Medical interventions for traumatic hyphema
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2023;3(3):Cd005431
BACKGROUND Traumatic hyphema is the entry of blood into the anterior chamber, the space between the cornea and iris, following significant injury to the eye. Hyphema may be associated with significant complications that uncommonly cause permanent vision loss. Complications include elevated intraocular pressure, corneal blood staining, anterior and posterior synechiae, and optic nerve atrophy. People with sickle cell trait or disease may be particularly susceptible to increases in intraocular pressure and optic atrophy. Rebleeding is associated with an increase in the rate and severity of complications. OBJECTIVES To assess the effectiveness of various medical interventions in the management of traumatic hyphema. SEARCH METHODS We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2022, Issue 3); MEDLINE Ovid; Embase.com; PubMed (1948 to March 2022); the ISRCTN registry; ClinicalTrials.gov; and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). The last date of the search was 22 March 2022. SELECTION CRITERIA Two review authors independently assessed the titles and abstracts of all reports identified by the electronic and manual searches. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials that compared various medical (non-surgical) interventions versus other medical interventions or control groups for the treatment of traumatic hyphema following closed-globe trauma. We applied no restrictions on age, gender, severity of the closed-globe trauma, or level of visual acuity at time of enrollment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and assessed the certainty of evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS We included 23 randomized and seven quasi-randomized studies with a total of 2969 participants. Interventions included antifibrinolytic agents (systemic and topical aminocaproic acid, tranexamic acid, and aminomethylbenzoic acid), corticosteroids (systemic and topical), cycloplegics, miotics, aspirin, conjugated estrogens, traditional Chinese medicine, monocular versus bilateral patching, elevation of the head, and bed rest. We found no evidence of an effect on visual acuity for any intervention, whether measured within two weeks (short term) or for longer periods. In a meta-analysis of two trials, we found no evidence of an effect of aminocaproic acid on long-term visual acuity (RR 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82 to 1.29) or final visual acuity measured up to three years after the hyphema (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.18). Oral tranexamic acid appeared to provide little to no benefit on visual acuity in four trials (RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.25). The remaining trials evaluated the effects of various interventions on short-term visual acuity; none of these interventions was measured in more than one trial. No intervention showed a statistically significant effect (RRs ranged from 0.75 to 1.10). Similarly, visual acuity measured for longer periods in four trials evaluating different interventions was also not statistically significant (RRs ranged from 0.82 to 1.02). The evidence supporting these findings was of low or very low certainty. Systemic aminocaproic acid reduced the rate of recurrent hemorrhage (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.60), as assessed in six trials with 330 participants. A sensitivity analysis omitting two studies not using an intention-to-treat analysis reduced the strength of the evidence (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.08). We obtained similar results for topical aminocaproic acid (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.10) in two trials with 131 participants. We assessed the certainty of the evidence as low. Systemic tranexamic acid had a significant effect in reducing the rate of secondary hemorrhage (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.53) in seven trials with 754 participants, as did aminomethylbenzoic acid (RR 0.10, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.41), as reported in one study. Evidence to support an associated reduction in risk of complications from secondary hemorrhage (i.e. corneal blood staining, peripheral anterior synechiae, elevated intraocular pressure, and development of optic atrophy) by antifibrinolytics was limited by the small number of these events. Use of aminocaproic acid was associated with increased nausea, vomiting, and other adverse events compared with placebo. We found no evidence of an effect on the number of adverse events with the use of systemic versus topical aminocaproic acid or with standard versus lower drug dose. The number of days for the primary hyphema to resolve appeared to be longer with the use of systemic aminocaproic acid compared with no use, but this outcome was not altered by any other intervention. The available evidence on usage of systemic or topical corticosteroids, cycloplegics, or aspirin in traumatic hyphema was limited due to the small numbers of participants and events in the trials. We found no evidence of an effect between a single versus binocular patch on the risk of secondary hemorrhage or time to rebleed. We also found no evidence of an effect on the risk of secondary hemorrhage between ambulation and complete bed rest. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS We found no evidence of an effect on visual acuity of any of the interventions evaluated in this review. Although the evidence was limited, people with traumatic hyphema who receive aminocaproic acid or tranexamic acid are less likely to experience secondary hemorrhage. However, hyphema took longer to clear in people treated with systemic aminocaproic acid. There is no good evidence to support the use of antifibrinolytic agents in the management of traumatic hyphema, other than possibly to reduce the rate of secondary hemorrhage. The potentially long-term deleterious effects of secondary hemorrhage are unknown. Similarly, there is no evidence to support the use of corticosteroids, cycloplegics, or non-drug interventions (such as patching, bed rest, or head elevation) in the management of traumatic hyphema. As these multiple interventions are rarely used in isolation, further research to assess the additive effect of these interventions might be of value.
Prophylactic tranexamic acid in patients with hematologic malignancy: a placebo controlled, randomized clinical trial
Evidence of effectiveness of prophylactic use of tranexamic acid (TXA) in thrombocytopenia is lacking. To determine whether TXA safely reduces bleeding incidence in patients undergoing treatment for hematologic malignancies, a randomized double blind clinical trial was conducted June 2016 through June 2020. Of 3120 screened adults 356 patients were eligible and enrolled, and 337 patients (mean age, 53.9; 141 (41.8%) women), randomized to 1,300mg TXA orally or 1,000mg TXA intravenously (n=168) versus placebo (n=169) thrice daily for maximum 30 days. 330 patients were activated when their platelet counts fell below 30,000/µl; 279 (83%) had complete outcome ascertainment. WHO grade 2 or higher bleeding was observed in the 30 days following activation in 50.3% (73/145) and 54.2% (78/144) of patients in the TXA and placebo groups, adjusted odds ratio: 0.83 (95%CI:0.50,1.34; p=0.44). There was no statistically significant difference in mean number of platelet transfusions (0.1;95%CI:-1.9,2.0), mean days alive without grade 2 or higher bleeding (0.8;95%CI:-0.4,2.0), thrombotic events (6/163 (3.7%) TXA, 9/163 (5.5%) placebo), or deaths due to serious bleeding. Most common adverse events were: diarrhea [(116/164 (70.7%) TXA and 114/163 (69.9%) placebo)]; febrile neutropenia [111/164 (67.7%) TXA, 105/163 (64.4%) placebo]; fatigue [106/164 (64.6%) TXA, 109/163 (66.9%) placebo]; and nausea [104/164 (63.4%) TXA, 97/163 (59.5%) placebo]. Among patients with hematologic malignancy undergoing chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, prophylactic treatment with tranexamic acid compared with placebo did not significantly reduce the risk of WHO grade 2 or higher bleeding. Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02578901.
Patients who were thrombocytopenic due to primary bone marrow disorders or chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and/or radiation therapy (n= 337).
Tranexamic acid (TXA) orally or intravenously (n= 168).
Placebo (n= 169).
The primary outcome of WHO grade 2 or higher bleeding during the first 30 days after activation was observed for 73 out of 145 (50.3%) and 78 out of 144 (54.2%) patients in the TXA and placebo groups, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in mean number of platelet transfusions (0.1), mean days alive without grade 2 or higher bleeding (0.8), thrombotic events (6/163 (3.7%) TXA, 9/163 (5.5%) placebo), or deaths due to serious bleeding.
Is Antifibrinolytic Therapy Effective for Preventing Hemorrhage in Patients with Hemophilia Undergoing Dental Extractions? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis : Official Journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis. 2022;28:10760296221114862
OBJECTIVES This systematic review aims to analyze the systemic administration of antifibrinolytics (tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid) to prevent postoperative bleeding in patients with hemophilia. METHODS This systematic review was conducted adhering to PRISMA guidelines. Only randomized controlled trials that assessed human subjects of any age or gender with any severity of hemophilia undergoing dental extractions, and systemically administered antifibrinolytic therapy compared to placebo were included. Post-operative bleeding episodes and adverse events were presented. PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched through April 15, 2022. The risk ratio (RR) and odds ratio (OR) applying 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using RevMan 5.4.1 (Cochrane). RESULTS Two randomized, placebo-controlled trials pooling in a total of 59 patients were pooled in this analysis. Among patients administered antifibrinolytic therapy, 84% reduced risk of post-operative bleeding was reported (RR = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.05-0.47, P = 0.0009). The chances of post-operative bleeding were reduced by 95% among the antifibrotics group (OR = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.01-0.22, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION This review finds favorable outcomes for the routine use of antifibrinolytic therapy for dental extractions in hemophiliacs. Further trials are required to rationalize existing evidence.
Hyperfibrinolysis in Patients with Solid Malignant Neoplasms: A Systematic Review
Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis. 2020
Solid malignant neoplasms have the capability of disturbing the fibrinolytic system, leading to primary hyperfibrinolysis, a paraneoplastic syndrome that potentially results in severe bleeding. Yet, the full extent of primary hyperfibrinolysis in solid malignant neoplasms is unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study was to systematically review the current literature regarding clinical manifestations, biochemical diagnosis, and treatment of primary hyperfibrinolysis in patients with solid malignant neoplasms. The review was performed in agreement with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The databases PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched on December 5, 2019, without time limits. Studies were included if they comprised at least one biochemical marker of fibrinolysis in addition to fibrinogen degradation products such as D-dimer, and furthermore included a correlation between biochemical marker and clinical outcome. In total, 12 studies were included. All studies were case reports including a total of 21 patients. Prostate cancer was the most frequently represented cancer type (76%), and the majority of cancer patients had metastatic disease (81%). Spontaneous bleeding was the clinical presentation in the majority of patients (76%), and the most frequently localization for the bleedings was subcutaneous. Antifibrinolytic agents were the most commonly used treatment and ceased bleedings in 80% of patients. Three patients died of uncontrolled bleedings. In conclusion, primary hyperfibrinolysis induced by solid malignant neoplasms is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition that should be considered, especially in patients with metastatic disease presenting with serious, spontaneous subcutaneous bleedings. A standardized diagnostic strategy is strongly needed.
Preoperative tranexamic acid does not reduce transfusion rates in major oncologic surgery: Results of a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial
J Surg Oncol. 2020
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Allogeneic blood transfusions are associated with worse postoperative outcomes in oncologic surgery. The aim of this study was to introduce a preoperative intervention to reduce transfusion rates in this population. METHODS Adult patients undergoing major oncologic surgery in five categories with similar transfusion rates were recruited. Enrollees received a single preoperative intravenous dose of placebo or tranexamic acid (1000 mg). The primary outcome measure was perioperative transfusion rate. Secondary outcome measures included: estimated blood loss, thromboembolic events, morbidity, hospital length of stay, and readmission rate. RESULTS Seventy-six patients were enrolled, 39 in the tranexamic acid group and 37 in the placebo group, respectively. Demographics and surgery type were equivalent between groups. The transfusion rates were 8 out of 39 (20.5%) in the tranexamic acid group and 5 out of 37 (13.5%) in the placebo group, respectively (P = .418). Median estimated blood loss was 400 mL (interquartile range [IQR] = 150-600) in the tranexamic acid group compared with 300 mL (IQR = 150-800) in the placebo group (P = .983). There was one pulmonary embolism in each arm and no deep venous thrombosis (P > .999). CONCLUSION Preoperative administration of tranexamic acid at a 1000 mg intravenous dose does not decrease transfusion rates or estimated blood loss in patients undergoing major oncologic surgery.
Patients undergoing major oncologic surgery (n= 76).
Preoperative intravenous dose of tranexamic acid (n= 39).
Placebo (n= 37).
Transfusion rates were 8 out of 39 (20.5%) in the tranexamic acid group and 5 out of 37 (13.5%) in the placebo group. Median estimated blood loss was 400 mL (interquartile range [IQR] = 150-600) in the tranexamic acid group compared with 300 mL (IQR = 150-800) in the placebo group. There was one pulmonary embolism in each arm and no deep venous thrombosis.
Palliative interventions for controlling vaginal bleeding in advanced cervical cancer
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2019;3:Cd011000
BACKGROUND This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 5, 2015.Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide, with estimated 569,847 new diagnoses and 311,365 deaths per year. However, incidence and stage at diagnosis vary greatly between geographic areas and are largely dependent on the availability of a robust population screening programme. For example, in Nigeria, advanced-stage disease at presentation is common (86% to 89.3% of new cases), whereas in the UK, only 21.9% of women present with International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage II+ disease. Women with advanced cancer of the cervix often need palliation for distressing symptoms, such as vaginal bleeding. Vaginal bleeding can be life threatening in advanced disease, with an incidence ranging from 0.7% to 100%. Bleeding is the immediate cause of death in 6% of women with cervical cancer and its management often poses a challenge.Thus, vaginal bleeding remains a common consequence of advanced cervical cancer. Currently, there is no systematic review that addresses palliative interventions for controlling vaginal bleeding caused by advanced cervical cancer. A systematic evaluation of the available palliative interventions is needed to inform decision-making. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid, vaginal packing (with or without formalin-soaked packs), interventional radiology or other interventions compared with radiotherapy for palliative treatment of vaginal bleeding in women with advanced cervical cancer. SEARCH METHODS The search for the original review was run in 23 March 2015, and subsequent searches for this update were run 21 March 2018. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 3) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE via Ovid to March week 2, 2018; and Embase via Ovid to March week 12, 2018. We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings and reference lists of review articles, and contacted experts in the field. We handsearched citation lists of relevant studies. SELECTION CRITERIA We searched for randomised and non-randomised comparative studies that evaluated the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid, vaginal packing (with or without formalin-soaked packs), interventional radiology or other interventions compared with radiotherapy techniques for palliative treatment of vaginal bleeding in women with advanced cervical cancer (with or without metastasis), irrespective of publication status, year of publication or language in the review. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently assessed whether potentially relevant studies met the inclusion criteria. We found no studies for inclusion and, therefore, we analysed no data. MAIN RESULTS The search strategy identified 1522 unique references of which we excluded 1330 on the basis of title and abstract. We retrieved the remaining 22 articles in full, but none satisfied the inclusion criteria. We identified only observational data from single-arm studies of women treated with formalin-soaked packs, interventional radiology or radiotherapy techniques for palliative control of vaginal bleeding in women with cervical cancer. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Since the last version of this review we found no new studies. There is no evidence from controlled trials to support or refute the use of any of the proposed interventions compared with radiotherapy. Therefore, the choice of intervention will be based on local resources. Radiotherapy techniques for managing vaginal bleeding are not readily available in resource-poor settings, where advanced cases of cervical cancer are predominant. Thus, this systematic review identified the need for a randomised controlled trial assessing the benefits and risks of palliative treatments for vaginal bleeding in women with advanced cervical cancer.
The safety and efficacy of lysine analogues in cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Canadian Society of Transfusion Medicine. 2017;:39.. 89.
The Safety and Efficacy of Lysine Analogues in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Transfusion Medicine Reviews. 2017;31(3):141-148
Lysine analogues are effective agents used for the reduction of blood loss and transfusion. However, the safety of lysine analogues in cancer patients remains in question due to a potential risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The objective of our review is to investigate safety and efficacy of lysine analogue administration in the patients with cancer. Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library were searched from inception to June, 2016. Reference lists of retrieved studies were searched to identify additional publications. We included randomized clinical trials in adult cancer patients for which a lysine analogue was administered for the purpose of blood loss reduction. Abstract and full-text selection as well as data extraction and risk of bias assessment was done by 2 independent reviewers. The primary outcome was venous thromboembolic events. Secondary outcomes were other adverse events, blood transfusion, and blood loss. Overall, 11studies involving 1177 patients evaluated at least one of the primary or secondary outcomes. Nine studies evaluated the effects of tranexamic acid, one study evaluated the effects of aminocaproic acid and one study examined both agents. No increased risk of venous thromboembolism was observed for patients who received lysine analogues compared to control (Peto OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.26-1.28). The administration of a lysine analogue significantly decreased both transfusion risk (pooled RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.34-0.80) and blood loss (SMD -1.57, 95% CI -2.21 to -0.92). Among 3 eligible studies, no increased risk was observed for mortality (Peto OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.14-7.18) or infection (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.27-1.27). The safety of lysine analogues in cancer patients has not been extensively studied. Based on the available literature, lysine analogue use has not been associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism or other adverse events, while being effective in reducing blood loss and subsequent transfusion.
Does tranexamic acid reduce blood loss during head and neck cancer surgery?
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia. 2016;60((1)):19-24.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Transfusion of blood and blood products poses several hazards. Antifibrinolytic agents are used to reduce perioperative blood loss. We decided to assess the effect of tranexamic acid (TA) on blood loss and the need for transfusion in head and neck cancer surgery. METHODS After Institutional Review Board approval, 240 patients undergoing supramajor head and neck cancer surgeries were prospectively randomised to either TA (10 mg/kg) group or placebo (P) group. After induction, the drug was infused by the anaesthesiologist, who was blinded to allocation, over 20 min. The dose was repeated every 3 h. Perioperative (up to 24 h) blood loss, need for transfusion and fluid therapy was recorded. Thromboelastography (TEG) was performed at fixed intervals in the first 100 patients. Patients were watched for post-operative complications. RESULTS Two hundred and nineteen records were evaluable. We found no difference in intraoperative blood loss (TA - 750 [600-1000] ml vs. P - 780 [150-2600] ml, P = 0.22). Post-operative blood loss was significantly more in the placebo group at 24 h (P - 200 [120-250] ml vs. TA - 250 [50-1050] ml, P = 0.009), but this did not result in higher number of patients needing transfusions (TA - 22/108 and P - 27/111 patients, P = 0.51). TEG revealed faster clot formation and minimal fibrinolysis. Two patients died of causes unrelated to study drug. Incidence of wound complications and deep venous thrombosis was similar. CONCLUSION In head and neck cancer surgery, TA did not reduce intraoperative blood loss or need for transfusions. Perioperative TEG variables were similar. This may be attributed to pre-existing hypercoagulable state and minimal fibrinolysis in cancer patients.
Antifibrinolytics (lysine analogues) for the prevention of bleeding in people with haematological disorders
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016;((3)):CD009733.
BACKGROUND People with haematological disorders are frequently at risk of severe or life-threatening bleeding as a result of thrombocytopenia (reduced platelet count). This is despite the routine use of prophylactic platelet transfusions to prevent bleeding once the platelet count falls below a certain threshold. Platelet transfusions are not without risk and adverse events may be life-threatening. A possible adjunct to prophylactic platelet transfusions is the use of antifibrinolytics, specifically the lysine analogues tranexamic acid (TXA) and epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA). This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2013. OBJECTIVES To determine the efficacy and safety of antifibrinolytics (lysine analogues) in preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders. SEARCH METHODS We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950) and ongoing trial databases to 07 March 2016. SELECTION CRITERIA We included RCTs involving participants with haematological disorders, who would routinely require prophylactic platelet transfusions to prevent bleeding. We only included trials involving the use of the lysine analogues TXA and EACA. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently screened all electronically-derived citations and abstracts of papers, identified by the review search strategy, for relevancy. Two review authors independently assessed the full text of all potentially relevant trials for eligibility, completed the data extraction and assessed the studies for risk of bias using The Cochrane Collaboration's 'Risk of bias' tool. We requested missing data from one author but the data were no longer available. The outcomes are reported narratively: we performed no meta-analyses because of the heterogeneity of the available data. MAIN RESULTS We identified three new studies in this update of the review. In total seven studies were eligible for inclusion, three were ongoing RCTs and four were completed studies. The four completed studies were included in the original review and the three ongoing studies were included in this update. We did not identify any RCTs that compared TXA with EACA.Of the four completed studies, one cross-over TXA study (eight participants) was excluded from the outcome analysis because it had very flawed study methodology. Data from the other three studies were all at unclear risk of bias due to lack of reporting of study methodology.Three studies (two TXA (12 to 56 participants), one EACA (18 participants) reported in four articles (published 1983 to 1995) were included in the narrative review. All three studies compared the drug with placebo. All three studies included adults with acute leukaemia receiving chemotherapy. One study (12 participants) only included participants with acute promyelocytic leukaemia. None of the studies included children. One of the three studies reported funding sources and this study was funded by a charity.We are uncertain whether antifibrinolytics reduce the risk of bleeding (three studies; 86 participants; very low-quality evidence). Only one study reported the number of bleeding events per participant and there was no difference in the number of bleeding events seen during induction or consolidation chemotherapy between TXA and placebo (induction; 38 participants; mean difference (MD) 1.70 bleeding events, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.37 to 3.77: consolidation; 18 participants; MD -1.50 bleeding events, 95% CI -3.25 to 0.25; very low-quality evidence). The two other studies suggested bleeding was reduced in the antifibrinolytic study arm, but this was statistically significant in only one of these two studies.Two studies reported thromboembolism and no events occurred (68 participants, very low-quality evidence).All three studies reported a reduction in platelet transfusion usage (three studies, 86 participants;