Outcomes of long-term von Willebrand factor prophylaxis use in von Willebrand disease: A systematic literature review
Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2022
BACKGROUND Von Willebrand Disease (VWD) is a common inherited bleeding disorder. Patients with VWD suffering from severe bleeding may benefit from the use of secondary long-term prophylaxis. AIM: Systematically summarize the evidence on the clinical outcomes of secondary long-term prophylaxis in patients with VWD and severe recurrent bleedings. METHODS We searched Medline and EMBASE through October 2019 for relevant randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and comparative observational studies (OS) assessing the effects of secondary long-term prophylaxis in patients with VWD. We used Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool and the RoB for Non-Randomized Studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) tool to assess the quality of the included studies. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses and assessed the certainty of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS We included 12 studies. Evidence from one placebo controlled RCT suggested that VWD prophylaxis as compared to no prophylaxis reduced the rate of bleeding episodes (Rate ratio [RR], .24; 95% confidence interval [CI], .17-.35; low certainty evidence), and of epistaxis (RR, .38; 95%CI, .21-.67; moderate certainty evidence), and may increase serious adverse events RR 2.73 (95%CI .12-59.57; low certainty). Evidence from four before-and-after studies in which researchers reported comparative data suggested that VWD prophylaxis reduced the rate of bleeding (RR .34; 95%CI, .25-.46; very low certainty evidence). CONCLUSION VWD prophylaxis treatment seems to reduce the risk of spontaneous bleeding, epistaxis, and hospitalizations. More RCTs should be conducted to increase the certainty in these benefits.
A systematic review of adherence to iron chelation therapy among children and adolescents with thalassemia
Annals of medicine. 2022;54(1):326-342
INTRODUCTION Iron chelation therapy (ICT) is essential to prevent complications of iron overload in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassaemia. However, there is currently no standard for how to best measure adherence to ICT, nor what level of adherence necessitates concern for poor outcomes, especially in paediatric patients. The objectives of this review are to identify rates of adherence to ICT, predictors of adherence, methods of measurement, and adherence-related health outcomes in children and adolescents. METHODS This review covers the literature published between 1980 and 2020 on ICT in thalassaemia that assessed adherence or compliance. Included studies reflect original research. The preferred reporting items of systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed for reporting results, and the findings were critically appraised with the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine criteria. RESULTS Of the 543 articles, 37 met the inclusion criteria. The most common methods of assessing adherence included patient self-report (n = 15/36, 41.7%), and pill count (n = 15/36, 41.7%), followed by subcutaneous medication monitoring (5/36, 13.8%) and prescription refills (n = 4/36, 11.1%). Study sizes ranged from 7 to 1115 participants. Studies reported adherence either in "categories" with different levels of adherence (n = 29) or "quantitatively" as a percentage of medication taken out of those prescribed (n = 7). Quantitatively, the percentage of adherence varied from 57% to 98.4% with a median of 89.5%. Five studies focussed on interventions, four of which were designed to improve adherence. Studies varied in sample size and methods of assessment, which prohibited performing a meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS Due to a lack of clinical consensus on how adherence is defined, it is difficult to compare adherence to ICT in different studies. Future studies should be aimed at creating guidelines for assessing adherence and identifying suboptimal adherence. These future efforts will be crucial in informing evidence-based interventions to improve adherence and health outcomes in thalassaemia patients.Key messagesPredictive factors associated with ICT adherence in the paediatric population include age, social perception of ICT, social support, and side effects/discomfort.Increased adherence in the paediatric population is associated with decreased serum ferritin and improved cardiac, hepatic, and endocrine outcomes.Inadequate adherence to ICT is associated with increased lifetime health costs.There are few studies that focussed on interventions to increase adherence in the paediatric population, and the studies that do exist all focussed on different types of interventions; successful interventions focussed on consistent, long-term engagement with patients.
Risk of thrombosis with thrombopoietin receptor agonists for ITP patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Critical reviews in oncology/hematology. 2022;:103581
One possible side effect of thrombopoietin receptor agonists in immune thrombocytopenia is thrombosis. Our aim is to systematically review whether patients with ITP that were treated with a TPO-RA have an increased risk for thrombosis as compared to ITP patients without TPO-RA. Patients in the intervention group were required to receive TPO-RA therapy. The primary outcome was the incidence of thromboembolic events. Eleven studies were included in the pooled analysis. More thromboembolic events were noted in the TPO-RA group than in the control group: 25 compared to 4. Ten out of 11 studies showed a relative risk greater than 1. However, none of these individual risk ratios was statistically significant. The meta-analysis showed a RR of 1.82 [95% CI 0.78-4.24]. Our findings indicate there is a non-significant higher chance of thrombosis in ITP patients with TPO-RA treatments versus ITP patients without TPO-RA treatment.
Medical and Non-medical Costs of Sickle Cell Disease and Treatments from a US Perspective: A Systematic Review and Landscape Analysis
PharmacoEconomics - open. 2022
BACKGROUND Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a complex genetic disorder that manifests in infancy and progresses throughout life in the form of acute and chronic complications. As the upfront costs of potentially curative, genetic therapies will likely be high, an assessment and comprehensive characterization of the medical and non-medical cost burden will inform future decision making. OBJECTIVE We sought to systematically summarize the existing literature surrounding SCD medical and non-medical costs. METHODS We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE (2008-2020) and identified US-based studies that detailed medical or non-medical costs. Eligible studies provided empirical estimates about any aspect of cost or SCD individuals of all ages and their caregivers. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and costs were adjusted to 2019 US$. RESULTS Search queries returned 479 studies, with 342 from medical burden searches and 137 from non-medical burden searches, respectively. Herein, we report the results of the 40 studies that contained relevant cost information: 39 detailed medical costs and 1 detailed non-medical costs. Costs were higher for SCD patients when compared with non-SCD individuals (cost difference range: $6636-$63,436 annually). The highest medical cost component for SCD patients was inpatient ($11,978-$59,851 annually), followed by outpatient and then pharmacy. No studies characterized the cost burden throughout the lifetime disease trajectory of an SCD individual, and no studies captured caregiver or productivity costs. CONCLUSION Our results reveal an incomplete characterization of medical and non-medical costs within SCD. A deeper understanding of the medical and non-medical cost burden requires completion of additional studies that capture the burden across the patient's lifetime, in addition to expression of the impact of existing and emergent health technologies on disease trajectory.
Efficacy and Tolerability of Twice-Daily Dosing Schedule of Deferasirox in Transfusion-Dependent Paediatric Beta-Thalassaemia Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study
Journal of pharmacy practice. 2022;:8971900211038301
BACKGROUND Deferasirox has proved good efficacy and acceptable safety for the management of thalassaemia patients. However, some patients are unresponsive or intolerant to once-daily administration of deferasirox even at a high dose. The current study evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of twice-daily dosing of deferasirox among transfusion-dependent paediatric beta-thalassaemia patients. METHODS This prospective randomized single-blinded parallel study included all transfusion-dependent paediatric beta-thalassaemia patients prescribed with deferasirox, who visit the study site for their regular blood transfusions and follow-up. The enrolled patients were randomized into intervention and control groups by using a simple block randomization method. In the intervention group, the once-daily dosing of deferasirox was changed to twice-daily dosing with the same total daily dose. Whereas, in the control group, the patients continued with the once-daily deferasirox dosing. The serum ferritin levels of both groups were determined on the enrolment day and after 6 months of follow-up. RESULTS Forty-one patients were included for analysis. A statistically significant mean decrease in serum ferritin levels was detected in the intervention group, while the serum ferritin levels of the control group significantly increased from baseline. The twice-daily dosing of deferasirox was better tolerated by the thalassaemia patients when compared to once-daily dosing. CONCLUSION This study concludes that twice-daily dosing of deferasirox with the same total daily dose significantly enhances the iron chelation efficacy and tolerability among transfusion-dependent paediatric beta-thalassaemia patients when compared to once-daily regimen.
A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of oral hydroxyurea for transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia
Scientific reports. 2022;12(1):2752
Hydroxyurea is an antimetabolite drug that induces fetal haemoglobin in sickle cell disease. However, its clinical usefulness in β-thalassaemia is unproven. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of hydroxyurea in transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia. Sixty patients were assigned 1:1 to oral hydroxyurea 10-20 mg/kg/day or placebo for 6 months by stratified block randomisation. Hydroxyurea treatment did not alter the blood transfusion volume overall. However, a significantly higher proportion of patients on hydroxyurea showed increases in fetal haemoglobin percentage (89% vs. 59%; p < 0.05) and reductions in erythropoietic stress as measured by soluble transferrin receptor concentration (79% vs. 40%; p < 0.05). Based on fetal haemoglobin induction (> 1.5%), 44% of patients were identified as hydroxyurea-responders. Hydroxyurea-responders, required significantly lower blood volume (77 ± SD27ml/kg) compared to hydroxyurea-non-responders (108 ± SD24ml/kg; p < 0.01) and placebo-receivers (102 ± 28ml/kg; p < 0.05). Response to hydroxyurea was significantly higher in patients with HbE β-thalassaemia genotype (50% vs. 0%; p < 0.01) and Xmn1 polymorphism of the γ-globin gene (67% vs. 27%; p < 0.05). We conclude that oral hydroxyurea increased fetal haemoglobin percentage and reduced erythropoietic stress of ineffective erythropoiesis in patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia. Hydroxyurea reduced the transfusion burden in approximately 40% of patients. Response to hydroxyurea was higher in patients with HbE β-thalassaemia genotype and Xmn1 polymorphism of the γ-globin gene.
Efficacy of combined immunosuppression with or without eltrombopag in children with newly diagnosed aplastic anemia
Blood advances. 2022
We compared the efficacy and safety of eltrombopag (ELTR) combined with immunosuppressive therapy (IST) and IST alone in treatment-naïve children with severe (SAA) and very severe (vSAA) aplastic anemia. Ninety-eight pediatric patients were randomized to receive horse antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporin A with (n=49) or without (n=49) ELTR. The primary endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR) at 4 months. After 4 months, nonresponders were crossed over to the alternative group. In all patients, the ORR in ELTR+IST and IST groups was similar (65% vs. 53%, p=0.218); however, the complete response (CR) rate was significantly higher in ELTR+IST group (31% vs. 12%, p=0.027). In severity subgroups, the ORR was 89% vs. 57% (p=0.028) in favor of IST+ELTR in SAA, but it did not differ in patients with vSAA (52% vs. 50%, p=0.902). At 6 months after the crossover, 61% of initial ELTR(-) patients achieved a response compared to 17% of initial ELTR(+) patients (p=0.016). No significant difference in ELTR+IST and IST groups was observed in the 3-year OS (89% vs. 91%, p=0.673) or the 3-year EFS (53% vs. 41%, p=0.326). There was no unexpected toxicity related to ELTR. Adding ELTR to standard IST was well tolerated and increased the CR rate. The greatest benefit from ELTR combined with IST was observed in patients with SAA, but not in those with vSAA. The second course of IST resulted in a high ORR in initial ELTR(-) patients who added ELTR and had limited efficacy among patients who received ELTR upfront. Clinicaltrials.gov #NCT03413306.
Extramedullary haematopoiesis in patients with transfusion dependent β-thalassaemia (TDT): a systematic review
Annals of medicine. 2022;54(1):764-774
INTRODUCTION Around 5% of the world's population is expected to have some degree and type of thalassaemia. Beta thalassaemia (BT) occurs due to a deficient production of the beta-globin chain of haemoglobin. Extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) is one of the complications of BT, mainly observed in minor/intermedia subtypes. EMH is the production of blood cells outside the marrow as a compensatory response to longstanding hypoxia. Due to chronic transfusions, it is not expected in patients with beta-thalassaemia major (BTM). However, there are increasingly reported cases of EMH in BTM. The incidence of EMH in BTM is thought to be <1%. We aim to pool the available data and provide cumulative evidence on the occurrence of EMH in BTM patients. METHODS This is a systematic review of case reports, series, and retrospective studies that presented data on the occurrence of EMH in BTM patients. Data were recorded and analyzed in Microsoft Excel 2016 and SPSS 26. The protocol has been registered in PROSPERO CRD42021242943. RESULTS Data from 253 cases of EMH in BTM patients were extracted with a mean age of 35.3 years. Mean haemoglobin at presentation with EMH was 8.2 mg/dL. Lower limb weakness was the most common presenting feature (N = 23) (paraspinal EMH). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was the most widely used diagnostic modality (226). Overall, blood transfusion was the commonest reported treatment (30), followed by radiotherapy (20), surgery (15), hydroxyurea (12), steroids (6), and exchange transfusion (2). An outcome was reported in 20% of patients, all recovered, except one who died as a result of nosocomial infection. CONCLUSION EMH is rare in BTM and can occur in any organ system with varied clinical features. MRI can effectively diagnose EMH, and conservative management has similar results compared to invasive treatments. Larger studies, focussing on outcomes may enhance guidelines on preventive and therapeutic strategies for managing EMH in BTM.KEY MESSAGESExtramedullary haematopoiesis is a rare complication in beta thalassaemia. Although it is more common in non-transfusion dependent thalassaemia, increasingly reported cases suggest a higher prevalence of EMH in TDT than what is known before.There are no clear guidelines on the management of EMH in TDT, with reported patients showing similar outcomes with conservative invasive treatment modalities.More extensive and preferably prospectively designed studies are required focussing on the management of EMH and its outcomes in patients with TDT to formulate evidence-based guidelines.
Overview of current progress and challenges in diagnosis, and management of pediatric sickle cell disease in Democratic Republic of the Congo
Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2022;27(1):132-140
OBJECTIVES Sickle cell disease (SCD) encompasses health complications, primarily affecting the hematologic system and leading to high death rates in childhood. As a rule, the World Health Organisation (WHO) stepwise gold-standard about the strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of SCD must be multidimensional. This overview aimed to highlight current advances and challenges linked to strategic issues, diagnosis, the prevalence, and treatment of pediatric cases in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly the Democratic Republic of the Congo. METHODS We searched data on Google Scholar, Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and ResearchGate. RESULTS The laboratory diagnosis of SCD has progressed from conventional electrophoresis to rapid point-of-care tests that allows early neonate screening. HemoTypeSC(TM) is an affordable test for neonatal screening in DRC. The pediatric SCD prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa lay within 1-7.7% of homozygous(SS) and 15-40% of the heterozygous(AS) forms of SCD, depending on the method used and the ethnic population tested. Various supportive management protocols for comorbidities and complications exist, but they are not standardized in the Region. CONCLUSION Notwithstanding some progress accomplished, the disease is still challenging in Sub-Saharan Africa due to limited early diagnostic testing and a lack of specific medications. There is a need for harmonizing therapeutic protocols and conducting controlled valid clinical trials.
The impact of pathogen-reduced platelets in acute leukaemia treatment on the total blood product requirement: a subgroup analysis of an EFFIPAP randomised trial
Transfusion medicine (Oxford, England). 2022
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of pathogen-reduced (PR) platelet transfusions on blood products requirement for clinical practice. BACKGROUND PR platelets are increasing in use as standard blood products. However, few randomised trials have evaluated their impact on bleeding control or prevention. Furthermore, PR platelets recirculate less than untreated platelets. METHODS A subgroup study of the randomised clinical trial EFFIPAP compared three arms of platelet preparations (PR: P-PRP/PAS, additive solution: P-PAS and plasma P-P arms respectively). The subgroup of acute leukaemia patients, in their chemotherapy induction phase, included 392 patients (133 P-PRP/PAS arm, 132 P-PAS arm and 130 P-P arm). Blood requirements were analysed across over periods of 7 days. RESULTS The number of platelet transfusions per week was significantly higher in the P-PRP/PAS group 2.3 [1.6-3.3] compared to the control groups 1.9 [1.3-2.8] and 2.0 [1.3-3.0] for P-P and P-PAS groups respectively (p < 0.0001). However, the total number of platelets transfused per week was not different. The number of red blood cell concentrates (RBC) transfusion per week did not differ either. CONCLUSION In a homogeneous group of patients, platelet pathogen reduction resulted in an increased number of platelet units transfused per week while having no impact on the total number of platelets transfused or the number of RBC transfusion; resulting to an average requirement of 2 RBC and 2-3 platelets transfusions per week of marrow aplasia.