Recombinant human thrombopoietin prior to mobilization chemotherapy facilitates platelet recovery in autologous transplantation in patients with lymphoma: Results of a prospective randomized study
Chronic diseases and translational medicine. 2021;7(3):190-198
BACKGROUND Chemotherapy plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) regimen is one of the available approaches to mobilize peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs). It causes thrombocytopenia and delays leukapheresis. This study aimed to evaluate the role of recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) before mobilization chemotherapy in facilitating leukapheresis in patients with lymphoma. METHODS In this randomized open-label phase 2 trial, patients were randomly assigned in a 1:2 ratio to receive mobilization with rhTPO plus GCSF in combination with chemotherapy (the rhTPO plus GCSF arm) or GCSF alone in combination with chemotherapy (the GCSF alone arm). The recovery of neutrophils and platelets and the amount of platelet transfusion were monitored. RESULTS Thirty patients were enrolled in this study between March 2016 and August 2018. Patients in the rhTPO plus GCSF arm (n = 10) had similar platelet nadir after mobilization chemotherapy (P=0.878) and similar amount of platelet transfusion (median 0 vs. 1 unit, P=0.735) when compared with the GCSF alone arm (n = 20). On the day of leukapheresis, the median platelet count was 86 × 10(9)/L (range 18-219) among patients who received rhTPO and 73 × 10(9)/L (range 42-197) among those who received GCSF alone (P=0.982). After the use of rhTPO, the incidence of platelet count <75 × 10(9)/L on the day of leukapheresis did not decrease significantly (30.0% vs. 50.0%, P=0.297). Platelet recovery after PBPC transfusion was more rapid in the rhTPO plus GCSF arm (median 8.0 days [95% confidence interval 2.9-13.1] to platelets ≥50 × 10(9)/L vs. 11.0 days [95% confidence interval 8.6-13.4], P=0.011). The estimated total cost of the mobilization and reconstitution phases per patient was similar between the two treatmtent groups (P=0.362 and P=0.067, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicate that there was no significant clinical benefit of rhTPO use in facilitating mobilization of progenitor cells, but it may promote platelet recovery in the reconstitution phase after high-dose therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION This trial has been registered in Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03014102.
The European Medicines Agency Review of Crizanlizumab for the Prevention of Recurrent Vaso-Occlusive Crises in Patients With Sickle Cell Disease
Crizanlizumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to P-selectin. On October 28, 2020, a conditional marketing authorization valid through the European Union (EU) was issued for crizanlizumab for the prevention of recurrent vaso-occlusive crises (VOCs) in patients with sickle cell disease aged 16 years or older. Crizanlizumab was evaluated in a phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized multicenter trial comparing high-dose (5 mg/kg) crizanlizumab, low-dose (2.5 mg/kg) crizanlizumab and placebo in patients with a history of 2-10 VOCs in the previous year. Patients who were receiving concomitant hydroxycarbamide (HC) as well as those not receiving HC were included in the study. The primary endpoint of the trial was the annual rate of sickle cell-related pain crises as adjudicated by a central review committee. High-dose crizanlizumab led to a 45.3% lower median annual rate of sickle cell-related pain crises compared to placebo (P = 0.010), with no statistically significant difference for the low dose. Treatment with high-dose crizanlizumab led to similar incidences of adverse events (AEs), grade 3 AEs, and serious AEs compared to placebo. Most frequently observed AEs that occurred more often in the crizanlizumab arm compared to placebo were infusion related reactions (34.8% versus 21%), arthralgia (18.2% versus 8.1%), diarrhea (10.6% versus 3.2%), and nausea (18.2% versus 11.3%). The aim of this article is to summarize the scientific review of the application leading to regulatory approval in the EU.
Efficacy and safety evaluation of avatrombopag in immune thrombocytopenia: analyses of a phase III study and long-term extension
Avatrombopag is an oral thrombopoietin receptor agonist approved for chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). This is a post hoc analysis of the pivotal phase III study (NCT01438840) evaluating additional endpoints not previously described. Thirty-two ITP patients were randomized to avatrombopag and 17 were randomized to placebo during a 26-week core study period (with 21 study visits), followed by an open-label extension period, in which all patients received avatrombopag for varying lengths of time. In this analysis, we evaluated previously unreported response rates at the study visit level, durability of response, and reduction in corticosteroid use with avatrombopag treatment. In the core study, more avatrombopag-treated patients achieved either response (Plt ≥50 000/µL) or complete response (Plt ≥100 000/µL) than placebo-treated patients by day 8 (65.6% vs. 0%; P < .0001 for response; 37.5% vs. 0%; P < .0001 for complete response), day 28 (84.4% vs. 0%; P < .0001 for response; 71.9% vs. 0%; P < .0001 for complete response), and month 6 (87.5% vs. 5.9%; P < .0001 for response; 81.3% vs. 5.9%; P < .0001 for complete response). Durable responders from the core study achieved response and complete response at 96.1% and 60.1% of extension phase visits, respectively. Durable clinically relevant response (Plt ≥30 000/µL for 6 of the final 8 weeks of the core study) occurred in 64.0% of avatrombopag-treated patients versus 0% of placebo-treated patients. More than half (57.1%) of patients on chronic corticosteroids reduced or discontinued corticosteroids. In conclusion, avatrombopag enabled most patients with ITP to achieve clinically meaningful and durable platelet count improvements.
Intravenous iron is non-inferior to oral iron regarding cell growth and iron metabolism in colorectal cancer associated with iron-deficiency anaemia
Scientific reports. 2021;11(1):13699
Oral iron promotes intestinal tumourigenesis in animal models. In humans, expression of iron transport proteins are altered in colorectal cancer. This study examined whether the route of iron therapy alters iron transport and tumour growth. Colorectal adenocarcinoma patients with pre-operative iron deficiency anaemia received oral ferrous sulphate (n = 15), or intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (n = 15). Paired (normal and tumour tissues) samples were compared for expression of iron loading, iron transporters, proliferation, apoptosis and Wnt signalling using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Iron loading was increased in tumour and distributed to the stroma in intravenous treatment and to the epithelium in oral treatment. Protein and mRNA expression of proliferation and iron transporters were increased in tumours compared to normal tissues but there were no significant differences between the treatment groups. However, intravenous iron treatment reduced ferritin mRNA levels in tumours and replenished body iron stores. Iron distribution to non-epithelial cells in intravenous iron suggests that iron is less bioavailable to tumour cells. Therefore, intravenous iron may be a better option in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients with iron deficiency anaemia due to its efficiency in replenishing iron levels while its effect on proliferation and iron metabolism is similar to that of oral iron treatment.
A double-blind, controlled, crossover trial of amlodipine on iron overload status in transfusion dependent β-thalassemia patients
International journal of clinical practice. 2021;75(8):e14337
BACKGROUND AND AIM This study examined whether administration of amlodipine could improve myocardial iron loading status in patients with transfusion dependent β-thalassemia (TDT), through a placebo-controlled, crossover study. METHODS Amlodipine (5 mg, daily) or placebo were prescribed to all patients (n = 19) for 6 months, and after a 2-week washout period, patients were crossed over to the other group. The efficacy of amlodipine on iron loading was assessed by measuring myocardial T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI T2*, millisecond [ms]) and serum ferritin (ng/mL). RESULTS Seventeen patients completed the study. The mean ± standard deviation [SD] of myocardial MRI T2* at baseline was 9.83 ± 2.67 ms Myocardial MRI T2* value rose to 11.44 ± 4.14 ms post amlodipine treatment in all patients. After placebo, myocardial MRI T2* value reached 10.29 ± 4.01 ms After controlling the baseline measures, Hedges's g for ferritin and myocardial MRI T2* outcomes were estimated 3.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.68 to 4.97) and -1.80 (95% CI -2.58 to -0.10), respectively. CONCLUSION Amlodipine might improve myocardial MRI T2* and serum ferritin level compared to placebo. However, larger clinical studies are needed to confirm the results.
A multicenter, randomized phase III trial of hetrombopag: a novel thrombopoietin receptor agonist for the treatment of immune thrombocytopenia
Journal of hematology & oncology. 2021;14(1):37
BACKGROUND Hetrombopag, a novel thrombopoietin receptor agonist, has been found in phase I studies to increase platelet counts and reduce bleeding risks in adults with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). This phase III study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of hetrombopag in ITP patients. METHODS Patients who had not responded to or had relapsed after previous treatment were treated with an initial dosage of once-daily 2.5 or 5 mg hetrombopag (defined as the HETROM-2.5 or HETROM-5 group) or with matching placebo in a randomized, double-blind, 10-week treatment period. Patients who received placebo and completed 10 weeks of treatment switched to receive eltrombopag, and patients treated with hetrombopag in the double-blind period continued hetrombopag during the following open-label 14-week treatment. The primary endpoint was the proportion of responders (defined as those achieving a platelet count of ≥ 50 × 10(9)/L) after 8 weeks of treatment. RESULTS The primary endpoint was achieved by significantly more patients in the HETROM-2.5 (58.9%; odds ratio [OR] 25.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.83-68.63; p < 0.0001) and HETROM-5 (64.3%; OR 32.81, 95% CI 12.39-86.87; p < 0.0001) group than in the Placebo group (5.9%). Hetrombopag was also superior to placebo in achieving a platelet response and in reducing the bleeding risk and use of rescue therapy throughout 8 weeks of treatment. The durable platelet response to hetrombopag was maintained throughout 24 weeks. The most common adverse events were upper respiratory tract infection (42.2%), urinary tract infection (17.1%), immune thrombocytopenic purpura (17.1%) and hematuria (15%) with 24-week hetrombopag treatment. CONCLUSIONS In ITP patients, hetrombopag is efficacious and well tolerated with a manageable safety profile. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov NCT03222843 , registered July 19, 2017, retrospectively registered.
All-trans retinoic acid plus high-dose dexamethasone as first-line treatment for patients with newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia: a multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial
The Lancet. Haematology. 2021;8(10):e688-e699
BACKGROUND High-dose dexamethasone is the standard initial treatment for patients with immune thrombocytopenia, but many patients still relapse and require further treatments. All-trans retinoic acid has been shown to exert immunomodulatory effects and promote thrombopoiesis, and so we aimed to assess the activity and safety of all-trans retinoic acid plus high-dose dexamethasone as a first-line treatment for newly diagnosed patients with immune thrombocytopenia. METHODS This multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial was done at six different tertiary medical centres in China. Eligible participants were adults (aged >18 years) with treatment-naive, newly diagnosed, primary immune thrombocytopenia who had either a platelet count of less than 30 × 10(9) platelets per L or a platelet count of less than 50 × 10(9) platelets per L and clinically significant bleeding. We randomly assigned (1:1) participants to receive either all-trans retinoic acid (10 mg orally twice daily for 12 weeks) plus high-dose dexamethasone (40 mg/day intravenously for 4 consecutive days) or high-dose dexamethasone alone using a central, web-based randomisation system. If patients did not respond by day 14, the 4-day course of dexamethasone was repeated. The primary endpoint was 6-month sustained response, defined as the maintenance of a platelet count of at least 30 × 10(9) platelets per L and at least 2-times higher than the baseline count and the absence of bleeding, with no need for rescue medication at this time. The primary endpoint was analysed by intention-to-treat and safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of the study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04217148, and is now completed. FINDINGS Between Jan 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020, 132 patients were randomly assigned to either all-trans retinoic acid plus high-dose dexamethasone (n=66) or high-dose dexamethasone alone (n=66). Three patients did not receive their allocated treatment, leaving 129 in the safety analysis set. At 6 months, a significantly higher proportion of participants in the all-trans retinoic acid plus high-dose dexamethasone group (45 [68%] of 66) than in the high-dose dexamethasone monotherapy group (27 [41%] of 66) had a sustained response (OR 3·095, 95% CI 1·516-6·318; p=0·0017). The most common adverse events were dry skin (31 [48%] of 64 patients), headaches (12 [19%]), and insomnia (12 [19%]) in the combination group, and insomnia (ten [15%] of 65 patients) and anxiety or mood disorders (eight [12%]) in the monotherapy group. Both treatments were well tolerated and no grade 4 or worse adverse events occurred. There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION The combination of all-trans retinoic acid and high-dose dexamethasone was safe and active in newly diagnosed patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia, providing a sustained response. This regimen represents a potential first-line treatment in this setting, but further studies are needed to validate its efficacy and safety. FUNDING The Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Beijing Natural Science Foundation, the National Key Research and Development Program of China, and the Foundation for Innovative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China.
Long-Term Effectiveness of Oral Ferric Maltol vs Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose for the Treatment of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Randomized Controlled Noninferiority Trial
Inflammatory bowel diseases. 2021
BACKGROUND Iron-deficiency anemia is common in inflammatory bowel disease, requiring oral or intravenous iron replacement therapy. Treatment with standard oral irons is limited by poor absorption and gastrointestinal toxicity. Ferric maltol is an oral iron designed for improved absorption and tolerability. METHODS In this open-label, phase 3b trial (EudraCT 2015-002496-26 and NCT02680756), adults with nonseverely active inflammatory bowel disease and iron-deficiency anemia (hemoglobin, 8.0-11.0/12.0 g/dL [women/men]; ferritin, <30 ng/mL/<100 ng/mL with transferrin saturation <20%) were randomized to oral ferric maltol 30 mg twice daily or intravenous ferric carboxymaltose given according to each center's standard practice. The primary endpoint was a hemoglobin responder rate (≥2 g/dL increase or normalization) at week 12, with a 20% noninferiority limit in the intent-to-treat and per-protocol populations. RESULTS For the intent-to-treat (ferric maltol, n = 125/ferric carboxymaltose, n = 125) and per-protocol (n = 78/88) analyses, week 12 responder rates were 67% and 68%, respectively, for ferric maltol vs 84% and 85%, respectively, for ferric carboxymaltose. As the confidence intervals crossed the noninferiority margin, the primary endpoint was not met. Mean hemoglobin increases at weeks 12, 24, and 52 were 2.5 vs 3.0 g/dL, 2.9 vs 2.8 g/dL, and 2.7 vs 2.8 g/dL with ferric maltol vs ferric carboxymaltose. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 59% and 36% of patients, respectively, and resulted in treatment discontinuation in 10% and 3% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Ferric maltol achieved clinically relevant increases in hemoglobin but did not show noninferiority vs ferric carboxymaltose at week 12. Both treatments had comparable long-term effectiveness for hemoglobin and ferritin over 52 weeks and were well tolerated.
Eltrombopag for Post-Transplantation Thrombocytopenia: Results of Phase II Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Transplantation and cellular therapy. 2021;27(5):430.e1-430.e7
Prolonged thrombocytopenia occurs in up to 37% of patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and is associated with adverse prognosis and increased risk of bleeding. Eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, can increase platelet counts in thrombocytopenic patients. We conducted a phase II study, adaptively randomizing patients at ≥35 days post-HSCT to receive placebo or eltrombopag at a platelet count ≤20,000/µL for 7 days or platelet transfusion-dependent and a neutrophil count ≥1500/µL. Sixty patients were randomized to eltrombopag (n = 42) or placebo (n = 18) and received at least 1 dose. Fifteen patients (36%) in the eltrombopag arm achieved a platelet count of ≥30,000/µL, compared with 5 patients (28%) in the placebo arm, with a posterior probability of 0.75. (The protocol required this probability to be >0.975 to declare a winner; thus, the results are inconclusive.) However, 9 patients (21%) in the eltrombopag arm achieved a platelet count of ≥50,000/µL, compared with no patients in the placebo arm (P = .046). The overall survival, progression-free survival, relapse rate, and nonrelapse mortality were similar in the 2 arms. In conclusion, compared with placebo, treatment with eltrombopag led to a higher percentage of patients achieving a platelet count of ≥50,000/µL in patients with persistent thrombocytopenia after HSCT.
Randomized and dose-escalation trials of recombinant human serum albumin /granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in patients with breast cancer receiving anthracycline-containing chemotherapy
BMC cancer. 2021;21(1):341
BACKGROUND To evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human serum albumin /granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rHSA/G-CSF) in breast cancer following receipt of cytotoxic agents. METHODS The phase 1b trial assessed the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of dose-escalation, ranging from rHSA/G-CSF 1800 μg, 2100 μg, and 2400 μg. Randomized controlled phase 2b trial was further conducted to ensure the comparative efficacy and safety of rHSA/G-CSF 2400 μg and rhG-CSF 5 μg/kg. In multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel, phase 2 study, participants treated with anthracycline-containing chemotherapy were assigned in a ratio 1:1:1 to receive double delivery of rHSA/G-CSF 1200 μg, 1500 μg, and continuous rhG-CSF 5 μg/kg. RESULTS Between December 16, 2014, to July 23, 2018, a total of 320 patients were enrolled, including 25 individuals in phase 1b trial, 80 patients in phase 2b trial, and 215 participants in phase 2 study. The mean duration of agranulocytosis during the first chemotherapeutic intermission was observed as 1.14 ± 1.35 days in rHSA/G-CSF 1500 μg, which was comparable with that of 1.07 ± 0.97 days obtained in rhG-CSF control (P = 0.71). Safety profiles were assessed to be acceptable ranging from rHSA/G-CSF 1800 μg to 2400 μg, while the double delivery of HSA/G-CSF 2400 μg failed to meet the noninferiority in comparison with rhG-CSF. CONCLUSION The prospective randomized controlled trials demonstrated that rHSA/G-CSF was efficacious and well-tolerated with an approachable frequency and expense of application for prophylactic management of agranulocytosis. The double delivery of rHSA/G-CSF 1500 μg in comparisons with paralleling G-CSF preparations is warranted in the phase 3 trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT02465801 (11/17/2014), NCT03246009 (08/08/2017), NCT03251768 (08/07/2017).