Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Thrombopoietin Receptor Agonists in Adults With Thrombocytopenia: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trial
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2021;12:704093
Thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) play a crucial role in stimulating thrombopoiesis. However, conventional meta-analyses have shown inconsistent results regarding the efficacy of thrombopoietin receptor agonists versus placebo. Therefore, we performed a network meta-analysis to assess the effects of five TPO-RAs via indirect comparison. For this network meta-analysis, we considered randomized trials that included any of the following interventions: avatrombopag, lusutrombopag, eltrombopag, romiplostim, recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO). We searched the Medline, PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases for randomized controlled clinical trials from inception to January 31, 2021. We use randomized controlled clinical trials of TPO-RAs for treatment of immune thrombocytopenia in adults. The primary outcome was the number of patients achieving platelet response which was defined as the achievement of a platelet count of more than 30 or 50 cells × 10(9)/L in the absence of rescue therapy, and the secondary outcome was the therapy-related serious adverse events and incidence of bleeding episodes. To obtain the estimates of efficacy and safety outcomes, we performed a random-effects network meta-analysis. These estimates were presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. We use surface under the cumulative ranking probabilities to rank the comparative effects and safety of all drugs against the placebo. In total, 2,207 patients were analyzed in 20 clinical trials. All preparations improved the point estimates of platelet response when compared with the placebo. Avatrombopag and lusutrombopag had the best platelet response compared to the placebo, the former had a non-significant advantage compared to the latter [odds ratio (OR) = 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 0.52, 7.05)]. The treatments were better than eltrombopag, romiplostim, rituximab, and rhTPO + rituximab, with corresponding ORs of 3.10 (1.01, 9.51), 9.96 (2.29, 43.29), 33.09 (8.76, 125.02), and 21.31 (3.78, 119.98) for avatrombopag and 1.62 (0.63, 4.17), 5.21 (1.54, 17.62), 17.34 (5.15, 58.36), and 11.16 (2.16, 57.62) for lusutrombopag. Regarding bleeding, the placebo group had the highest probability of bleeding, whereas lusutrombopag had the lowest risk of bleeding when compared to the placebo. Adverse events were slightly higher in patients receiving rituximab than in those receiving placebo or other treatments. Overall, this meta-analysis showed that avatrombopag may yield the highest efficacy because it has the most favorable balance of benefits and acceptability.
Adults with thrombocytopenia (20 studies, n= 2,207).
Thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs): avatrombopag, lusutrombopag, eltrombopag, romiplostim, recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO).
All preparations improved the point estimates of platelet response when compared with the placebo. Avatrombopag and lusutrombopag had the best platelet response compared to the placebo, the former had a non-significant advantage compared to the latter. Regarding bleeding, the placebo group had the highest probability of bleeding, whereas lusutrombopag had the lowest risk of bleeding when compared to the placebo. Adverse events were slightly higher in patients receiving rituximab than in those receiving placebo or other treatments.
Evidence-based interventions implemented in low-and middle-income countries for sickle cell disease management: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials
PloS one. 2021;16(2):e0246700
BACKGROUND Despite ~90% of sickle cell disease (SCD) occurring in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), the vast majority of people are not receiving evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to reduce SCD-related adverse outcomes and mortality, and data on implementation research outcomes (IROs) and SCD is limited. This study aims to synthesize available data on EBIs for SCD and assess IROs. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of RCTs reporting on EBIs for SCD management implemented in LMICs. We identified articles from PubMed/Medline, Global Health, PubMed Central, Embase, Web of Science medical subject heading (MeSH and Emtree) and keywords, published from inception through February 23, 2020, and conducted an updated search through December 24, 2020. We provide intervention characteristics for each study, EBI impact on SCD, and evidence of reporting on IROs. MAIN RESULTS 29 RCTs were analyzed. EBIs identified included disease modifying agents, supportive care agents/analgesics, anti-malarials, systemic treatments, patient/ provider education, and nutritional supplements. Studies using disease modifying agents, nutritional supplements, and anti-malarials reported improvements in pain crisis, hospitalization, children's growth and reduction in severity and prevalence of malaria. Two studies reported on the sustainability of supplementary arginine, citrulline, and daily chloroquine and hydroxyurea for SCD patients. Only 13 studies (44.8%) provided descriptions that captured at least three of the eight IROs. There was limited reporting of acceptability, feasibility, fidelity, cost and sustainability. CONCLUSION EBIs are effective for SCD management in LMICs; however, measurement of IROs is scarce. Future research should focus on penetration of EBIs to inform evidence-based practice and sustainability in the context of LMICs. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION This review is registered in PROSPERO #CRD42020167289.
Coadministration of silymarin with iron chelators in transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis for effect on iron overload
Expert review of clinical pharmacology. 2021;:1-9
Background and aim: We conducted a systematic review to apprise the efficacy of silymarin in conjunction with standard iron chelators on iron overload for transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia (TDT) patients.Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Sciencedirect, the Cochrane Library (the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to 1 May 2020. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) studies comparing the effect of iron chelators alone versus silymarin plus standard routine treatment on iron burden amid TDT were included in this review. Primary outcomes comprised serum ferritin level (ng/mL), liver iron concentration (LIC Fe/kg dry weight), and total iron binding capacity (TIBC mcg/dL)Results: Combination therapy of silymarin and iron chelators showed a significant improvement in serum ferritin level in TDT patients, compared to nonsilymarin users [eight studies, n = 477]; weighted mean difference (WMD) -1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.86 to -0.72, I(2) 96.1%; P = 0.001. Concurrent treatment with silymarin failed to significantly decrease LIC in TDT patients [two studies, n = 106]; WMD 0.74, 95% CI -1.62 to 3.10, I(2) 96.6%; P = 0.54.Conclusion: There is no evidence of the effectiveness of adding silymarin to standard iron chelators to reduce iron load in TDT.
Eltrombopag Effectiveness and Tolerability in Chronic Immune Thrombocytopenia: A Meta-Analysis
Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis. 2021;27:10760296211005555
Eltrombopag is an orally administered, non-peptide, thrombopoietin receptor agonist which initiates thrombopoietin signaling and stimulates the production of normally functioning platelet. We aimed to do a systematic review and meta-analysis of currently available published data to verify whether eltrombopag treatment in patients with chronic immune-mediated thrombocytopenia can prolong survival. We searched for published, randomized, controlled trials in PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus databases using the following search strategy ("Eltrombopag" OR "Benzoates" OR "Hydrazines") AND ("Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura" OR "immune thrombocytopenia" OR "Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpuras" OR "Immune Thrombocytopenia" OR "Autoimmune Thrombocytopenia" OR "Werlhof"). The pooled relative risk (RR) showed that eltrombopag group has significantly higher overall platelet response than placebo group (MD = 3.42, 95% CI [2.51, 4.65], P > .0001); pooled results were homogenous (P = .27, I(2) = 22%). The pooled relative risk showed that eltrombopag group has lower incidence of any bleeding than placebo group (MD = 0.65, 95% CI [0.48, 0.87], P = .003); pooled results were heterogenous (P = .001, I(2) = 75%) and the detected heterogeneity was best resolved after excluding Bussel et al (P = .10). Homogeneous results were still favored eltrombopag group (MD = 0.75, 95% CI [0.60, 0.93], P = .008).
Neonatal Uterine Bleedings: An Ignored Sign but a Possible Cause of Early-Onset Endometriosis - A Systematic Review
Biomedicine hub. 2021;6(1):6-16
OBJECTIVE Based on the hypothesis that neonatal uterine bleedings (NUB), occurring mostly in the first week after birth, could represent a pathogenetic mechanism for early-onset endometriosis, this systematic review (SR) was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence and screening strategies used to assess and quantify NUB. DESIGN Both a SR and a sample literature search in PubMed and Embase were conducted to gather information on NUB prevalence and screening techniques. This was performed by an information specialist. Only full-text articles regarding the assessment of NUB in neonates in the first 2 weeks after birth were included. No limit on language or publication data was used. MATERIALS AND METHODS The SR was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42019138121). Data was first assessed for eligibility on title and abstract by 2 blinded review authors. Any disagreements were discussed with a third reviewer if necessary. Subsequently, full-text articles were read and assessed for quality using the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook. RESULTS Out of 1,988 articles in the systematic search, 10 relevant articles were selected, of which 8 were identified through the systematic search and 2 were found through other sources. The sample search of 4,445 articles did not bring up relevant articles. Results were not comparable due to the heterogeneity of screening techniques, although data showed consensus. The prevalence of visible bleeding ranged from 3.3 to 53.8% and the prevalence of occult bleeding from 25.4 to 96.7%. The occurrence was the highest between the 3rd and 7th day postpartum (PP) and the bleeding lasted for 3-4 days on average. Various screening techniques for detecting NUB were found in the literature, including the use of hemoglobin detection devices (such as Hemastix) in the vaginal vestibulum, comparison of diapers with stains of known volume, colposcopy, and ultrasonography. CONCLUSION The reported prevalence of NUB varies considerably, with a consistent occurrence between the 3rd and the 7th day PP. Literature to assess NUB is dated. The techniques are poorly described and heterogeneous. Future research should focus on prospective cohort studies in order to attempt to correlate NUB cases to (early-onset) endometriosis.
Surgical management of patients with von Willebrand Disease: summary of 2 systematic reviews of the literature
Blood advances. 2021
Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder. The management of patients with VWD undergoing surgeries is crucial to prevent bleeding complications. To systematically summarize the evidence on the management of patients with VWD undergoing major and minor surgeries to support the development of practice guidelines. We searched Medline and EMBASE through October 2019 for randomized clinical trials (RCTs), comparative observational studies and case series comparing maintaining factor VIII levels or VWF levels >0.50 IU/mL for at least 3 days in patients undergoing major surgery, and options for perioperative management of patients undergoing minor surgery. Two authors screened, abstracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. We conducted meta-analysis when possible. We evaluated the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 7 case series for major surgeries and 2 RCTs and 12 case series for minor surgeries. Very low certainty evidence showed that maintaining factor VIII levels, or VWF levels > 0.50 IU/mL for at least 3 consecutive days showed excellent hemostatic efficacy (as labeled by the researchers) after 74-100% of major surgeries. Low to very low certainty evidence showed that prescribing tranexamic acid and increasing VWF levels to 0.50 IU/mL resulted in less bleeding complications after minor procedures compared to increasing VWF levels to 0.50 IU/mL alone. Given the low-quality evidence to guide management decisions, a shared-decision model leading to individualized therapy plans will be important in patients with VWD undergoing surgical and invasive procedures.
Contemporary Management and Prevention of Vaso-Occlusive Crises (VOCs) in Adults With Sickle Cell Disease
Journal of pharmacy practice. 2021;:8971900211026644
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hematological disorder that primarily affects individuals of African descent from sub-Saharan Africa and along the mediterranean. The main complications leading to hospitalizations include vaso-occlusive crises (VOCs) and acute chest syndrome (ACS). Therefore, the main objective of this paper was to identify and evaluate evidence-based management and prevention of VOCs in patients with SCD. A literature search of PubMed, Medline Cochrane and Google Scholar database (January 1985 to April 2020) was performed using the following search terms "vaso-occlusive crises", "sickle cell disease", "hydroxyurea", "L-glutamine", "voxelotor", "crizanlizumab", "treatment" and "prevention" as well as a combination of these terms. All English-language interventional studies assessing the efficacy and safety of VOC outcomes were evaluated. Literature was excluded if published in a language other than English or if it was a review article. A total of 69 articles were identified and there were 7 articles that met the search criteria. Majority of the studies focused on mean and median annual rates of VOCs as primary outcomes while median time to first sickle cell crises, median rates of hospitalizations etc were evaluated as secondary outcomes. After reviewing the literature, many patients with VOCs will still benefit from hydroxyurea therapy since long term efficacy data and cost is still a concern for the newer agents including L-glutamine, voxelotor and crizanlizumab. Other factors such as cost or compliance may also be taken into consideration when making recommendations for therapy.
Adult patients with sickle cell disease (7 studies).
Several comparators, including: L-glutamine, voxelotor and crizanlizumab.
The majority of the studies focused on mean and median annual rates of vaso-occlusive crises (VOCs) as primary outcomes while median time to first sickle cell crises and median rates of hospitalizations were evaluated as secondary outcomes. The literature suggested that many patients with VOCs were still benefitting from hydroxyurea therapy since long term efficacy data and cost was still a concern for newer agents such as: L-glutamine, voxelotor and crizanlizumab.
Role of gene therapy in Fanconi anemia: A systematic and literature review with future directions
Hematology/oncology and stem cell therapy. 2021
Gene therapy (GT) has been reported to improve bone marrow function in individuals with Fanconi anemia (FA); however, its clinical application is still in the initial stages. We conducted this systematic review, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, to assess the long-term safety and clinical outcomes of GT in FA patients. Electronic searches from PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were conducted and full texts of articles meeting our inclusion criteria were reviewed. Three clinical trials were included, with a total of nine patients and mean age of 10.7 ± 5.7 years. All patients had lentiviral-mediated GT. A 1-year follow-up showed stabilization in blood lineages, without any serious adverse effects from GT. A metaregression analysis could not be conducted, as very little long-term follow-up data of patients was observed, and the median survival rate could not be calculated. Thus, we can conclude that GT seems to be a safe procedure in FA; however, further research needs to be conducted on the longitudinal clinical effects of GT in FA, for a better insight into its potential to become a standard form of treatment.
Treatment of Fanconi Anemia-Associated Head and Neck Cancer: Opportunities to Improve Outcomes
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2021
Fanconi anemia, the most frequent genetic cause of bone marrow failure, is characterized by an extreme predilection towards multiple malignancies, including a greater than 500-fold incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) relative to the general population. Fanconi anemia-associated HNSCC and esophageal SCC (FA-HNSCC) often present at advanced stages with poor survival. Surgical resection remains the primary treatment for FA-HNSCC, and there is often great reluctance to administer systemic agents and/or radiation therapy (RT) to these patients given their susceptibility to DNA damage. The paucity of FA-HNSCC case reports limits evidence-based management, and such cases have not been analyzed collectively in detail. We present a systematic review of FA-HNSCC treatments reported from 1966 to 2020, defining a cohort of 119 FA-HNSCC patients including 16 esophageal SCCs (131 total primary tumors), who were treated with surgery, RT, systemic therapy (including cytotoxic agents, EGFR inhibitors, or immune checkpoint inhibitors), or a combination of modalities. We summarize the clinical responses and regimen-associated toxicities by treatment modality. The collective evidence suggests that when possible, surgical resection with curative intent should remain the primary treatment modality for FA-HNSCC. Radiation can be administered with acceptable toxicity in the majority of cases, including patients who have undergone stem cell transplantation (SCT). While there is little justification for cytotoxic chemotherapy, EGFR inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may be both safe and effective. Immunotherapy may also be considered. Most oncologists have little personal experience with FA-HNSCC. This review is intended as a comprehensive resource for clinicians.
Matching-Adjusted Indirect Comparison of Efficacy and Consumption of rVIII-SingleChain Versus Two Recombinant FVIII Products Used for Prophylactic Treatment of Adults/Adolescents with Severe Haemophilia A
Advances in therapy. 2021
INTRODUCTION Given the relatively small number of patients with haemophilia A, head-to-head comparisons between recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) products are difficult to conduct. This study compared the efficacy and consumption of rVIII-SingleChain (lonoctocog alfa, AFSTYLA(®)) with rAHF-PFM (octocog alfa, Advate(®)) and rFVIIIFc (efmoroctocog alfa, Elocta(®)), for the prophylaxis and treatment of bleeding episodes in previously treated adolescents/adults with severe haemophilia A, through a matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC). METHODS A systematic literature review identified published clinical trials for rAHF-PFM and rFVIIIFc. Individual patient data for rVIII-SingleChain were used to match baseline patient characteristics to those from published trials, using an approach similar to propensity score weighting. After matching, annualized bleeding rates (ABR), percentage of patients with zero bleeds, and rFVIII consumption were compared across trial populations. RESULTS Published data were identified from two rAHF-PFM trials and one rFVIIIFc trial. rVIII-SingleChain had similar ABR (risk ratio [RR]: 0.74 [0.16; 3.48]; RR: 1.18 [0.85; 1.65]) and percentage of patients with zero bleeds (odds ratio [OR]: 1.34 [0.56; 3.22]; OR: 0.78 [0.47; 1.31]) versus rAHF-PFM and rFVIIIFc, respectively. Annual rVIII-SingleChain consumption was significantly lower than rAHF-PFM (mean difference: - 1507.66 IU/kg/year [- 2011.71; - 1003.61]) and equivalent to rFVIIIFc (RR: 0.96 [0.62; 1.49]). CONCLUSION Although limited to published information for comparator trials, these results suggest that with an annualized rFVIII consumption comparable to rFVIIIFc, but significantly lower than rAHF-PFM, routine prophylaxis with rVIII-SingleChain is able to maintain a similar ABR and percentage of patients with zero bleeds, attesting to the long-acting nature of rVIII-SingleChain.