The impact of pathogen-reduced platelets in acute leukaemia treatment on the total blood product requirement: a subgroup analysis of an EFFIPAP randomised trial
Transfusion medicine (Oxford, England). 2022
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of pathogen-reduced (PR) platelet transfusions on blood products requirement for clinical practice. BACKGROUND PR platelets are increasing in use as standard blood products. However, few randomised trials have evaluated their impact on bleeding control or prevention. Furthermore, PR platelets recirculate less than untreated platelets. METHODS A subgroup study of the randomised clinical trial EFFIPAP compared three arms of platelet preparations (PR: P-PRP/PAS, additive solution: P-PAS and plasma P-P arms respectively). The subgroup of acute leukaemia patients, in their chemotherapy induction phase, included 392 patients (133 P-PRP/PAS arm, 132 P-PAS arm and 130 P-P arm). Blood requirements were analysed across over periods of 7 days. RESULTS The number of platelet transfusions per week was significantly higher in the P-PRP/PAS group 2.3 [1.6-3.3] compared to the control groups 1.9 [1.3-2.8] and 2.0 [1.3-3.0] for P-P and P-PAS groups respectively (p < 0.0001). However, the total number of platelets transfused per week was not different. The number of red blood cell concentrates (RBC) transfusion per week did not differ either. CONCLUSION In a homogeneous group of patients, platelet pathogen reduction resulted in an increased number of platelet units transfused per week while having no impact on the total number of platelets transfused or the number of RBC transfusion; resulting to an average requirement of 2 RBC and 2-3 platelets transfusions per week of marrow aplasia.
Prophylactic tranexamic acid in patients with hematologic malignancy: a placebo controlled, randomized clinical trial
Evidence of effectiveness of prophylactic use of tranexamic acid (TXA) in thrombocytopenia is lacking. To determine whether TXA safely reduces bleeding incidence in patients undergoing treatment for hematologic malignancies, a randomized double blind clinical trial was conducted June 2016 through June 2020. Of 3120 screened adults 356 patients were eligible and enrolled, and 337 patients (mean age, 53.9; 141 (41.8%) women), randomized to 1,300mg TXA orally or 1,000mg TXA intravenously (n=168) versus placebo (n=169) thrice daily for maximum 30 days. 330 patients were activated when their platelet counts fell below 30,000/µl; 279 (83%) had complete outcome ascertainment. WHO grade 2 or higher bleeding was observed in the 30 days following activation in 50.3% (73/145) and 54.2% (78/144) of patients in the TXA and placebo groups, adjusted odds ratio: 0.83 (95%CI:0.50,1.34; p=0.44). There was no statistically significant difference in mean number of platelet transfusions (0.1;95%CI:-1.9,2.0), mean days alive without grade 2 or higher bleeding (0.8;95%CI:-0.4,2.0), thrombotic events (6/163 (3.7%) TXA, 9/163 (5.5%) placebo), or deaths due to serious bleeding. Most common adverse events were: diarrhea [(116/164 (70.7%) TXA and 114/163 (69.9%) placebo)]; febrile neutropenia [111/164 (67.7%) TXA, 105/163 (64.4%) placebo]; fatigue [106/164 (64.6%) TXA, 109/163 (66.9%) placebo]; and nausea [104/164 (63.4%) TXA, 97/163 (59.5%) placebo]. Among patients with hematologic malignancy undergoing chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, prophylactic treatment with tranexamic acid compared with placebo did not significantly reduce the risk of WHO grade 2 or higher bleeding. Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02578901.
Patients who were thrombocytopenic due to primary bone marrow disorders or chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and/or radiation therapy (n= 337).
Tranexamic acid (TXA) orally or intravenously (n= 168).
Placebo (n= 169).
The primary outcome of WHO grade 2 or higher bleeding during the first 30 days after activation was observed for 73 out of 145 (50.3%) and 78 out of 144 (54.2%) patients in the TXA and placebo groups, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in mean number of platelet transfusions (0.1), mean days alive without grade 2 or higher bleeding (0.8), thrombotic events (6/163 (3.7%) TXA, 9/163 (5.5%) placebo), or deaths due to serious bleeding.
Sequential eradication of Helicobacter pylori as a treatment for immune thrombocytopenia in patients with moderate thrombocytopenia: a multicenter prospective randomized phase 3 study
Annals of hematology. 2022
Due to several issues, standard treatments are not recommended for asymptomatic patients with moderate immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Since platelet responses are reported in some patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-positive ITP after eradication, we conducted a multicenter, phase 3 study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of recently established sequential eradication for these patients having moderate thrombocytopenia. Persistent or chronic ITP patients with platelet count (30 × 10(3) ~ 80 × 10(3)/μL) and confirmed active H. pylori infection were randomly assigned to a treatment and a control group. The former received 10-day sequential treatment. Eradication was assessed by urea breath test at 3 months after treatment. Primary endpoint was the overall platelet response rate at 3 months in successfully eradicated treatment group and control group. Secondary endpoints were platelet response time, H. pylori eradication success rate, etc. The patient enrollment terminated early because of the change of national insurance and treatment guideline for H. pylori-positive patients in Korea during the study. Of the 28 H. pylori-positive ITP patients, 17 were randomized to the treatment group, and eradication was achieved for 15 (88.2%) at 3 months, and seven in control group after withdrawal. Statistically, significant difference in platelet response rates between the two groups were observed (p = 0.017). Our study verifies that H. pylori eradication was an effective ITP treatment for patients with H. pylori-associated moderate ITP. This sequential eradication regimen showed not only a high H. pylori eradication rate, but also a remarkable platelet response for ITP patients. Trial registration number and date of registration for these prospectively registered trials is ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03177629 and June 6, 2017.
Sirolimus plus prednisolone vs sirolimus monotherapy for kaposiform hemangioendothelioma: a randomized clinical trial
The Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP) in kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is characterized by life-threatening thrombocytopenia and consumptive coagulopathy. This study compared the efficacy and safety of sirolimus plus prednisolone versus sirolimus monotherapy as treatment strategies for KHE with KMP in the largest cohort to date. Participants were randomized to receive either sirolimus in combination with a short course of prednisolone or sirolimus monotherapy for at least 12 months. The primary outcome was defined as achievement of a durable platelet response (platelet count >100×109/L) at week 4. Participants completed efficacy assessments 2 years after the initial treatment. At week 4, a durable platelet response was achieved by 35 of 37 patients given sirolimus and prednisolone compared with 24 of 36 patients given sirolimus monotherapy (difference 27.9%; 95% CI, 10.0% to 44.7%). Compared with the sirolimus monotherapy group, the combination treatment group showed improvements in terms of measures of durable platelet responses at all points during the initial 3-week treatment period, median platelet counts during weeks 1 to 4, increased numbers of patients achieving fibrinogen stabilization at week 4, and objective lesion responses at month 12. Patients receiving combination therapy had fewer blood transfusions and a lower total incidence of disease sequelae than patients receiving sirolimus alone. The frequencies of total adverse events and grade 3-4 adverse events during treatment were similar in both groups. The responses seen in patients with KHE with KMP were profound and encouraging, suggesting that sirolimus plus prednisolone should be considered a valid treatment for KHE with KMP. ClinicalTrial.gov, number NCT03188068.
Efficacy of combined immunosuppression with or without eltrombopag in children with newly diagnosed aplastic anemia
Blood advances. 2022
We compared the efficacy and safety of eltrombopag (ELTR) combined with immunosuppressive therapy (IST) and IST alone in treatment-naïve children with severe (SAA) and very severe (vSAA) aplastic anemia. Ninety-eight pediatric patients were randomized to receive horse antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporin A with (n=49) or without (n=49) ELTR. The primary endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR) at 4 months. After 4 months, nonresponders were crossed over to the alternative group. In all patients, the ORR in ELTR+IST and IST groups was similar (65% vs. 53%, p=0.218); however, the complete response (CR) rate was significantly higher in ELTR+IST group (31% vs. 12%, p=0.027). In severity subgroups, the ORR was 89% vs. 57% (p=0.028) in favor of IST+ELTR in SAA, but it did not differ in patients with vSAA (52% vs. 50%, p=0.902). At 6 months after the crossover, 61% of initial ELTR(-) patients achieved a response compared to 17% of initial ELTR(+) patients (p=0.016). No significant difference in ELTR+IST and IST groups was observed in the 3-year OS (89% vs. 91%, p=0.673) or the 3-year EFS (53% vs. 41%, p=0.326). There was no unexpected toxicity related to ELTR. Adding ELTR to standard IST was well tolerated and increased the CR rate. The greatest benefit from ELTR combined with IST was observed in patients with SAA, but not in those with vSAA. The second course of IST resulted in a high ORR in initial ELTR(-) patients who added ELTR and had limited efficacy among patients who received ELTR upfront. Clinicaltrials.gov #NCT03413306.
Romiplostim for chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia: Efficacy and safety of extended use
Research and practice in thrombosis and haemostasis. 2022;6(3):e12701
BACKGROUND Chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (CIT) is common during treatment with antineoplastic therapies and may adversely impact chemotherapy dose intensity. There is no approved therapy for CIT. In our recent phase II randomized study, romiplostim led to correction of platelet counts in 85% of treated patients and allowed resumption of chemotherapy, with low rates of recurrent CIT in the first two cycles or 8 weeks of chemotherapy. However, there is a lack of long-term data on the efficacy and safety of romiplostim in CIT. OBJECTIVES To analyze efficacy and safety of romiplostim in the patients in the phase 2 study, who received romiplostim for ≥1 year. PATIENTS/METHODS Twenty-one patients remained on romiplostim for ≥1 year. We analyzed the effect of romiplostim on platelet counts, absolute neutrophil counts, and hemoglobin, as well as impact on ongoing chemotherapy. We also tracked venous or arterial thrombotic events. RESULTS During the study period, romiplostim was effective in preventing reduction of chemotherapy dose intensity due to CIT. Fourteen of the 20 (70%) analyzable patients experienced no episode of CIT, 4 subjects experienced a single chemotherapy dose delay due CIT, and 2 patients required a chemotherapy dose reduction. Platelet counts were preserved throughout the duration of the extension analysis. One patient experienced a proximal deep vein thrombosis, and one patient experienced multiple tumor-related ischemic events. CONCLUSIONS Long-term use of romiplostim for treatment of CIT was effective and safe, with no evidence of resistance or increased risk of thrombosis.
Efficacy of packed red blood cell transfusions based on weight versus formula in thalassemic children: An open-label randomized control trial
BACKGROUND Protocols for transfusion therapy in transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) children differ among various medical centers. In India, most centers consider only the patient's weight while calculating the volume of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) to be transfused. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of PRBC transfusions of different volumes calculated either by weight or by a formula using weight and pretransfusion hemoglobin of patient and hematocrit of PRBC. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Sixty TDT patients in the age group of 3-9 years were enrolled and randomly allocated to two groups. Group A received PRBC transfusion volume based on the patient's weight, and Group B received PRBC volume calculated using a formula for 6 months. RESULTS Average pretransfusion hemoglobin in Group A and Group B (9 ± 0.4 vs. 8.9 ± 0.4 g/dl) was not significantly different (p = .353). Although the average number of visits in 6 months was less for Group A compared to Group B (7 ± 1 vs. 8 ± 1; p = .001); the average volume transfused per visit was more (351 ± 78 vs. 287 ± 68 ml; p = .003). The calculated average annual pure red cell requirement of the patients was 178 ml/kg/year for Group A and 154 ml/kg/year for Group B (p = .000). Total donor exposures were significantly lower in Group B than Group A (11 ± 3 vs. 14 ± 3; p = .006). CONCLUSION The number of donor exposures and annual pure red cell requirement was significantly lower in the formula-based group. Transfusions based on formula are recommended in TDT patients.
Transfusion-dependent thalassemia children (n= 60).
Packed red blood cells (PRBC) transfusion volume based on the patient’s weight (Group A, n= 30).
PRBC transfusion volume calculated according to a formula based on haematocrit of blood unit, desired rise in patient's haemoglobin, and patient's weight (Group B, n= 30).
The average number of visits in 6 months was less for Group A compared to Group B (7 ± 1 vs. 8 ± 1). The average volume transfused per visit was higher for Group A than Group B (351 ± 78 vs. 287 ± 68 ml). The calculated average annual pure red cell requirement of the patients was 178 ml/kg/year for Group A and 154 ml/kg/year for Group B. The total donor exposures were significantly lower in Group B than Group A (11 ± 3 vs. 14 ± 3).
Does difference between label and actual potency of factor VIII concentrate affect pharmacokinetic-guided dosing of replacement therapy in haemophilia A?
Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2022
BACKGROUND To account for interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of factor concentrates, PK-guided dosing is increasingly implemented in haemophilia patients. Calculations are based on provided label potency, but legislation allows a potency difference of ±20% between label and actual potency. It is unknown if these differences affect PK guidance. AIM: Explore the effects of potency differences on individual factor VIII (FVIII) PK parameters and the prediction of FVIII trough levels of dosing regimens. METHODS We analyzed individual preoperative PK profiling data from severe and moderate haemophilia A patients included in the OPTI-CLOT randomized controlled trial. Label and actual potency were compared, with data on potency provided by pharmaceutical companies. For both potencies, individual PK parameters were estimated and concentration-time curves were constructed by nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. Finally, we explored the effect of both the identified and the maximum legislated potency difference on predicted FVIII trough levels infused in a low and high dose regimen. RESULTS In 45/50 included patients, actual potency was higher than its label potency. The median potency difference was 6.0% (range -9.2% to 18.4%) and resulted in varying individual PK parameter estimates but practically identical FVIII concentration-time curves. As expected, predicted FVIII trough levels were linearly correlated to the actual dose. CONCLUSION It is not necessary to take potency differences into account when applying PK guidance of FVIII concentrates in haemophilia A patients. However, when the patient is switched to another FVIII batch after PK-guided dosing, trough levels may deviate ±20% from calculations based on label dose.
Comparison of the effects of calcium channel blockers plus iron chelation therapy versus chelation therapy only on iron overload in children and young adults with transfusion-dependent thalassemia: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial
Pediatric blood & cancer. 2022;:e29564
BACKGROUND Myocardial iron deposition is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT). Amlodipine, L-type calcium channel blocker with regular chelation therapy may reduce myocardial iron overload. Lack of randomized trials prompted this study to assess the effect of calcium channel blocker (amlodipine) in combination with iron chelation therapy on iron overload in patients with TDT. METHODS Sixty-four eligible patients were randomized to receive either amlodipine and chelation (group A) or chelation alone (group B) in double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Myocardial iron concentration (MIC) using T2* magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), liver iron concentration (LIC), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and serum ferritin were measured at baseline and 12 months. RESULTS In the amlodipine group, mean cardiac T2* value significantly increased from 18.11 ± 8.47 to 22.15 ± 7.61 (p = .002) at 12 months, whereas in control group, there was a nonsignificant increase (p = .62) in cardiac T2* value from 19.50 ± 8.84 to 20.03 ± 9.07. There was a significant decrease in MRI-derived MIC in the amlodipine group compared to control group (1.93 ± 1.61 to 1.29 ± 0.90, p = .01). Changes in the LVEF (p = .45), MRI-derived LIC (p = .09), and serum ferritin (p = .81) were not significant between the two groups. CONCLUSION Amlodipine is safe and when combined with chelation therapy appears to be more effective in reducing cardiac iron overload than chelation only in children and young adults with TDT.
Oral eltrombopag versus subcutaneous recombinant human thrombopoietin for promoting platelet engraftment after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: A PROSPECTIVE, NON-INFERIORITY, RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Hematological oncology. 2022
Delayed platelet engraftment (DPE) is associated with poor survival and increased transplantation-related mortality after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Therefore, treatments are needed to improve platelet engraftment and prevent DPE. We performed a phase 3, non-inferior, randomized controlled study of eltrombopag or recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) to promot platelet engraftment after allo-HSCT. Candidates for allo-HSCT were randomly assigned to receive oral eltrombopag (50mg daily) or subcutaneous rhTPO (15000U daily ) from the first-day post-transplantation. The primary endpoint was the cumulative numbers of platelet engraftment (platelet recovery ≥ 20 × 10(9) /L, without transfusion, for seven consecutive days) on day 60 after transplantation. We performed intention-to-treat analyses with a non-inferior margin of -15%. A total of 92 participants underwent randomization. 44 and 48 patients were randomized to the eltrombopag and rhTPO groups, respectively. The median duration of follow-up was 360 days (range: 12-960 days). The cumulative incidence of platelet engraftment on day 60 after transplantation in eltrombopag group was 86.4% (38/44) compared with 85.4% (41/48) in the rhTPO group (absolute risk difference [ARD] 1%, one-sided lower limit of 95% confidence interval [CI] -13.28%, P(non-inferirioty) =0.014). The rate of DPE in the eltrombopag group was 6.8% (3/44) compared with 12.5% (6/ 48) in the rhTPO group (ARD -5.7%, one-sided higher limit of 95% CI 6.28%, P(non-inferirioty) =0.063). Approximately, 3/4 of non-haematologic adverse events were not observed in the eltrombopag group but three patients (3/48, 6%) experienecd them in the rhTPO group. In addtion, platelet transfusions unite from day 0 to day 21, or from day 22 to day 60, progression-free survival, overall survival were not significantly different between both groups. Eltrombopag was non-inferior to rhTPO in promoting platelet engraftment post allo-HSCT for patients with haematological malignancy. Oral eltrombopag was more convenient for patients than subcutaneous rhTPO (NCT03515096). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.