Efficacy and safety of thrombopoietin receptor agonists in children and adults with persistent and chronic immune thrombocytopenia: a meta-analysis
Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. 2023;24(6):763-774
INTRODUCTION In this paper, we systematically review the efficacy and safety of thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPORAs) for treatment of persistent and chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in children and adults. METHODS We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Scopus, EMbase and the Cochrane Library to collect randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TPO-RAs which including avatrombopag hetrombopag eltrombopag and romiplostim treated persistent and chronic ITP from their earliest records to February 2022. RESULTS We included 15 RCTs with a total of 1563 patients. There were ten trials of adults and five trials of children. The results of meta-analysis showed that in adult patients, patients treated with TPO-RAs had longer duration of platelet response, higher platelet response rate, lower use of rescue therapy, and lower incidence of bleeding events, and similar incidence of adverse events compared with placebo. Except for the incidence of any bleeding, the results in children were consistent with those in adults. The network meta-analysis of data on overall platelet response rates in adults showed that avatrombopag was more effective than eltrombopag and hetrombopag. CONCLUSIONS TPO-RAs has better efficacy and higher safety in the treatment of ITP. And the overall response rate of avatrombopag in adults was higher than that in eltrombopag and hetrombopag.
Efficacy and safety of pharmacological interventions for managing sickle cell disease in children and adolescents: protocol for a systematic review with network meta-analysis
BMJ open. 2023;13(2):e064872
INTRODUCTION Sickle cell disease (SCD), an inherited haemoglobinopathy, has important impact on morbidity and mortality, especially in paediatrics. Previous systematic reviews are limited to adult patients or focused only on few therapies. We aim to synthesise the evidence on efficacy and safety of pharmacological interventions for managing SCD in children and adolescents. METHODS AND ANALYSIS This systematic review protocol is available at Open Science Framework (doi:10.17605/OSF.IO/CWAE9). We will follow international recommendations on conduction and report of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Searches will be conducted in PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science (no language nor time restrictions) (first pilot searches performed in May 2022). We will include randomised controlled trials comparing the effects of disease-modifying agents in patients with SCD under 18 years old. Outcomes of interest will include: vaso-occlusive crisis, haemoglobin levels, chest syndrome, stroke, overall survival and adverse events. We will provide a narrative synthesis of the findings, and whenever possible, results will be pooled by means of pairwise or Bayesian network meta-analyses with surface under the cumulative ranking curve analyses. Different statistical methods and models will be tested. Dichotomous outcomes will be reported as OR, risk ratio or HR, while continuous data will be reported as standard mean differences, both with 95% CI/credibility interval. The methodological quality of the trials will be evaluated using the Risk of Bias 2.0 tool, and the certainty of the evidence will be assessed with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION This study refers to a systematic review, so no ethics approval is necessary. We intent to publish our findings in international, peer-reviewed journal. Data will also be presented to peers in scientific events. Additionally, the results obtained in this study may contribute towards the update of therapeutic guidelines and for the development of health policies for SCD. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER CRD42022328471.
Interventions for chronic kidney disease in people with sickle cell disease
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2023;8(8):Cd012380
BACKGROUND Sickle cell disease (SCD), one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders, is caused by the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta-globin) genes. SCD can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Kidney disease is a frequent and potentially severe complication in people with SCD. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as abnormalities of kidney structure or function present for more than three months. Sickle cell nephropathy refers to the spectrum of kidney complications in SCD. Glomerular damage is a cause of microalbuminuria and can develop at an early age in children with SCD, with increased prevalence in adulthood. In people with sickle cell nephropathy, outcomes are poor as a result of the progression to proteinuria and chronic kidney insufficiency. Up to 12% of people who develop sickle cell nephropathy will develop end-stage renal disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2017. OBJECTIVES To assess the effectiveness of any intervention for preventing or reducing kidney complications or chronic kidney disease in people with sickle cell disease. Possible interventions include red blood cell transfusions, hydroxyurea, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), either alone or in combination. SEARCH METHODS We searched for relevant trials in the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, seven other databases, and two other trials registers. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing interventions to prevent or reduce kidney complications or CKD in people with SCD. We applied no restrictions related to outcomes examined, language, or publication status. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, assessed the risk of bias, and assessed the certainty of the evidence (GRADE). MAIN RESULTS We included three RCTs with 385 participants. We rated the certainty of the evidence as low to very low across different outcomes according to GRADE methodology, downgrading for risk of bias concerns, indirectness, and imprecision. Hydroxyurea versus placebo One RCT published in 2011 compared hydroxyurea to placebo in 193 children aged nine to 18 months. We are unsure if hydroxyurea compared to placebo reduces or prevents progression of kidney disease assessed by change in glomerular filtration rate (mean difference (MD) 0.58 mL/min /1.73 m(2), 95% confidence interval (CI) -14.60 to 15.76; 142 participants; very low certainty). Hydroxyurea compared to placebo may improve the ability to concentrate urine (MD 42.23 mOsm/kg, 95% CI 12.14 to 72.32; 178 participants; low certainty), and may make little or no difference to SCD-related serious adverse events, including acute chest syndrome (risk ratio (RR) 0.39, 99% CI 0.13 to 1.16; 193 participants; low certainty), painful crisis (RR 0.68, 99% CI 0.45 to 1.02; 193 participants; low certainty); and hospitalisations (RR 0.83, 99% CI 0.68 to 1.01; 193 participants; low certainty). No deaths occurred in either trial arm and the RCT did not report quality of life. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors versus placebo One RCT published in 1998 compared an ACEI (captopril) to placebo in 22 adults with normal blood pressure and microalbuminuria. We are unsure if captopril compared to placebo reduces proteinuria (MD -49.00 mg/day, 95% CI -124.10 to 26.10; 22 participants; very low certainty). We are unsure if captopril reduces or prevents kidney disease as measured by creatinine clearance; the trial authors stated that creatinine clearance remained constant over six months in both groups, but provided no comparative data (very low certainty). The RCT did not report serious adverse events, all-cause mortality, or quality of life. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors versus vitamin C One RCT published in 2020 compared an ACEI (lisinopril) with vitamin C in 170 children aged one to 18 years with normal blood pressure and microalbuminuria. It reported no data we could analyse. We are unsure if lisinopril compared to vitamin C reduces proteinuria in this population: the large drop in microalbuminuria in both arms of the trial after only one month on treatment may have been due to an overestimation of microalbuminuria at baseline rather than a true effect. The RCT did not report serious adverse events, all-cause mortality, or quality of life. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS We are unsure if hydroxyurea improves glomerular filtration rate or reduces hyperfiltration in children aged nine to 18 months, but it may improve their ability to concentrate urine and may make little or no difference to the incidence of acute chest syndrome, painful crises, and hospitalisations. We are unsure if ACEI compared to placebo has any effect on preventing or reducing kidney complications in adults with normal blood pressure and microalbuminuria. We are unsure if ACEI compared to vitamin C has any effect on preventing or reducing kidney complications in children with normal blood pressure and microalbuminuria. No RCTs assessed red blood cell transfusions or any combined interventions to prevent or reduce kidney complications. Due to lack of evidence, we cannot comment on the management of children aged over 18 months or adults with any known genotype of SCD. We have identified a lack of adequately designed and powered studies, although we found four ongoing trials since the last version of this review. Only one ongoing trial addresses renal function as a primary outcome in the short term, but such interventions have long-term effects. Trials of hydroxyurea, ACEIs or red blood cell transfusion in older children and adults are urgently needed to determine any effect on prevention or reduction of kidney complications in people with SCD.
Children and adults with sickle cell disease (3 randomised controlled trials, n= 385).
Interventions to prevent or reduce kidney complications or chronic kidney disease, including: hydroxyurea, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), either alone or in combination.
This systematic review is an update of a review first published in 2017. The authors rated the certainty of the evidence as low to very low across different outcomes. The authors are unsure if hydroxyurea improves glomerular filtration rate or reduces hyperfiltration in children aged nine to 18 months, but it may improve their ability to concentrate urine and may make little or no difference to the incidence of acute chest syndrome, painful crises, and hospitalisations. The authors are unsure if ACEI compared to placebo has any effect on preventing or reducing kidney complications in adults with normal blood pressure and microalbuminuria. The authors are unsure if ACEI compared to vitamin C has any effect on preventing or reducing kidney complications in children with normal blood pressure and microalbuminuria.
The efficacy and the safety of eltrombopag in pediatric patients with severe aplastic anemia: a systematic review
Frontiers in pediatrics. 2023;11:1149718
BACKGROUND Acquired aplastic anemia (AAA) in pediatric patients is a rare disorder characterized by hypocellular bone marrow and pancytopenia. Eltrombopag, an oral thrombopoietin receptor agonist, provides a hematologic improvement in adults with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) refractory to immunosuppressive therapy (IST). The association of ELT and IST was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for adults and children ≥2 years of age as a first-line treatment for SAA. However, the effects of ELT on pediatric patients with SAA remain controversial and limited. METHODS AND FINDINGS We conducted a systematic review of the most recent literature from Pubmed, Web of Science, and Embase, published up to 20th December 2022, in order to evaluate the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of ELT added to IST for the treatment of SAA in the pediatric population. CONCLUSION Eltrombopag added to the IST has shown a good safety profile, without manifestations of excessive toxic effects, although not all the results obtained from our studies support the addition of ELT to the IST in the first-line treatment of children with SAA. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, identifier: CRD42022325859.
Safety Profile of Eltrombopag in Different Age Groups: An Analysis of Real-World Pharmacovigilance and Randomized Clinical Trials
Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2023
Eltrombopag is clinically approved for use in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), chronic hepatitis C-related thrombocytopenia, and aplastic anemia and suitable for children; however, data on its overall safety profile are scarce. This study aimed to explore the clinical features of adverse drug events (ADEs) associated with eltrombopag in different age groups using ICSRs from the World Health Organization database VigiBase and the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System database from 2008 to 2022 in combination with a meta-analysis of data from randomized clinical trials in the literature from inception to July 28, 2022. We conducted disproportionality analyses by grouping patients into the following age groups: 0-17 (0-23 months，2-11 years, 12-17 years), 18-64, and ≥65 years. The ADEs about hepatobiliary disorders, thrombosis, skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders, infections and so on were observed more differently in each age group. Meta-analysis results showed differences in the four system organ classes between adults and children with ITP: infections and infestations, general disorders and administration site conditions, skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders, and investigations. The adverse drug reactions in the latest version of instructions were searched in the databases to analyze their post-marketing safety signal strength. We observed signals of elevated alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and blood bilirubin levels in all age groups. For children, urinary tract infection and back pain, showed signals. Due to the inherent limitations of pharmacovigilance studies, more experiments are needed to assess the risks of eltrombopag in different ages.
Pediatric refractory immune thrombocytopenia: A systematic review
Pediatric Blood & Cancer. 2023;70(3):e30173
Pediatric immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired disorder associated with autoimmune destruction and impairment of platelet production in children. Some children exhibit poor or transient response to ITP-directed treatments and are referred to as having refractory ITP (rITP). There is currently no consensus on the definition of rITP, nor evidence-based treatment guidelines for patients with rITP. After a survey of pediatric ITP experts demonstrated lack of consensus on pediatric rITP, we pursued a systematic review to examine the reported clinical phenotypes and treatment outcomes in pediatric rITP. The search identified 253 relevant manuscripts; following review, 11 studies proposed a definition for pediatric rITP with no consensus amongst them. Most definitions included suboptimal response to medical management, while some outlined specific platelet thresholds to define this suboptimal response. Common attributes identified in this study should be used to propose a comprehensive definition, which will facilitate outcome comparisons of future rITP studies.
Eltrombopag for Adults and Children with Immune-Refractory Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A Systematic Review
Journal of clinical medicine. 2023;12(12)
Eltrombopag is an agonist that binds to the membrane-bound domain of the thrombopoietin receptor used in immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to assess the efficacy and safety of eltrombopag in adults and children with refractory ITP. Adults who received eltrombopag had a significantly better platelet response (relative risk [RR], 3.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.39-5.55), but there were no differences in the incidence of bleeding (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.52-1.22) and adverse effects (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.55-1.78) compared with the placebo. In children, there was no difference between eltrombopag and placebo for a platelet response >50,000/mm(3) (RR, 3.93; 95% CI, 0.56-27.79) and the number of adverse events (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.25-1.49); however, a lower incidence of bleeding was observed (RR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.27-0.83). Treatment with eltrombopag protected adults and children from severe disease and death.
Preoperative Transfusion in Sickle Cell Disease Children Undergoing Adenotonsillectomy
Indian journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery : official publication of the Association of Otolaryngologists of India. 2023;75(2):227-235
OBJECTIVE To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing two pre-operative transfusion regimens (conservative versus aggressive) in children with sickle cell disease(SCD) undergoing adenotonsillectomy in terms of post-operative complications, complications related to SCD and transfusion related complications. DATA SOURCES AND REVIEW METHODS A literature review was performed through PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Ovid databases using the following phrases: (Adenotonsillectomy OR Tonsillectomy) AND (Sickle Cell Disease OR Sickle Cell Trait). Using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, seven articles were selected for systemic review and two control trials were included in meta-analysis. RESULTS Out of a total of 3,146 results, seven articles were selected for review and two controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of primary and secondary hemorrhage between the aggressive and conservative transfusion regimens (RR = 3.1, CI = 0.84-11.4, p-value = 0.089). The rate of sickle cell disease related complications including vaso-occlusive crisis and acute chest syndrome was also not statistically significant between the two transfusion groups (RR = 1.4, CI = 0.7-2.8, p-value = 0.339). Even though, the transfusion related complications did not reach statistical significance, there was a higher complication rate in the group receiving aggressive blood transfusion. CONCLUSION In SCD children undergoing adenotonsillectomy, an aggressive transfusion regimen that focuses on reducing the Hemoglobin S ratio to below 30% has not been shown to be more effective in reducing post-operative complications when compared to a conservative transfusion regimen. Therefore, it is reasonable to utilize a conservative transfusion regimen, thereby reducing the transfusion-associated risks.
Efficacy and quality of life of Romiplostim in adults and children with immune thrombocytopenia: A review
BACKGROUND To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy, drug safety and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of Romiplostim in adult and child immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients. METHODS PubMed, EMBASE and Cohrane library databases were searched for all randomized controlled trials published until 2022, and the Review Manager 5.3 was used for meta-analysis. RESULTS A total of 9 randomized controlled trials were included in this study. The results of meta-analysis showed that the total platelet response rate and long-term platelet response rate in treatment group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). There was no statistical significance in the side effects, serious side effects, bleeding events and serious bleeding events between 2 groups (P>0.05). Compared with control group, the HRQoL in ITP adults and children, and parents of ITP children had no statistical significance (P>0.05). CONCLUSION Romiplostim has a certain clinical efficacy in ITP adults and children, and relatively small adverse drug reactions. The improvement of Romiplostim on HRQoL in ITP adults and children is not clear.
No difference in myocardial iron concentration and serum ferritin with deferasirox and deferiprone in pediatric patients with hemoglobinopathies: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Transfusion clinique et biologique : journal de la Societe francaise de transfusion sanguine. 2022
OBJECTIVES Iron overload is a common complication experienced by transfusion-dependent children with hemoglobin disorders. Chelators such as deferasirox (DFX) and deferiprone (DFP) are effective in overcoming this problem. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of DFX compared to DFP in treating iron overload amongst pediatric patients with hemoglobin disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS PubMed and Cochrane Central were searched from their inception until Dec 21 2021, for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies, which assessed the efficacy of DFX compared to DFP in the treatment of inherited hemoglobin disorders. The outcomes of interest included myocardial iron concentration (MRI T2*) at the end of the trial and change in mean serum ferritin (SF) levels at the 6 and 12 months mark. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for continuous outcomes using random effects model. RESULTS A total of 5 studies comprising 607 children were included. The results of our analysis revealed no significant difference between DFX and DFP in MRI T2* at the end of treatment (WMD: -0.92;95% CI[-3.35,1.52]; p=0.46; I(2)=0). Moreover, there has been no significant difference noted in SF levels at both 6 months (WMD: 97.31; 95% CI[-236.16,430.77]; p=0.57; I(2)=0) and 12 months (WMD: 46.99; 95% CI[-191.42,285.40]; p=0.70; I(2)=0) respectively. CONCLUSION Our analysis shows no significant difference between the efficacy of DFX and DFP in the management of iron overload in children with inherited blood disorders. Future large-scale clinical trials are required to further validate our results.