3-Factor versus 4-Factor Prothrombin Complex Concentrates for the Reversal of Vitamin K Antagonist-Associated Coagulopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2023;123(1):40-53
Long-term anticoagulation is used worldwide to prevent or treat thrombotic events. Anticoagulant therapy using vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) is well established; however, anticoagulants carry an increased risk of potentially life-threatening bleeding. In cases of bleeding or need for surgery, patients require careful management, balancing the need for rapid anticoagulant reversal with risk of thromboembolic events. Prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) replenish clotting factors and reverse VKA-associated coagulopathy. Two forms of PCC, 3-factor (3F-PCC) and 4-factor (4F-PCC), are available. Using PRISMA methodology, we systematically reviewed whether 4F-PCC is superior to 3F-PCC for the reversal of VKA-associated coagulopathy. Of the 392 articles identified, 48 full texts were reviewed, with 11 articles identified using criteria based on the PICOS format. Data were captured from 1,155 patients: 3F-PCC, n = 651; 4F-PCC, n = 504. ROBINS-I was used to assess bias. Nine studies showed international normalized ratio (INR) normalization to a predefined goal, ranging from ≤1.5 to ≤1.3, following PCC treatment. Meta-analysis of the data showed that 4F-PCC was favorable compared with 3F-PCC overall (odds ratio [OR]: 3.50; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.88-6.52, p < 0.0001) and for patients with a goal INR of ≤1.5 or ≤1.3 (OR: 3.45; 95% CI: 1.42-8.39, p = 0.006; OR: 3.25; 95% CI: 1.30-8.13, p = 0.01, respectively). However, heterogeneity was substantial (I (2) = 62%, I (2) = 70%, I (2) = 64%). Neither a significant difference in mortality (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.42-1.24, p = 0.23) nor in thromboembolisms was reported. These data suggest that 4F-PCC is better suited than 3F-PCC for the treatment of patients with VKA-associated coagulopathy, but further work is required for a definitive recommendation.
Bleeding events in people with congenital haemophilia A without factor VIII inhibitors receiving prophylactic factor VIII treatment: A systematic literature review
Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2023
BACKGROUND Evidence on bleeding rates in people with congenital haemophilia A (PwcHA) without inhibitors on factor VIII (FVIII) replacement products is inconsistent. AIM: This systematic literature review assessed bleeding outcomes in PwcHA using FVIII-containing products as prophylactic treatment. METHODS A search was conducted using the bibliographic databases Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials on the Ovid platform. The search involved a bibliographic review of clinical trial studies, routine clinical care studies and registries and a search of ClinicalTrials.gov, EU Clinical Trials Register and conference abstracts. RESULTS The search yielded 5548 citations. A total of 58 publications were included for analysis. In 48 interventional studies, the pooled estimated mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) annualized bleeding rate (ABR), annualized joint bleeding rate (AJBR) and proportion of participants with zero bleeding events were 3.4 (3.0-3.7), 2.0 (1.6-2.5), and 38.5% (33.1-43.9), respectively. In 10 observational studies, the pooled estimated mean (95% CI) ABR, AJBR and proportion of participants with zero bleeding events were 4.8 (4.0-5.5), 2.6 (2.1-3.2), and 21.8% (19.9-47.5), respectively. A large variation in mean effect size for ABR, AJBR and zero bleeding event data across cohorts and cohort types was observed. Funnel plots indicated potential reporting bias for publications incorporating ABR and AJBR data across both interventional and observational studies. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis shows that PwcHA without inhibitors still have bleeds despite FVIII prophylaxis. Improved standardization on capturing and reporting bleeding outcomes is needed so that effective comparisons between treatments can be made.
Pharmacokinetic-guided versus standard prophylaxis in hemophilia- A systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2023
BACKGROUND With population pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling more readily available and PK-guided prophylaxis endorsed by current hemophilia guidelines, we conducted a systematic review to summarize current evidence in the literature. OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of PK-guided compared to non-PK-guided prophylaxis. METHODS We did not restrict inclusion to specific study design labels and included all studies consisting of at least one distinct cohort arm receiving PK-guided prophylaxis. We searched the following databases from inception to date of search: MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the EU Clinical Trial Register. Following title, abstract, and full text screening conducted independently by two review authors, we summarized studies qualitatively and synthesized included randomized clinical trials (RCT) quantitatively by fitting random-effects models. RESULTS Search of databases on 3 February 2023 yielded 25 studies fitting our inclusion criteria. Of those, only two RCT and 17 non-randomized studies included a standard prophylaxis comparator group. Furthermore, risk of bias in the latter was substantial, primarily due to before-after study designs and retrospective comparator groups. Thus, non-randomized studies were only presented qualitatively. A random-effects meta-analysis of the two identified RCT remained inconclusive with regards to bleeding outcomes (ratio of means 1.15; 95%CI, 0.85-1.56) and factor consumption (ratio of means 0.82; 95%CI, 0.58-1.18). CONCLUSION Evidence in the literature suggesting a clinical benefit of PK-guided over standard fixed-dose prophylaxis was weak and mainly found in non-randomized studies limited by lack of concurrent controls, heterogeneity in outcome reporting, small sample sizes, and high risk of bias.
Does difference between label and actual potency of factor VIII concentrate affect pharmacokinetic-guided dosing of replacement therapy in haemophilia A?
Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2022
BACKGROUND To account for interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of factor concentrates, PK-guided dosing is increasingly implemented in haemophilia patients. Calculations are based on provided label potency, but legislation allows a potency difference of ±20% between label and actual potency. It is unknown if these differences affect PK guidance. AIM: Explore the effects of potency differences on individual factor VIII (FVIII) PK parameters and the prediction of FVIII trough levels of dosing regimens. METHODS We analyzed individual preoperative PK profiling data from severe and moderate haemophilia A patients included in the OPTI-CLOT randomized controlled trial. Label and actual potency were compared, with data on potency provided by pharmaceutical companies. For both potencies, individual PK parameters were estimated and concentration-time curves were constructed by nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. Finally, we explored the effect of both the identified and the maximum legislated potency difference on predicted FVIII trough levels infused in a low and high dose regimen. RESULTS In 45/50 included patients, actual potency was higher than its label potency. The median potency difference was 6.0% (range -9.2% to 18.4%) and resulted in varying individual PK parameter estimates but practically identical FVIII concentration-time curves. As expected, predicted FVIII trough levels were linearly correlated to the actual dose. CONCLUSION It is not necessary to take potency differences into account when applying PK guidance of FVIII concentrates in haemophilia A patients. However, when the patient is switched to another FVIII batch after PK-guided dosing, trough levels may deviate ±20% from calculations based on label dose.
Outcomes of long-term von Willebrand factor prophylaxis use in von Willebrand disease: A systematic literature review
Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2022;28(3):373-387
BACKGROUND Von Willebrand Disease (VWD) is a common inherited bleeding disorder. Patients with VWD suffering from severe bleeding may benefit from the use of secondary long-term prophylaxis. AIM: Systematically summarize the evidence on the clinical outcomes of secondary long-term prophylaxis in patients with VWD and severe recurrent bleedings. METHODS We searched Medline and EMBASE through October 2019 for relevant randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and comparative observational studies (OS) assessing the effects of secondary long-term prophylaxis in patients with VWD. We used Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool and the RoB for Non-Randomized Studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) tool to assess the quality of the included studies. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses and assessed the certainty of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS We included 12 studies. Evidence from one placebo controlled RCT suggested that VWD prophylaxis as compared to no prophylaxis reduced the rate of bleeding episodes (Rate ratio [RR], .24; 95% confidence interval [CI], .17-.35; low certainty evidence), and of epistaxis (RR, .38; 95%CI, .21-.67; moderate certainty evidence), and may increase serious adverse events RR 2.73 (95%CI .12-59.57; low certainty). Evidence from four before-and-after studies in which researchers reported comparative data suggested that VWD prophylaxis reduced the rate of bleeding (RR .34; 95%CI, .25-.46; very low certainty evidence). CONCLUSION VWD prophylaxis treatment seems to reduce the risk of spontaneous bleeding, epistaxis, and hospitalizations. More RCTs should be conducted to increase the certainty in these benefits.
Fixed Versus Variable Dosing of Prothrombin Complex Concentrate for Bleeding Complications of Vitamin K Antagonists-The PROPER3 Randomized Clinical Trial
Annals of Emergency Medicine. 2022;79(1):20-30
STUDY OBJECTIVE To determine if a fixed dose of 1000 IU of 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC) is as effective as traditional variable dosing based on body weight and international normalized ratio (INR) for reversal of vitamin K antagonist (VKA) anticoagulation. METHODS In this open-label, multicenter, randomized clinical trial, patients with nonintracranial bleeds requiring VKA reversal with 4F-PCC were allocated to either a 1,000-IU fixed dose of 4F-PCC or the variable dose. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with effective hemostasis according to the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis definition. The design was noninferiority with a lower 95% confidence interval of no more than -6%. When estimating sample size, we assumed that fixed dosing would be 4% superior. RESULTS From October 2015 until January 2020, 199 of 310 intended patients were included before study termination due to decreasing enrollment rates. Of the 199 patients, 159 were allowed in the per-protocol analysis. Effective hemostasis was achieved in 87.3% (n=69 of 79) in fixed compared to 89.9% (n=71 of 79) in the variable dosing cohort (risk difference 2.5%, 95% confidence interval -13.3 to 7.9%, P=.27). Median door-to-needle times were 109 minutes (range 16 to 796) in fixed and 142 (17 to 1076) for the variable dose (P=.027). INR less than 2.0 at 60 minutes after 4F-PCC infusion was reached in 91.2% versus 91.7% (P=1.0). CONCLUSION The large majority of patients had good clinical outcome after 4F-PCC use; however, noninferiority of the fixed dose could not be demonstrated because the design assumed the fixed dose would be 4% superior. Door-to-needle time was shortened with the fixed dose, and INR reduction was similar in both dosing regimens.
Measuring Factor XIII Inhibitors in Patients with Factor XIII Deficiency: A Case Report and Systematic Review of Current Practices in Japan
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(6)
Factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency is a rare but serious coagulopathy. FXIII is critical in blood coagulation, and FXIII deficiencies can lead to uncontrolled or spontaneous bleeding. FXIII deficiencies can be congenital or acquired; acquired FXIII deficiency can be categorized as autoimmune and non-autoimmune. Immunological tests to measure FXIII inhibitors are required to diagnose acquired FXIII deficiency; however, appropriate test facilities are limited, which increases the turnaround time of these tests. In the case of critical bleeding, delayed test results may worsen prognosis due to delayed treatment. Here, we report a case of acquired FXIII deficiency, followed by a review of FXIII deficiency cases in Japan. We performed a systematic review to investigate the present conditions of the diagnosis and treatment of FXIII deficiency, including the measurement of FXIII inhibitors in Japan. FXIII inhibitor testing was only performed in 29.7 of acquired FXIII deficiency cases. Clinical departments other than internal medicine and pediatrics were often involved in medical treatment at the time of onset. Therefore, it is important for doctors in clinical departments other than internal medicine and pediatrics to consider FXIII deficiency and perform FXIII inhibitor testing when examining patients with prolonged bleeding of unknown cause or persistent bleeding after trauma.
Twice Weekly Vs. Thrice Weekly Low-Dose Prophylactic Factor VIII Therapy in Children with Hemophilia A: An Open Label Randomized Trial
Journal of tropical pediatrics. 2022;68(3)
INTRODUCTION Low dose factor VIII prophylactic therapy in hemophilia has not been well established till date. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of twice vs. thrice weekly schedule of low dose prophylactic factor VIII in children with hemophilia A as evaluated by the bleeding rate and clinico-radiological evaluation. METHODS Thirty-three children with severe hemophilia A (≤18 years) were randomized into two groups. Baseline evaluation included detailed history, clinical (HJHS 2.1 score and FISH score) and radiological examination (Pettersson score and ultrasound score). Group 1 received twice weekly factor VIII prophylaxis while group 2 received thrice weekly factor VIII prophylaxis, the dose being 10 U/kg in both groups. All participants were followed up over next 6 months to one year. Data regarding acute bleeding episodes and repeat clinico-radiological assessment at the end of follow up were recorded. RESULTS We analyzed 14 children in twice weekly prophylaxis group and 16 children in thrice weekly prophylaxis group. Statistically insignificant difference was found between the bleeding rates in both the groups after prophylaxis with the median values of monthly bleeding rate being 0.17 and p-value of 0.79. The differences between the initial and final clinical and radiological scores within each group were found to be statistically significant. There was no significant difference in the clinical and radiological scores in between the groups. CONCLUSION Twice weekly FVIII therapy is effective, easily administered prophylactic schedule to prevent long-term complications of hemophilia A. Lay summaryHemophilia A is one of the most common congenital coagulation factor deficiencies. Low dose factor VIII prophylaxis is recommended for hemophilia in resource-poor settings to reduce the bleeding episodes and improve the quality of life, although the optimal schedule for the same has not been well established. A randomized controlled trial on 33 children with hemophilia A (≤18 years) was done to compare the efficacy of twice versus thrice weekly schedule of prophylactic factor VIII. Group 1 received twice weekly factor VIII prophylaxis while group 2 received thrice weekly factor VIII prophylaxis, the dose in both groups being 10 U/kg. They were evaluated by the bleeding rate and clinical (HJHS 2.1 score and FISH score) and radiological scores (Pettersson score and ultrasound score). All participants were followed up over next 6 months to one year. Data regarding acute bleeding episodes and repeat clinico-radiological assessment at end of follow up were recorded. When analyzed, statistically insignificant difference was found between the bleeding rates after the two prophylaxis regimes. There was a significant improvement between initial and final clinical and radiological scores in both the groups and no difference was recorded in between the groups. To conclude, twice weekly FVIII therapy is effective, easily administered prophylactic schedule to prevent long-term complications of hemophilia A.
Comparative Efficacy of Rivaroxaban and Immunoglobulin Therapy in the Treatment of Livedoid Vasculopathy: A Systematic Review
Livedoid vasculopathy (LV) is an uncommon chronic coagulation disorder whose underlying etiology is not yet fully understood. It predominantly affects females, especially those in late adolescence. There is currently limited research on treatment options for those with this diagnosis. The present systematic review aims to compare the efficacy of rivaroxaban and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy in the treatment of livedoid vasculopathy. A detailed search was conducted from April 20, 2022, to May 1, 2022, using four databases: Elsevier, Medline Complete, Medline Ovid, and PubMed. Out of these, 20 relevant articles were used, and the data was extracted and analyzed. Both rivaroxaban and IVIG were shown to be effective treatment options with similar treatment response times. However, future large-scale clinical trials are needed to determine an established treatment regimen for these patients.
Evaluation of fixed versus variable dosing of 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate for emergent warfarin reversal
The American journal of emergency medicine. 2021;48:282-287
STUDY OBJECTIVE This study compares the safety and efficacy of a fixed dose of 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4FPCC) to the FDA-approved variable dosing for reversal of warfarin-induced anticoagulation. METHODS This was a single-center, prospective, open-label, randomized controlled trial with subjects randomized to 4FPCC at a fixed dose of 1500 IU or the FDA-approved variable dosing regimen. The primary efficacy outcome (reversal success) was defined as a post-intervention international normalized ratio (INR) of less than or equal to 1.5. Given that 4FPCC is the standard of care for reversal of warfarin-induced anticoagulation an active-controlled approach was employed with the two dosing regimens compared based on efficacy, cost, and safety outcomes. RESULTS 71 subjects (34 in the fixed dose group and 37 in the variable dose group) completed the study. There were no significant differences in age, gender, weight, initial INR, or indication for 4FPCC administration between the two treatment groups. Reversal success in the fixed-dose group was 61.8%, while in the variable dose group reversal success was 89.2%. Reversal success in the fixed-dose group was significantly lower than the rate of reversal success in the variable dose group (27.4% lower, p = 0.011). CONCLUSION The results of this study provide evidence that fixed dosing results in lower reversal success rates as compared to variable dosing of 4FPCC for warfarin-induced anticoagulation.