3-Factor versus 4-Factor Prothrombin Complex Concentrates for the Reversal of Vitamin K Antagonist-Associated Coagulopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2023;123(1):40-53
Long-term anticoagulation is used worldwide to prevent or treat thrombotic events. Anticoagulant therapy using vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) is well established; however, anticoagulants carry an increased risk of potentially life-threatening bleeding. In cases of bleeding or need for surgery, patients require careful management, balancing the need for rapid anticoagulant reversal with risk of thromboembolic events. Prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) replenish clotting factors and reverse VKA-associated coagulopathy. Two forms of PCC, 3-factor (3F-PCC) and 4-factor (4F-PCC), are available. Using PRISMA methodology, we systematically reviewed whether 4F-PCC is superior to 3F-PCC for the reversal of VKA-associated coagulopathy. Of the 392 articles identified, 48 full texts were reviewed, with 11 articles identified using criteria based on the PICOS format. Data were captured from 1,155 patients: 3F-PCC, n = 651; 4F-PCC, n = 504. ROBINS-I was used to assess bias. Nine studies showed international normalized ratio (INR) normalization to a predefined goal, ranging from ≤1.5 to ≤1.3, following PCC treatment. Meta-analysis of the data showed that 4F-PCC was favorable compared with 3F-PCC overall (odds ratio [OR]: 3.50; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.88-6.52, p < 0.0001) and for patients with a goal INR of ≤1.5 or ≤1.3 (OR: 3.45; 95% CI: 1.42-8.39, p = 0.006; OR: 3.25; 95% CI: 1.30-8.13, p = 0.01, respectively). However, heterogeneity was substantial (I (2) = 62%, I (2) = 70%, I (2) = 64%). Neither a significant difference in mortality (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.42-1.24, p = 0.23) nor in thromboembolisms was reported. These data suggest that 4F-PCC is better suited than 3F-PCC for the treatment of patients with VKA-associated coagulopathy, but further work is required for a definitive recommendation.
Bleeding events in people with congenital haemophilia A without factor VIII inhibitors receiving prophylactic factor VIII treatment: A systematic literature review
Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2023
BACKGROUND Evidence on bleeding rates in people with congenital haemophilia A (PwcHA) without inhibitors on factor VIII (FVIII) replacement products is inconsistent. AIM: This systematic literature review assessed bleeding outcomes in PwcHA using FVIII-containing products as prophylactic treatment. METHODS A search was conducted using the bibliographic databases Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials on the Ovid platform. The search involved a bibliographic review of clinical trial studies, routine clinical care studies and registries and a search of ClinicalTrials.gov, EU Clinical Trials Register and conference abstracts. RESULTS The search yielded 5548 citations. A total of 58 publications were included for analysis. In 48 interventional studies, the pooled estimated mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) annualized bleeding rate (ABR), annualized joint bleeding rate (AJBR) and proportion of participants with zero bleeding events were 3.4 (3.0-3.7), 2.0 (1.6-2.5), and 38.5% (33.1-43.9), respectively. In 10 observational studies, the pooled estimated mean (95% CI) ABR, AJBR and proportion of participants with zero bleeding events were 4.8 (4.0-5.5), 2.6 (2.1-3.2), and 21.8% (19.9-47.5), respectively. A large variation in mean effect size for ABR, AJBR and zero bleeding event data across cohorts and cohort types was observed. Funnel plots indicated potential reporting bias for publications incorporating ABR and AJBR data across both interventional and observational studies. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis shows that PwcHA without inhibitors still have bleeds despite FVIII prophylaxis. Improved standardization on capturing and reporting bleeding outcomes is needed so that effective comparisons between treatments can be made.
Pharmacokinetic-guided versus standard prophylaxis in hemophilia- A systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2023
BACKGROUND With population pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling more readily available and PK-guided prophylaxis endorsed by current hemophilia guidelines, we conducted a systematic review to summarize current evidence in the literature. OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of PK-guided compared to non-PK-guided prophylaxis. METHODS We did not restrict inclusion to specific study design labels and included all studies consisting of at least one distinct cohort arm receiving PK-guided prophylaxis. We searched the following databases from inception to date of search: MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the EU Clinical Trial Register. Following title, abstract, and full text screening conducted independently by two review authors, we summarized studies qualitatively and synthesized included randomized clinical trials (RCT) quantitatively by fitting random-effects models. RESULTS Search of databases on 3 February 2023 yielded 25 studies fitting our inclusion criteria. Of those, only two RCT and 17 non-randomized studies included a standard prophylaxis comparator group. Furthermore, risk of bias in the latter was substantial, primarily due to before-after study designs and retrospective comparator groups. Thus, non-randomized studies were only presented qualitatively. A random-effects meta-analysis of the two identified RCT remained inconclusive with regards to bleeding outcomes (ratio of means 1.15; 95%CI, 0.85-1.56) and factor consumption (ratio of means 0.82; 95%CI, 0.58-1.18). CONCLUSION Evidence in the literature suggesting a clinical benefit of PK-guided over standard fixed-dose prophylaxis was weak and mainly found in non-randomized studies limited by lack of concurrent controls, heterogeneity in outcome reporting, small sample sizes, and high risk of bias.
Outcomes of long-term von Willebrand factor prophylaxis use in von Willebrand disease: A systematic literature review
Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2022;28(3):373-387
BACKGROUND Von Willebrand Disease (VWD) is a common inherited bleeding disorder. Patients with VWD suffering from severe bleeding may benefit from the use of secondary long-term prophylaxis. AIM: Systematically summarize the evidence on the clinical outcomes of secondary long-term prophylaxis in patients with VWD and severe recurrent bleedings. METHODS We searched Medline and EMBASE through October 2019 for relevant randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and comparative observational studies (OS) assessing the effects of secondary long-term prophylaxis in patients with VWD. We used Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool and the RoB for Non-Randomized Studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) tool to assess the quality of the included studies. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses and assessed the certainty of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS We included 12 studies. Evidence from one placebo controlled RCT suggested that VWD prophylaxis as compared to no prophylaxis reduced the rate of bleeding episodes (Rate ratio [RR], .24; 95% confidence interval [CI], .17-.35; low certainty evidence), and of epistaxis (RR, .38; 95%CI, .21-.67; moderate certainty evidence), and may increase serious adverse events RR 2.73 (95%CI .12-59.57; low certainty). Evidence from four before-and-after studies in which researchers reported comparative data suggested that VWD prophylaxis reduced the rate of bleeding (RR .34; 95%CI, .25-.46; very low certainty evidence). CONCLUSION VWD prophylaxis treatment seems to reduce the risk of spontaneous bleeding, epistaxis, and hospitalizations. More RCTs should be conducted to increase the certainty in these benefits.
Measuring Factor XIII Inhibitors in Patients with Factor XIII Deficiency: A Case Report and Systematic Review of Current Practices in Japan
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(6)
Factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency is a rare but serious coagulopathy. FXIII is critical in blood coagulation, and FXIII deficiencies can lead to uncontrolled or spontaneous bleeding. FXIII deficiencies can be congenital or acquired; acquired FXIII deficiency can be categorized as autoimmune and non-autoimmune. Immunological tests to measure FXIII inhibitors are required to diagnose acquired FXIII deficiency; however, appropriate test facilities are limited, which increases the turnaround time of these tests. In the case of critical bleeding, delayed test results may worsen prognosis due to delayed treatment. Here, we report a case of acquired FXIII deficiency, followed by a review of FXIII deficiency cases in Japan. We performed a systematic review to investigate the present conditions of the diagnosis and treatment of FXIII deficiency, including the measurement of FXIII inhibitors in Japan. FXIII inhibitor testing was only performed in 29.7 of acquired FXIII deficiency cases. Clinical departments other than internal medicine and pediatrics were often involved in medical treatment at the time of onset. Therefore, it is important for doctors in clinical departments other than internal medicine and pediatrics to consider FXIII deficiency and perform FXIII inhibitor testing when examining patients with prolonged bleeding of unknown cause or persistent bleeding after trauma.
Comparative Efficacy of Rivaroxaban and Immunoglobulin Therapy in the Treatment of Livedoid Vasculopathy: A Systematic Review
Livedoid vasculopathy (LV) is an uncommon chronic coagulation disorder whose underlying etiology is not yet fully understood. It predominantly affects females, especially those in late adolescence. There is currently limited research on treatment options for those with this diagnosis. The present systematic review aims to compare the efficacy of rivaroxaban and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy in the treatment of livedoid vasculopathy. A detailed search was conducted from April 20, 2022, to May 1, 2022, using four databases: Elsevier, Medline Complete, Medline Ovid, and PubMed. Out of these, 20 relevant articles were used, and the data was extracted and analyzed. Both rivaroxaban and IVIG were shown to be effective treatment options with similar treatment response times. However, future large-scale clinical trials are needed to determine an established treatment regimen for these patients.
Effectiveness of ankle fusion in patients with hemophilia, advanced ankle degeneration, and unbearable pain for whom nonsurgical and surgical treatments have been ineffective
Expert review of hematology. 2021
INTRODUCTION In underdeveloped countries, patients with hemophilia often experience repetitive ankle joint hemorrhages due to a shortage of coagulation factors (factor VIII [FVIII] and factor IX [FIX] for hemophilia A and B, respectively). AREAS COVERED This is a narrative literature review in which we searched the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE for articles related to ankle arthrodesis in patients with hemophilia. The searches covered the period from the databases´ inception to February 28, 2021. In the event of unsuccessful hematologic prophylaxis and conservative measures (e.g., analgesics, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, taping, intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid and corticosteroids, physical and rehabilitation medicine, orthoses, radiosynovectomy, and joint-preserving surgery (e.g., removal of the distal tibia by open surgery or by arthroscopic surgery, joint debridement by arthroscopic surgery), the only surgical solution is ankle arthrodesis, which does not preserve the ankle joint. EXPERT OPINION Ankle pain is reduced after ankle arthrodesis (75% of patients experience no pain). Approximately 5% of patients require reoperation due to lack of fusion, and deep infection occurs in 2.5%. After tibiotalar fusion, a self-reported activity scale shows that approximately 12% of patients improve, 9% worsen, and 79% show no improvement. The results of ankle arthrodesis therefore appear to be poor.
Prothrombin complex concentrates and andexanet for management of direct factor Xa inhibitor related bleeding: a meta-analysis
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences. 2021;25(6):2637-2653
There are potential concerns related to bleeding caused by oral anticoagulants, especially in the elderly. Andexanet alfa has been authorized for use to reverse the effects of oral anticoagulants. Off-label use of four factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC) for the reversal of oral factor Xa inhibitors is common. However, not much is known about their efficacy and safety profile. The intent of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 4F-PCC and andexanet alfa for management of major bleeding due to oral factor Xa inhibitors. Comprehensive searches were done systematically through PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar databases. Studies that were retrospective record based or adopted prospective cohort approach and reported either of the three main outcomes, i.e., achieved hemostasis rate or rate of thrombotic events or mortality rate were included in the meta-analysis. Statistical analyses were done using STATA version 13.0. A total of 22 studies were included in the meta-analysis. All the studies had a single arm with no control/comparator group. The pooled rate of good to excellent hemostatic control upon use of andexanet was 80% (95% CI; 72% to 88%) and for 4F-PCC, it was 76% (95% CI; 70% to 83%). A comparatively higher pooled rate of thrombotic complications upon use of andexanet [13% (95% CI; 5% to 20%) was noted, compared to use of aPCC/4F-PCC [4% (95% CI; 3% to 5%). The pooled all-cause mortality rate within 30 days of administration was 24% (95% CI; 12% to 35%) with andexanet use and 19% (95% CI; 14% to 25%) for aPCC/4F-PCC. The findings suggest that use of both andexanet and aPCC/4F-PCC achieves a good hemostasis but there is an associated risk of thrombotic events and mortality. Future studies should have a control group to better establish evidence on efficacy and safety of these agents.
Comparison of Published Guidelines for the Diagnosis and the Management of Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia
Critical care explorations. 2021;3(9):e0519
The development of thrombocytopenia and thrombosis after the administration of the AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson/Janssen vaccines has been recently described. This new condition has been called vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia. The objective of this review is to summarize the clinical characteristics and therapeutic options of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia based on available published case series. Furthermore, we provide a comparison of the diagnostic pathway and treatment recommendations provided by six major medical societies. DATA SOURCES We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. STUDY SELECTION We included case series and case reports on patients who developed vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia. We also included guidelines for the diagnosis and management of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia from major medical societies. DATA EXTRACTION We examined baseline risk factors, symptoms, physical signs, laboratory and imaging findings, and treatment in patients with vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia reported in the case series. We also analyzed the diagnostic and treatment recommendations provided by major societal guidelines on the management of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia. DATA SYNTHESIS Patients who developed vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia were more likely to be young women (age 20-50) who were given the AstraZeneca or Johnson & Johnson/Janssen 4-28 days prior to presentation. Patients showed signs, symptoms, and imaging findings consistent with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and splanchnic thrombosis. Laboratory findings showed thrombocytopenia, low fibrinogen, and elevate d-dimer levels, while positive platelet factor 4 antibodies were always positive. Major societal guidelines recommend avoidance of heparin and platelets. Treatment with nonheparin anticoagulants and IV immunoglobulin is also recommended. CONCLUSIONS Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia is a rare but highly morbid complication related to the administration of the AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson/Janssen vaccines. Clinicians should be prepared for the early identification of patients with suspicious symptoms and prompt treatment should be initiated to avoid catastrophic deterioration. Major societal guidelines provide useful recommendations for the diagnosis and management of patients with vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia.
Factor VIII replacement prophylaxis in patients with hemophilia A transitioning to adults: a systematic literature review
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 2021;16(1):287
BACKGROUND Despite the advantages of prophylactic treatment for hemophilia, patients tend to discontinue or not adhere to it because of several challenges such as long-term use, high cost, young patients transitioning to adolescents, and switch to self-infusion or self-care. The goal of this systematic literature review is to emphasize adherence to and efficiency of prophylactic treatment in adults. METHODS A literature review was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases until April 2021 according to PRISMA guidelines, and the protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020220085). Studies evaluating the efficacy of prophylaxis in enhancing the quality of life were included. RESULTS A total of 31 articles involving 2379 patients with hemophilia were included in this systematic review. Of these, 26 studies were observational, questionnaire-based studies, and 5 were randomized controlled trials. The majority of studies reported lower annualized bleeding rates in patients receiving prophylaxis compared with those receiving on-demand treatment or those who discontinued prophylaxis. Standard-dose prophylaxis was reported to be effective in most of the studies. In developing countries like China, data suggest that low doses were administered because of limited available resources. However, standard dose or individualized prophylaxis should be provided to prevent joint damage in the long term. Compared with adults, greater adherence to treatment was observed in patients aged < 16 years. CONCLUSION This systematic review emphasizes the importance of adherence to prophylaxis among young adults transitioning from childhood. In countries like China, low-dose prophylaxis can help in preventing joint bleeds in the short term, but in the long term, standard-dose therapy has shown high adherence among young adults and better joint health, in turn improving the quality of life.