The addition of oral iron improves chemotherapy-induced anemia in patients receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents
Tan J, Du S, Zang X, Ding K, Ginzburg Y, Chen H
International journal of cancer. 2022
Although many studies have shown that supplementation with iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) is frequently used for managing chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA), optimal combination therapy using these agents together to ameliorate anemia is not well characterized. To assess the effects of ESA combined with oral or intravenous (IV) iron on relieving CIA, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched for articles. Data collected in the articles were meta-analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software with a random-effects model. Our comprehensive search yielded 1666 potentially relevant trials. A total of 41 trials randomizing 4200 patients with CIA fulfilled inclusion criteria, including 34 Chinese articles and 7 English articles. Meta-analysis showed that treatment with both ESA and iron more effectively improved CIA relative to iron supplementation alone, with increased hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell count and haematopoietic response rate. Subgroup analyses revealed iron administration, both oral and IV iron, improved anemia in ESA-treated cancer patients with CIA. Our analysis demonstrates that iron supplementation combined with ESA more effectively ameliorates CIA relative to iron supplementation alone, without regard to whether IV or oral iron was used. Together, our findings may contribute to the clinical treatment of CIA using iron therapy with or without ESA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Effect of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents on breast cancer patients: a meta-analysis
Wu T, Tong Z, Ren T, Xie D, Sun X
Clinical and experimental medicine. 2022
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have been reported to increase the risk of death in cancer patients. In this study, we selected breast cancer, which is currently the most prevalent cancer worldwide, for a meta-analysis to re-examine the advantages and disadvantages of using ESAs. All relevant studies were searched by PubMed, Embase, Web of science, and Cochrane Library. Endpoints including mortality, incidence of thrombo-vascular events, hemoglobin, and transfusion requirements were meta-analyzed based on random-effects model or fixed-effect model. 10 studies were finally included, with a total sample size of 6785 patients. The risk of mortality was higher in patients using ESA than in controls (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.13, P = 0.03); subgroup analysis found that the mortality rate was higher in patients treating with ESA for > 6 months (RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05-1.55, P = 0.01) and epoetin α (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14, P = 0.03). The incidence of thrombo-vascular adverse events was higher in patients using ESA than in controls (RR 1.53, 95% CI 1.27-1.86, P < 0.0001). The ESA group was more effective in improving anemia in cancer patients (MD 1.20, 95% CI 0.77-1.63, P < 0.00001). The blood transfusion needs of patients in the ESA group were significantly lower (RR 0.52, 95%CI 0.44-0.60, P < 0.00001). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in disease progression-related conditions (HR 1.03, 95%CI 0.95-1.12, P = 0.52). ESAs increase the risk of mortality and the incidence of thrombo-vascular adverse events in breast cancer patients, while reducing their anemia symptoms and transfusion requirements. Registration PROSPERO CRD42022330450.
Prophylactic clipping to prevent delayed colonic post-polypectomy bleeding: meta-analysis of randomized and observational studies
Bishay K, Meng, ZW, Frehlich L., James MT, Kaplan GG, Bourke MJ, Hilsden RJ, Heitman SJ, Forbes N
Surgical endoscopy. 2021
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Delayed post-polypectomy bleeding (DPPB) is a commonly described adverse event following polypectomy. Prophylactic clipping may prevent DPPB in some patient subgroups. We performed a meta-analysis to assess both the efficacy and real-world effectiveness of prophylactic clipping. METHODS We performed a database search through March 2020 for clinical trials or observational studies assessing prophylactic clipping and DPPB. Pooled risk ratios (RR) were calculated using random effects models. Subgroup, sensitivity, and meta-regression analyses were performed to elucidate clinical or methodological factors associated with effects on outcomes. RESULTS A total of 2771 citations were screened, with 11 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 9 observational studies included, representing 24,670 colonoscopies. DPPB occurred in 2.0% of patients overall. The pooled RR of DPPB was 0.47 (95% CI 0.29-0.77) from RCTs enrolling only patients with polyps ≥ 20 mm. Remaining pooled RCT data did not demonstrate a benefit for clipping. The pooled RR of DPPB was 0.96 (95% CI 0.61-1.51) from observational studies including all polyp sizes. For patients with proximal polyps of any size, the RR was 0.73 (95% CI 0.33-1.62) from RCTs. Meta-regression confirmed that polyp size ≥ 20 mm significantly influenced the effect of clipping on DPPB. CONCLUSION Pooled evidence demonstrates a benefit when clipping polyps measuring ≥ 20 mm, especially in the proximal colon. In lower-risk subgroups, prophylactic clipping likely results in little to no difference in DPPB.
Role of prophylactic hemoclip placement in prevention of delayed post-polypectomy bleeding for large colon polyps: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Gangwani MK, Ahuja P, Aziz A, Rani A, Lee-Smith W, Aziz M
Annals of gastroenterology. 2021;34(3):392-398
BACKGROUND Polypectomy is a widely used and effective procedure to treat precancerous polyps. Delayed post-polypectomy bleeding (DPPB), a common complication of polypectomy, may diminish the utility of this procedure. Previous data on the efficacy of hemoclips has been conflicting, therefore we aimed to collectively evaluate and analyze the data to reach a definitive conclusion on the efficacy of using hemoclips to prevent incidences of DPPB in patients with large polyps (≥10 mm). METHODS We identified a total of 261 studies based on our previously defined search strategy. After screening, we included 6 randomized controlled trials. A meta-analysis was performed comparing the use of prophylactic application of hemoclips to a standard group without prophylactic clip placement for large polyps. RESULTS We found a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of DPPB when using hemoclips for large polyps. The overall incidence of DPPB was lower in the hemoclip group compared to the standard group for all large polyps ≥10 mm (relative risk 0.51, 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.75; P=0.01; I (2)=0%). CONCLUSIONS The use of hemoclips in achieving hemostasis for large polyps has a beneficial effect and appears to prevent DPPB. This reinforces the routine clinical practice of using hemoclips in polypectomy procedures.
Treatment of Fanconi Anemia-Associated Head and Neck Cancer: Opportunities to Improve Outcomes
Lee RH, Kang H, Yom SS, Smogorzewska A, Johnson DE, Grandis JR
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2021
Fanconi anemia, the most frequent genetic cause of bone marrow failure, is characterized by an extreme predilection towards multiple malignancies, including a greater than 500-fold incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) relative to the general population. Fanconi anemia-associated HNSCC and esophageal SCC (FA-HNSCC) often present at advanced stages with poor survival. Surgical resection remains the primary treatment for FA-HNSCC, and there is often great reluctance to administer systemic agents and/or radiation therapy (RT) to these patients given their susceptibility to DNA damage. The paucity of FA-HNSCC case reports limits evidence-based management, and such cases have not been analyzed collectively in detail. We present a systematic review of FA-HNSCC treatments reported from 1966 to 2020, defining a cohort of 119 FA-HNSCC patients including 16 esophageal SCCs (131 total primary tumors), who were treated with surgery, RT, systemic therapy (including cytotoxic agents, EGFR inhibitors, or immune checkpoint inhibitors), or a combination of modalities. We summarize the clinical responses and regimen-associated toxicities by treatment modality. The collective evidence suggests that when possible, surgical resection with curative intent should remain the primary treatment modality for FA-HNSCC. Radiation can be administered with acceptable toxicity in the majority of cases, including patients who have undergone stem cell transplantation (SCT). While there is little justification for cytotoxic chemotherapy, EGFR inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may be both safe and effective. Immunotherapy may also be considered. Most oncologists have little personal experience with FA-HNSCC. This review is intended as a comprehensive resource for clinicians.
The Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on Pelvic Radiation Induced Gastrointestinal Complications (Rectal Bleeding, Diarrhea, and Pain): A Meta-Analysis
Yuan JH, Song LM, Liu Y, Li MW, Lin Q, Wang R, Zhang CS, Dong J
Front Oncol. 2020;10:390
Background: Radiotherapy is a routine treatment for pelvic cancer patients. While it had been proven effective, gastrointestinal side effects remain a concern, impairing the quality of life. A few studies focused on the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment to alleviate radiation-induced gastrointestinal complications. This meta-analysis aimed to critically review and summarize existing literature, assessing the effectiveness of HBO therapy for the treatment of radiation-induced gastrointestinal side effects. Methods: Medical literature search was performed with PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE up to March 14, 2019. Literatures about HBO treatment upon patients undergoing pelvic cancer (endometrial, cervix, rectum, or prostate cancers) radiotherapy were collected, and the effects of HBO treatment on radiotherapy-induced gastrointestinal complications were evaluated. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled effect size. Subgroup analyses were performed to search for sources of heterogeneity. Publication bias was detected with Funnel plots and Egger's test. Results: Three different radiotherapy-related gastrointestinal complications, including rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and pain, were analyzed after screening. It was revealed that the improvement rates were considerable in rectal bleeding (0.81, 95% CI: 0.74-0.89) and diarrhea (0.75, 95% CI: 0.61-0.90) and slightly in pain (0.58, 95% CI: 0.38-0.79). Subgroup analysis revealed factors that significantly influenced the heterogeneity of rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and pain (evaluation criteria, follow-up time, and scoring system, respectively). No significant publication bias was detected. Conclusion: HBO treatment might have the potential to alleviate radiotherapy-related gastrointestinal complications, including rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and pain, but more data are needed for further conclusions. Other symptoms were not further analyzed, as the number of studies was insufficient. More large-scale and prospective studies are needed for better evaluation of HBO's therapeutic values.
Effect of Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents on Clinical Outcomes in Breast Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials
Sabir S, Khan YH, Khatoon M, Noreen R, Mallhi TH, Jabeen N
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2020;30(3):292-298
The impact of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) on clinical outcomes among breast cancer patients is debatable. Current review is aimed to ascertain the efficacy of ESAs among breast cancer patients. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were electronically searched. Primary outcomes were mortality, blood transfusion requirements and thromboembolic events (TEEs); whereas, secondary outcomes were safety, tumor progression, anemia treatment, hemoglobin levels and quality of life (QOL). Out of 11 RCTs including 6,849 participants, 9 RCTs reported 2,312 deaths with overall mortality of 33.7%. Mortality reported for epoetin alfa (EA), epoetin beta (EB) and darbepoetin alfa (DA) was 41.24%, 73.1% and 8.99% respectively. TEEs reported for EA, EB and DA were 5.88%, 9.28% and 2.85%, respectively. Serious adverse events were 39.04%, 36.29%, 1.53% for EA, EB and DA, respectively. Tumor progression for EA and EB was 37.53% and 95.46%, respectively. No tumor progression was reported with DA. Erythropoietin reported no mortality, TEEs, serious ADRs and tumor progression. About 9% patients required transfusions during ESA therapy. Current evidence suggests that use of ESA reduces transfusion need but increases mortality and risks of TEEs.
Impact and Outcomes of Postoperative Anaemia in Colorectal Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review
Moncur A, Chowdhary M, Chu Y, Francis N
Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland. 2020
OBJECTIVES Preoperative anaemia is common in colorectal cancer patients. Little attention has been given to the prevalence and consequences of postoperative anaemia. The aim of this study was to systematically review the published literature and determine the knowledge of prevalence and impact of postoperative anaemia in colorectal cancer patients. METHODS Databases, CINAHL and Medline, via EBSCO Host, were systematically searched to identify suitable articles published between 2004-2020. After an initial search, articles were screened and all eligible articles reported on prevalence of postoperative anaemia, clinical and long-term outcomes data in colorectal cancer patients undergoing surgery were included. The Risk of Bias 2.0 tool for the assessment of Randomised Controlled Trials and Risk of Bias in Non-randomised studies 1.0 tool were used for the assessment of bias in the studies selected in our review. RESULTS Six studies, one randomised control trial and five cohort studies were included with a total population size of 1714. The prevalence of anaemia at discharge of 76.6% was reported as the primary endpoint in only one study. The rate of Red Blood Cell Transfusion and length of hospital stay were found to be significantly increased in anaemic patients, while postoperative infection rate results were variable. Quality of life scores and overall survival at 5 years were significantly affected among anaemic patients as reported in two papers. CONCLUSION The available limited evidence on postoperative anaemia indicates its high prevalence with negative impact on clinical and long-term outcomes. Further research is required to standardise the measurement and address the true impact of correcting postoperative anaemia on functional and oncological outcomes.
Colorectal cancer patients undergoing surgery (6 studies, n= 1,714).
Systematic review to determine the prevalence and consequences of postoperative anaemia.
The prevalence of anaemia at discharge of 76.6% was reported as the primary endpoint in only one study. The rate of red blood cell transfusion and length of hospital stay were found to be significantly increased in anaemic patients, while postoperative infection rate results were variable. Quality of life scores and overall survival at 5 years were significantly affected among anaemic patients as reported in two papers.
Hyperfibrinolysis in Patients with Solid Malignant Neoplasms: A Systematic Review
Winther-Larsen A, Sandfeld-Paulsen B, Hvas AM
Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis. 2020
Solid malignant neoplasms have the capability of disturbing the fibrinolytic system, leading to primary hyperfibrinolysis, a paraneoplastic syndrome that potentially results in severe bleeding. Yet, the full extent of primary hyperfibrinolysis in solid malignant neoplasms is unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study was to systematically review the current literature regarding clinical manifestations, biochemical diagnosis, and treatment of primary hyperfibrinolysis in patients with solid malignant neoplasms. The review was performed in agreement with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The databases PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched on December 5, 2019, without time limits. Studies were included if they comprised at least one biochemical marker of fibrinolysis in addition to fibrinogen degradation products such as D-dimer, and furthermore included a correlation between biochemical marker and clinical outcome. In total, 12 studies were included. All studies were case reports including a total of 21 patients. Prostate cancer was the most frequently represented cancer type (76%), and the majority of cancer patients had metastatic disease (81%). Spontaneous bleeding was the clinical presentation in the majority of patients (76%), and the most frequently localization for the bleedings was subcutaneous. Antifibrinolytic agents were the most commonly used treatment and ceased bleedings in 80% of patients. Three patients died of uncontrolled bleedings. In conclusion, primary hyperfibrinolysis induced by solid malignant neoplasms is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition that should be considered, especially in patients with metastatic disease presenting with serious, spontaneous subcutaneous bleedings. A standardized diagnostic strategy is strongly needed.
Intraoperative balloon occlusion of the aorta for blood management in sacral and pelvic tumor resection: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Bailey AJ, Lee A, Li HO, Glen P
Surgical oncology. 2020;35:156-161
BACKGROUND Neoplasms of the sacrum and pelvis are challenging to manage due to their complex vascularity and size and are at high risk of bleeding during resection. Intra-aortic balloon occlusion (IABO) has been used in trauma to control massive blood loss, but its efficacy and safety in oncologic sacral and pelvic surgery are unknown. The primary objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of IABO in providing hemorrhage control during resection of sacral and pelvic tumors. METHODS This PROSPERO pre-registered study meta-analyzed all studies reporting on the use of IABO in the setting of pelvic and sacral tumour resection, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The primary outcome of the meta-analysis was intraoperative blood loss, with secondary outcomes consisting of transfusion volume, post-operative blood loss, operative time, complication rate, and mortality. RESULTS Across studies, IABO was associated with a large, significant reduction in intraoperative blood loss (SMD -0.81, 95% CI -1.01 to -0.60, P < 0.0001) and transfused red blood cell volume (SMD 0.92, 95% CI -1.30 to -0.53, P < 0.0001). Two studies reported that complication rates were comparable between patients receiving IABO and patient receiving conventional surgery (Odds ratio = 1.29, 95% CI: 0.59 to 2.83, P = 0.52). All studies descriptively reported improved visualization of the operative field with IABO. CONCLUSIONS Our findings demonstrated that IABO is an effective technique to decrease blood loss and transfusion requirements during sacral and pelvic tumor surgery. Future clinical trials should be conducted to establish the safety of this method and explore potential contraindications.