to receive either LEN and EPO alfa or LEN alone following stratification by serum erythropoietin concentration and prior erythropoietin treatment. RESULTS A total of 195 evaluable patients were randomly assigned: 99 patients to the LEN-EPO alfa cohort and 96 to LEN alone. After four cycles of treatment, the primary end point of major erythroid response (MER) was significantly higher (28.3%) with the combination compared with LEN alone (11.5%) (P = .004). Among 136 patients who completed 16 weeks of study treatment, 38.9% and 15.6% achieved MER, respectively (P = .004). Additionally, minor erythroid response was achieved in 18.2% and 20.8% of patients, for an overall erythroid response rate of 46.5% versus 32.3%. Among LEN nonresponders, 38 crossed over to the addition of EPO alfa with 10 patients (26.3%) achieving a MER. Responses to the combined treatment were highly durable with a median MER duration of 23.8 months compared with 13 months with LEN alone. CONCLUSION LEN restores sensitivity to recombinant erythropoietin in growth factor-insensitive, lower-risk, non-del(5q) MDS, to yield a significantly higher rate and duration of MER compared with LEN alone (funded by the National Cancer Institute; E2905 ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02048813).
Transfusion management of severe anaemia in African children: a consensus algorithm
British journal of haematology. 2021
The phase III Transfusion and Treatment of severe anaemia in African Children Trial (TRACT) found that conservative management of uncomplicated severe anaemia [haemoglobin (Hb) 40-60 g/l] was safe, and that transfusion volume (20 vs. 30 ml/kg whole blood equivalent) for children with severe anaemia (Hb <60 g/l) had strong but opposing effects on mortality, depending on fever status (>37·5°C). In 2020 a stakeholder meeting of paediatric and blood transfusion groups from Africa reviewed the results and additional analyses. Among all 3196 children receiving an initial transfusion there was no evidence that nutritional status, presence of shock, malaria parasite burden or sickle cell disease status influenced outcomes or modified the interaction with fever status on volume required. Fever status at the time of ordering blood was a reliable determinant of volume required for optimal outcome. Elevated heart and respiratory rates normalised irrespective of transfusion volume and without diuretics. By consensus, a transfusion management algorithm was developed, incorporating three additional measurements of Hb post-admission, alongside clinical monitoring. The proposed algorithm should help clinicians safely implement findings from TRACT. Further research should assess its implementation in routine clinical practice.
Children presenting to hospital with both uncomplicated and complicated severe anaemia enrolled in the TRACT trial (n= 3,196).
Large volume of whole blood transfusion: 30 ml/kg, (n= 1,598).
Recommended blood volume transfusion by current WHO guidelines: 20 ml/kg (n= 1,598).
Transfusion volume (20 vs. 30 ml/kg whole blood equivalent) for children with severe anaemia had strong but opposing effects on mortality, depending on fever status. There was no evidence that nutritional status, presence of shock, malaria parasite burden or sickle cell disease status influenced outcomes or modified the interaction with fever status on volume required. Fever status at the time of ordering blood was a reliable determinant of volume required for optimal outcome. Elevated heart and respiratory rates normalised irrespective of transfusion volume and without diuretics. By consensus, a transfusion management algorithm was developed, incorporating three additional measurements of Hb post-admission, alongside clinical monitoring.