Therapeutic plasma exchange-free treatment for first-episode TTP: A systematic review
Transfusion and apheresis science : official journal of the World Apheresis Association : official journal of the European Society for Haemapheresis. 2023;:103661
OBJECTIVE Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), and therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is currently the standard treatment. However, TPE sometimes cannot be implemented. The aim of this study was to systematically review patients with a first TTP episode who were treated without TPE. METHOD The PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases were searched by two investigators independently to collect case reports and clinical studies on TTP patients treated without TPE. After removing duplicate records and records that did not meet the inclusion criteria, the patients' data of eligible studies, including the basic characteristics, treatment regimens, and outcomes were extracted for further analysis. RESULTS A total of 5338 potentially relevant original studies were identified, from which 21 studies, including 14 cases, 3 case series and 4 retrospective studies, met eligibility requirements and were included. Treatment regimens in the absence of TPE were found to vary based on individual information. Most patients recovered, with normal platelet counts and ADAMT13 activity at discharge. In the meta-analysis of retrospective studies, the TPE-free group had no higher mortality than the TPE-treated group. CONCLUSION Our study shows that TPE-free treatment may not increase the mortality of TTP patients, which provides a new treatment concept for patients with first episodes of TTP. However, the current evidence is not high due to the lack of randomized controlled trials, so more well-designed prospective clinical trials are warranted to investigate the safety and efficacy of TPE-free treatment regimens in TTP patients.
Efficacy of plasma exchange in children with severe hemophagocytic syndrome: a prospective randomized controlled trial
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi = Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics. 2022;24(3):249-254
OBJECTIVES To investigate the efficacy and application value of plasma exchange as an adjuvant therapy in children with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS). METHODS A prospective randomized controlled trial was designed. Forty children with severe HPS were enrolled, who were treated in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of Hunan Children's Hospital from October 2018 to October 2020. The children were randomly divided into a plasma exchange group and a conventional treatment group using a random number table, with 20 children in each group. The children in the conventional treatment group received etiological treatment and conventional symptomatic supportive treatment, and those in the plasma exchange group received plasma exchange in addition to the treatment in the conventional treatment group. The two groups were compared in terms of general information, clinical symptoms and signs before and after treatment, main laboratory markers, treatment outcome, and prognosis. RESULTS Before treatment, there were no significant differences between the two groups in gender, age, course of the disease before admission, etiological composition, pediatric critical illness score, involvement of organ or system functions, and laboratory markers (P>0.05). After 7 days of treatment, both groups had remission and improvement in clinical symptoms and signs. After treatment, the plasma exchange group had significantly lower levels of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and serum protein levels than the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). The plasma exchange group also had significantly lower levels of alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin than the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). The length of stay in the PICU in the plasma exchange group was significantly shorter than that in the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). The plasma exchange group had a significantly higher treatment response rate than the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the total length of hospital stay and 3-month mortality rate (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS Plasma exchange as an adjuvant therapy is effective for children with severe HPS. It can improve clinical symptoms and signs and some laboratory markers and shorten the length of stay in the PICU, and therefore, it may become an optional adjuvant therapy for children with severe HPS.
Immunoadsorption for the Treatment of Acquired Hemophilia: New Observational Data, Systematic Review, and Meta-Analysis
Transfusion medicine reviews. 2021
The treatment of patients with acquired hemophilia is challenging due to life-threatening hemorrhages, delayed response, and adverse effects to immunosuppressive agents. Even though immunoadsorption (IA) rapidly removes autoantibodies against factor VIII, this intervention's effectiveness is still a matter of debate. We aimed to study important outcomes of IA as adjunctive treatment in patients with acquired hemophilia. We performed comprehensive literature searches in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Clinical and laboratory data of all patients treated in our institution were additionally included. Literature searching yielded 498 records, of which 10 studies describing 106 patients were finally included. The number of patients varied from 1 to 65, and patients' ages ranged between 14 and 89. Treatment criteria in most patients were (1) failed response to immunosuppressive treatment alone, and/or (2) uncontrollable bleeding episodes, and/or (3) high inhibitor titer. Methodological quality was moderate. The number of IA sessions varied from 1 to 24. Within our institution, 12 patients have been treated since 2002; median age was 76 years (range 34-86); median titer of factor VIII inhibitor was 20 Bethesda units (range 3-214). Pooled estimates, modeling a random-effect binominal distribution incorporating the Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation, were 86% in case of factor VIII recovery (95% confidence interval 76%-94%), 95% for reduction of factor VIII inhibitor (83%, 100%), and 7% in case of death (0%, 18%). Our data suggest that IA might be a beneficial adjunctive treatment in patients with high-risk acquired hemophilia, but future studies shall confirm this observation.
Therapeutic plasma exchange and intravenous immune globulin in the treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: A systematic review
BACKGROUND Immunomodulatory strategies in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) include the use of intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) and therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). The optimal application of these therapies is unknown and outcomes data are limited. We investigated treatment categories and laboratory and clinical outcomes of IVIG and/or TPE in HIT with a systematic literature review. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science through December 2019 for studies combining controlled vocabulary and keywords related to thrombocytopenia, heparin, TPE, and IVIG. The primary outcome was treatment indication. Secondary outcomes were platelet recovery, HIT laboratory parameters, heparin re-exposure, and post-treatment course. Case-level data were analyzed by qualitative synthesis. RESULTS After 4241 references were screened, we identified 60 studies with four main categories of IVIG and/or TPE use as follows: (a) treatment of refractory HIT (n = 35; 31%); (b) initial therapy (n = 45; 40%); (c) cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (CPB; n = 30; 27%); and (d) other (n = 2; 2%). IVIG was most commonly used for the treatment of refractory HIT while TPE was primarily used to facilitate heparin exposure during CPB. Both IVIG and TPE were equally used as initial therapy. Heparin re-exposure occurred without thrombotic event in 29 TPE-treated patients and three IVIG-treated patients. CONCLUSION In patients with HIT, both TPE and IVIG are used for initial therapy or treatment of refractory HIT. However, TPE is more commonly used in patients undergoing CPB. Prospective studies may help clarify which treatment is indicated in HIT population subsets.
Sjögren's Syndrome Associated With Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A Case-Based Review
Rheumatology and therapy. 2020
OBJECTIVE To review all published cases of the rare association between thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The authors report an additional case of this unique association. METHODS Systematic review of the literature and a case report. The database were articles published in PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, LILACS, and SciELO, registered from 1966 to August 2020. The DESH terms were "Sjögren's syndrome" and "thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura," without language limitation. RESULTS Most patients were female (88%), and the age varied from 30 to 75 years old. Concerning the sequence of disease appearance, SS followed by TTP was seen in seven articles, TTP and SS in three, and simultaneous appearance of both diseases in three studies. Primary SS was observed in 16 patients, and secondary SS was detected in two cases: dermatomyositis and rheumatoid arthritis. Anemia was the most common TTP manifestation, followed by thrombocytopenia, fever, consciousness alteration, renal impairment, and schistocytes' appearance on a blood smear. Treatment involved plasmapheresis, plasma exchange, rituximab, glucocorticoid, and cyclophosphamide. A good outcome was noted in most studies; few patients died. CONCLUSIONS TTP is a rare manifestation associated with SS. After the TTP diagnosis, plasmapheresis and/or plasma exchange should be immediately implemented.
Cyclosporine or steroids as an adjunct to plasma exchange in the treatment of immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Blood Advances. 2017;1((23)):2075-2082.
Although steroids are routinely used as an adjunct to plasma exchange (PEX) therapy in the treatment of immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP), limited data regarding their efficacy or effect on ADAMTS13 biomarkers are available. We report the results of a prospective, randomized study that compared the effectiveness of prednisone or cyclosporine (CSA) as adjuncts to PEX in the treatment of iTTP. A total of 26 of the planned 72 subjects were enrolled and treated from November 2007 until February 2014 before the study was halted after a planned interim analysis. Fourteen patients were randomly assigned to the prednisone arm, and 12 to the CSA arm of the study. One patient died in each arm of the study, and 2 patients in the prednisone arm of the study failed to achieve a response and crossed over to the CSA arm, leaving 11 patients in each arm of the study evaluable for the primary end point of exacerbation. One of the 11 prednisone-treated subjects (9%) suffered an exacerbation, whereas 3 of the 11 (27%) patients in the CSA arm suffered an exacerbation. Although there was no significant difference in the exacerbation rate, suppression of the anti-ADAMTS13 antibodies and improvement in ADAMTS13 activity in the first month after stopping PEX were significantly better in the prednisone-treated subjects. Side effects were manageable and comparable in both arms of the study. These data demonstrate the superiority of prednisone over CSA as an adjunct to PEX in the suppression of the anti-ADAMTS13 antibodies and improvement in ADAMTS13 activity. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00713193.
Long-term outcomes of thrombotic microangiopathy treated with plasma exchange: a systematic review
American Journal of Hematology. 2016;91((6):):623-30
BACKGROUND With the adoption of plasma exchange as standard treatment for thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), more patients are surviving and longer-term outcomes have greater relevance. OBJECTIVES We conducted a systematic review to synthesize and evaluate the quality of evidence on long-term outcomes of TMA among adults treated with plasma exchange and to identify factors that may be associated with a worse long-term prognosis. METHODS We searched databases from 1980 to 2013 for eligible articles published in any language. We included studies that reported outcomes in at least ten adults with a history of TMA treated with plasma exchange and followed for at least six months. We abstracted data in duplicate and assessed the methodological quality of each study using an assessment tool developed based on recommended validity criteria. RESULTS We screened 6672 articles, reviewed 213, and included 34 studies totaling 1182 patients (study median [range], 24 [10-118]). The mean (or median) follow-up ranged from 6 months to 13 years. The cumulative incidence of relapse and mortality was highly variable and ranged from 3 to 84% and 0 to 61%, respectively. The incidence of other outcomes across 10 studies also varied (outcomes included hypertension, kidney disease, preeclampsia, stroke, seizure, severe cognitive impairment, and depression); in 3 other studies long-term neurocognitive function and health-related quality of life were significantly lower than the general population. CONCLUSIONS Patients who survive an episode of TMA may be susceptible to long-term vascular complications, but the magnitude of this risk and how to mitigate it remains unclear. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Plasma extraction rate and collection efficiency during therapeutic plasma exchange with Spectra Optia in comparison with Haemonetics MCS+
Journal of Clinical Apheresis. 2011;26((1):):17-22.
For therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), continuous and intermittent flow separators are known to be efficient. This study was undertaken to compare the performances of the Spectra Optia, a continuous flow centrifugal apheresis system recently developed by CaridianBCT, with the Haemonetics Multicomponents System (MCS)+ apheresis system based on intermittent flow centrifugation. The primary objective of the study was to compare the time required to exchange one total plasma volume with both separators. The secondary objectives were to determine the plasma exchange efficiency, the plasma extraction rate, the percentage of target exchange volume achieved, and the loss of cellular components. The study involved prospectively paired comparison of 16 TPE on each device performed in patients with chronic diseases treated with TPE. The time required to exchange 1 total plasma volume was 182 ± 36 minutes for MCS+ procedures and 100 ± 20 minutes for the Spectra Optia procedures (P < 0.05, all results presented as mean ± standard deviation). A significantly higher plasma extraction rate was achieved (30.2 ± 4.3 vs 16.8 ± 3.4 mL/min, respectively, P < 0.05), and the plasma exchange efficiency was slightly better with the Spectra Optia compared with the MCS+ procedures (83.4 ± 7.0 vs 80.0 ± 8.5%, P < 0.05). The platelet loss was significantly lower with the Spectra Optia compared with the MCS+ procedures (1.6 ± 2.3 vs 7.5 ± 4.2%, respectively, P < 0.05), whereas the red blood cells loss was comparable. In conclusion, the Spectra Optia has significantly higher extraction rate and exchange efficiency than the MCS+ allowing to remove the same amount of plasma in less time, by processing less blood. It also removes significantly less platelets than the MCS+ separator.
Interventions for hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials
American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2009;53((2):):259-72.
BACKGROUND Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) are related conditions with similar clinical features of variable severity. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the benefits and harms of available interventions for HUS and TTP. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR STUDIES MEDLINE (1966 to June 2006), EMBASE (1980 to June 2006), the Cochrane Central Register, conference proceedings, and reference lists were searched to find randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of any intervention for HUS or TTP in patients of all ages selected for inclusion for this systematic review. INTERVENTIONS Trials that compared an intervention with placebo, an intervention with supportive therapy, or one or more different interventions for HUS or TTP. OUTCOMES For TTP trials, failure of remission at 2 weeks or less and at 1 month or longer, all-cause mortality rate, and relapse rate. For HUS trials, all-cause mortality, chronic reduced kidney function, and persistent proteinuria or hypertension at last follow-up. RESULTS For TTP in adults, we found 6 RCTs of 331 patients. Two trials compared plasma infusion with plasma exchange using fresh frozen plasma and showed failure of remission at 2 weeks (2 trials, 140 patients; relative risk, 2.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.41 to 5.84), and all-cause mortality (relative risk, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.09 to 3.33) occurred more frequently in the plasma infusion group. Three trials compared plasma exchange using cryosupernatant plasma with plasma exchange using fresh frozen plasma, and a meta-analysis of these trials showed no difference. Seven RCTs in 476 young children with postdiarrheal HUS have been conducted. None of the evaluated interventions (fresh frozen plasma transfusion, heparin with or without urokinase or dipyridamole, Shiga toxin-binding protein, and steroid) were superior to supportive therapy alone for any outcomes. LIMITATIONS Limitations of this review include the small number and suboptimal quality of reporting of included trials, possibility of publication bias, small number of participants with atypical HUS, and failure to report results for patients with atypical and typical HUS separately. CONCLUSIONS No additional therapy has been shown to increase efficacy over plasma exchange for TTP. No intervention has been shown to be superior to supportive therapy in patients with postdiarrheal HUS.
A systematic review of randomized controlled trials for plasma exchange in the treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Transfusion Medicine. 2007;17((1):):17-35.
The mainstay of treatment for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is plasma exchange (PE). A systematic review was undertaken to summarize the randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence, to date, on PE as treatment for TTP. Seven randomized RCTs were identified till May 2005. A statistical reduction in mortality was found in patients receiving PE compared with patients receiving plasma infusion (relative risk 0.31, 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.79). No statistical difference in mortality was found in trials comparing different replacement fluids for PE. There were few differences in the response to treatment and the resolution of the presenting signs of TTP in any trial. Lack of data prevented a full assessment of the incidence of adverse events. None of the studies included measured patients' quality of life. Further research is required to determine the benefits and side effects associated with different replacement fluids for PE. It is recommended that there should be consistency in the diagnostic criteria, measurement of clinical outcomes and length of follow up. Continued support of existing TTP patient registries and establishment of new registries would facilitate this.