Use of intraoperative cell-salvage for autologous blood transfusions in metastatic spine tumour surgery: a systematic review
Kumar N, Chen Y, Zaw AS, Nayak D, Ahmed Q, Soong R, Wong HK
Lancet Oncology. 2014;15((1):):e33-41.
Metastatic spine tumour surgery (MSTS) and metastatic musculoskeletal tumour surgery (MMTS) are associated with substantial blood loss. Allogeneic blood transfusion is the present method used to replenish this blood. Intraoperative cell salvage (IOCS) is a viable alternative, but is contraindicated in tumour surgery because of the risk of tumour dissemination. Use of IOCS-leucocyte depletion filter (LDF) allows removal of tumour cells from blood salvaged during oncological surgery. However, no reports exist on use of IOCS in MSTS or MMTS. We systematically reviewed studies on IOCS in oncological surgery to investigate whether sufficient evidence exists to support its use in MSTS or MMTS. Copyright 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Influence of autologous and homologous blood transfusion on interleukins and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in peri-operative patients with esophageal cancer
Xing YL, Wang YC
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP. 2014;15((18):):7831-4.
OBJECTIVE To explore the influence of different ways of blood transfusion on the expression levels of interleukins (IL) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) inperi-operative patients with esophageal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 80 patients with esophageal cancer who underwent radical operations were selected as study patients and randomly divided into an observation group (treated with autologous blood transfusion) and control group (with homologous blood transfusion). Changes of intra-operative indexes and peri-operative blood indexes, from hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit value (Hct), to levels of inflammatory factors like interleukins-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were compared. RESULTS Operations for patients in both groups were successfully conducted, and no significant differences in mean surgical duration and intra-operative hemorrhage volume, fluid infusion volume and blood transfusion volume were detected (p>0.05). Compared with values before surgery, Hb and Hct levels decreased significantly while white blood cell count (WBC) increased 1, 5 and 7 d after operation (p<0.05, p<0.01). In addition, WBC was apparently higher in observation group than in control group 5 and 7 d after operation (p<0.01). Compared with before surgery, in the observation group, levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 had no significant differences after operation (P>0.05), but TNF-alpha level increased y (p<0.01), whereas in control group, IL-6 level had no significant difference (p>0.05), IL-8 level decreased obviously (p<0.05), IL-10 level increased markedly first and then decreased gradually as time passed but its level remained elevated (p<0.01), and TNF-alpha level increased first and then decreased, and there was no significant difference 7 d after operation (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS Decreased IL-8 and increased IL-10 levels are two important reasons forimmunosuppression after homologous blood transfusion, whereas autologous blood transfusion can alleviate this while increasing the TNF-alpha level, which also has potential to improve anti-tumor immunity in the human body. IS 1513-7368
Acute normovolemic hemodilution effects on perioperative coagulation in elderly patients undergoing hepatic carcinectomy
Guo JR, Jin XJ, Yu J, Xu F, Zhang YW, Shen HC, Shao Y
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP. 2013;14((8):):4529-32.
Background: Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) has been widely used to prevent the massive blood loss during hepatic carcinoma. The influences of ANH on coagulation function are still controversy, especially in elderly patients. The study observed ANH effects on coagulation function and fibrinolysis in elderly patients undergoing the disease. Materials and Methods: Thirty elderly patients (aged 60-70 yr) with liver cancer (ASA I or II) taken hepatic carcinectomy from February 2007 to February 2008 were randomly divided into ANH group (n=15) and control group (n=15). After tracheal intubation, patients in ANH group and control group were infused with 6% hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.4) and Ringer's solution, respectively. Blood samples were drawn from patients in both groups at five different time points: before anesthesia induction (T1), 30 min after ANH (T2), 1 h after start of operation (T3), immediately after operation (T4), and 24 h after operation (T5). Then coagulation function, soluble fibrin monomer complex (SFMC), prothrombin fragment (F1+2), and platelet membrane glycoprotein (CD62P and activated GP IIb/GP IIIa) were measured. Results: The perioperative blood loss and allogeneic blood transfusion were recorded during the surgery. The perioperative blood loss was not significantly different between two groups (p>0.05), but the volume of allogeneic blood transfusion in ANH group was significantly less than in control group (350.0+/-70.7) mL vs. (457.0+/-181.3) mL (p<0.01). Compared with the data of T1, the prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) measured after T3 were significantly longer (p<0.05) in both groups, but within normal range. There were no significant changes of thrombin time (TT) and D-dimer between two groups at different time points (p>0.05). SFMC and F1+2 increased in both groups, but were not statistically significant. PAC-1-positive cells and CD62P expressions in patients of ANH group were significantly lower than those at T1 (p<0.05) and T2-T5 (p>0.05). Conclusions: ANH has no obvious impact on fibrinolysis and coagulation function in elderly patients undergoing resection of liver cancer. The study suggested that ANH is safe to use in elderly patients and it could reduce allogeneic blood transfusion.
Should intraoperative cell-salvaged blood be used in patients with suspected or known malignancy?
Trudeau JD, Waters T, Chipperfield K
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. 2012;59((11):):1058-70.
PURPOSE Intraoperative cell salvage (ICS) is used as an alternative to allogeneic blood transfusion in an attempt to avoid or minimize the risks associated with allogeneic blood. Intraoperative cell salvage is generally avoided in surgeries where malignancy is confirmed or suspected due to concern for potential metastasis or cancer recurrence. The application of post-processing methods for ICS is hypothesized to eliminate this potential risk. The purpose of this narrative review is to examine the in vitro experimental evidence as it pertains to the removal of tumour cells from ICS blood and to review the clinical studies where ICS blood has been used in patients with malignancy. SOURCE A search of the English literature for relevant articles published from 1973 to 2012 was undertaken using MEDLINE and Cochrane databases. Bibliographies were cross-referenced to locate further studies. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Leukoreduction filters are an effective method for removal of malignant cells from ICS blood. Small non-randomized clinical studies to date do not show evidence of an increased rate of metastasis or cancer recurrence. Although a theoretical risk of disease recurrence persists, the decision to use autologous ICS blood must be weighed against the known risks of allogeneic blood transfusion. CONCLUSION Transfusion of autologous blood harvested via ICS should be considered a viable option for reduction or avoidance of allogeneic product during many oncologic surgeries and may be a lifesaving option for those patients who refuse allogeneic blood products.
Effects of acute normovolemic hemodilution on perioperative coagulation and fibrinolysis in elderly patients undergoing hepatic carcinectomy
Guo JR, Yu J, Jin XJ, Du JM, Guo W, Yuan XH
Chinese Medical Sciences Journal [Chung-Kuo I HsüEh K'o HsüEh Tsa Chih / Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences]. 2010;25((3):):146-50.
OBJECTIVE To observe the effects of acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) on coagulation function and fibrinolysis in elderly patients undergoing hepatic carcinectomy. METHODS Thirty elderly patients (aged 60-70 years) with liver cancer (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-II) scheduled for hepatic carcinectomy from February 2007 to February 2008 were randomly divided into ANH group (n = 15) and control group (n = 15). After tracheal intubation, patients in ANH group and control group were infused with 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) (130/0. 4), and basic liquid containing 6% HES and routine Ringer's solution, respectively. In all the studied patients, blood samples were drawn at five different time points: before anesthesia induction (T1), 30 minutes after ANH (T2), 1 hour after start of operation (T3), immediately after operation (T4), and 24 hours after operation (T5). Then coagulation function, soluble fibrin monomer complex (SFMC), prothrombin fragment (F1+2), and platelet membrane glycoprotein (activated GPIIb/GPIIIa and P-selectin) were measured. RESULTS The perioperative blood loss was not significantly different between the two groups (P > 0. 05). The volume of allogeneic blood transfusion in ANH group was significantly smaller than that in control group (350. 5 +/- 70. 7 mL vs. 457. 8 +/- 181. 3 mL, P < 0. 01). Compared with the data of T1, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time in both groups prolonged significantly after T3 (P < 0. 05), but still within normal range. There were no significant changes in thrombin time and D-dimer between the two groups and between different time points in each group (all P > 0. 05). SFMC and F1 + 2 increased in both groups, but without statistical significance. P-selectin expression on the platelet surface of ANH group was significantly lowered at T2 and T3 compared with the level at T1 (P < 0. 05). Compared with control group, P-selectin was significantly lower in ANH group at T2-T5 (all P < 0. 05). CONCLUSIONS In elderly patients undergoing resection of liver cancer, ANH may not hamper fibrinolysis and coagulation function. It could therefore be safe to largely reduce allogeneic blood transfusion.
Relationship between intraoperative fluid administration and perioperative outcome after pancreaticoduodenectomy: results of a prospective randomized trial of acute normovolemic hemodilution compared with standard intraoperative management
Fischer M, Matsuo K, Gonen M, Grant F, Dematteo RP, D'Angelica MI, Mascarenhas J, Brennan MF, Allen PJ, Blumgart LH, et al
Annals of Surgery. 2010;252((6):):952-8.
BACKGROUND Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) can be associated with significant blood loss and transfusion requirements, with potential adverse short- and long-term consequences. The aim of this study was to determine whether acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH), an established blood conservation technique, reduces perioperative allogeneic transfusions in patients undergoing PD. METHODS One hundred thirty patients undergoing PD were randomized to ANH or standard management (STDM). In the ANH group, intraoperative blood collection was performed to a target hemoglobin of 8. 0 g/dL; crystalloid and colloid were used for volume replacement. Strict transfusion triggers were applied during and after operation. Perioperative complications were prospectively assessed and graded for severity. RESULTS From July 2005 to May 2009, 209 patients were registered, 79 excluded, 65 were randomized to ANH, and 65 to STD. The groups were well matched for demographic, operative, and histopathologic variables. Patients undergoing ANH received over 2 L more fluid intraoperatively (6250 mL, range 2000-11850) compared with patients undergoing STD (3900 mL, range 2000-9000) (P < 0. 001). Transfusion rates were similar (ANH = 16. 9%, 30 units vs STD = 18. 5%, 33 units; P = 0. 82), as was overall perioperative morbidity (ANH = 49. 2% vs STD = 47%, P = 0. 86). There was, however, a trend toward more grade-3 complications in patients undergoing ANH (32% vs 23. 1% STD, P = 0. 17), and complications related to the pancreatic anastomosis (leak/fistula/abscess) were significantly higher in the ANH group (21. 5% vs 7. 7%, P = 0. 045). The intraoperative fluid volume was higher for all patients with pancreatic anastomotic complications (n = 19), regardless of randomization arm (ANH 6000 mL, range 2800-11350 mL vs STD 5000 mL, range 2000-11850 mL, P < 0. 042). CONCLUSION In this randomized trial of patients undergoing PD, ANH did not reduce allogeneic transfusions and resulted in more pancreatic anastomotic complications, likely related to greater intraoperative fluid administration. The benefits of ANH do not necessarily extend to all procedures, and restrictive intravenous fluid management during PD may help improve postoperative outcome.
Effect of perioperative autologous versus allogeneic blood transfusion on the immune system in gastric cancer patients
Chen G, Zhang FJ, Gong M, Yan M
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. 2007;8((8):):560-5.
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BACKGROUND Allogeneic blood transfusion-induced immunomodulation (TRIM) and its adverse effect on the prognosis of patients treated surgically for cancer remain complex and controversial. However, the potential risk associated with allogeneic blood transfusion has heightened interest in the use of autologous blood transfusion. In the present study, the serum concentrations of neopterin, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), T lymphocyte subsets (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), CD4(+)/CD8(+)) and a possible association between these variables were investigated. The purpose was to further evaluate the effect of autologous versus allogeneic blood transfusion on immunological status in patients undergoing surgery for gastric cancer. METHODS Sixty ASA I-II (American Society of Anesthesiologists) patients undergoing elective radical resection for stomach cancer were randomly allocated to receive either allogeneic blood transfusion (n=30) or autologous blood transfusion (n=30). Serum concentrations of the neopterin, IFN-gamma and T lymphocyte subsets in the recipients were measured before induction of anesthesia, after operation, and on the 5th postoperative day. RESULTS Both two groups, serum neopterin, IFN-gamma, percentages of T-cell subsets (CD3(+), CD4(+)), and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio had significantly decreased after operation, but decreased more significantly in group H (receiving allogeneic blood transfusion) than those in group A (receiving autologous whole blood transfusion) (P<0. 05). On the 5th postoperative day, serum neopterin, IFN-gamma, CD3(+), CD4(+) T-cells, and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio returned to the baseline values in group A. In contrast, the above remain decreasing in group H, where there were no significant relations between serum neopterin and IFN-gamma. CONCLUSION Perioperative surgical trauma and stress have an immunosuppressive impact on gastric cancer patients. Allogeneic blood transfusion exacerbates the impaired immune response. Autologous blood transfusion might be significantly beneficial for immune-compromised patients in the perioperative period, clearly showing its superiority over allogeneic blood transfusion.
Intrapleural instillation of autologous blood in the treatment of prolonged air leak after lobectomy: a prospective randomized controlled trial
Shackcloth MJ, Poullis M, Jackson M, Soorae A, Page RD
The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2006;82((3):):1052-6.
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to assess the value of instilling autologous blood into the pleural cavity to seal prolonged air leaks after lobectomy. METHODS Of 319 lobectomies performed over an 18-month period, 22 patients (6. 9%) experienced prolonged air leak (more than 5 days after surgery). Twenty patients consented to be randomly assigned to one of two treatment pathways. The study group received instillation of 120 mL autologous blood into their apical chest drain on the fifth postoperative day, and again if the air leak persisted on days 7 and 9 respectively. No anticoagulation was used for this blood. The control group continued to be treated by tube thoracostomy alone, but if the air leak was still present on the 10th postoperative day they crossed overand underwent intrapleural installation of blood as in the study group. RESULTS After instillation of blood, the air leak was sealed by the next day in 58. 6% of treatments. The median length of air leak was 5 days in the study group and 11 days in the control group (p < 0. 001). Time to chest drain removal (median 6. 5 days versus 12 days) and hospital discharge (median 8 days versus 13. 5 days) were both significantly (p < 0. 001) shorter in the study group. CONCLUSIONS This technique is effective in sealing air leaks after lobectomy. It allows earlier chest drain removal and shortens hospital stay.
Immunologic changes to autologous transfusion after operational trauma in malignant tumor patients: neopterin and interleukin-2
Yan M, Chen G, Fang LL, Liu ZM, Zhang XL
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. 2005;6((1):):49-52.
OBJECTIVE To estimate the impact of autologous transfusion on the status of perioperative immune activation in malignant tumor patients. The Serum Neopterin and Interleukin-2 (IL-2) were measured. METHODS Sixty patients undergoing elective radical resection for malignant stomach tumor were enrolled in the prospective study and assigned to the following groups: (1) Group A received autologous transfusion. (2) Group H received allogeneic transfusion. The perioperative course (Before induction of anesthesia, after operation and 5 d after operation) of Neopterin and IL-2 was compared. RESULTS In group A, Serum Neopterin was significantly lower than baseline after operation and IL-2 had no significant changes. In group H, both Serum Neopterin and IL-2 were significantly lower than baseline after operation and 5 d after operation. Compared with group A, Serum Neopterin was significantly lower than baseline after operation and 5 d after operation and IL-2 was significantly lower than baseline 5 d after operation. CONCLUSION Autologous transfusion decreased the perioperative immune suppression in malignant stomach tumor patients.
Safety and efficacy of transfusions of autologous cryopreserved platelets derived from recombinant human thrombopoietin to support chemotherapy-associated severe thrombocytopenia: a randomised cross-over study
Vadhan-Raj S, Kavanagh JJ, Freedman RS, Folloder J, Currie LM, Bueso-Ramos C, Verschraegen CF, Narvios AB, Connor J, Hoots WK, et al
BACKGROUND The increasing demand for platelet products, and concern over the transfusion-associated risks of alloimmunisation and infections, have motivated a search for improved methods aimed at keeping exposure to donor antigens to a minimum. Transfusion of thrombopoietin-derived autologous platelets might provide an alternative strategy. We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of this strategy with that of transfusion with fresh allogeneic platelets in patients with severe chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. METHODS 20 patients with gynaecological malignancies were treated with two doses of 1.2 microg/kg recombinant human thrombopoietin. From day 12, we aimed to collect 50 units of platelets from these patients by plateletpheresis. Harvested platelets were cryopreserved in ThromboSol and 2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for use in subsequent autologous transfusions. Patients then received carboplatin for up to six cycles. Patients were randomly assigned to group A (n=10), which received allogeneic fresh platelets at the first instance of severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count <15,000/microL) and then autologous cryopreserved platelets at the next, or to group B (n=10), which received first autologous and then allogeneic platelets. In subsequent cycles, all patients received autologous platelets while available. The primary endpoint was platelet count increment corrected for the number of platelets transfused and the patients' body-surface area. Analysis was by intention to treat. FINDINGS Treatment with recombinant human thrombopoietin significantly increased platelet count (median 2.3-fold [range 1.5-3.3], p<0.0001) in all but one patient in group A. The median number of platelets collected per patient was 53 units (14-66) in two collections (one to three). There was no significant difference in the corrected platelet count increments (CCIs) between the 19 paired transfusions of cryopreserved autologous platelets and fresh allogeneic platelets (median 1-h CCI 15.7 vs 19.8, p=0.398; median 24-h CCI 13.0 vs 18.1, p=0.398). 14 of the 19 patients had a good response (1-h CCI >7.5) to their first transfusion of allogeneic platelets. By contrast, all patients had a good response to their first transfusion of autologous platelets (p=0.063). Moreover, no significant decrease in the CCIs (p=0.405) was seen over six cycles after autologous platelet transfusions (n=63). No transfusion reactions or any serious adverse event was recorded during autologous platelet transfusions. INTERPRETATION Recombinant human thrombopoietin facilitated collection of multiple units of platelets, which could be cryopreserved and reinfused to counteract severe thrombocytopenia during multicycle chemotherapy. Transfusion of autologous cryopreserved platelets derived from recombinant human thrombopoietin can provide a viable strategy to minimise the risks of allogeneic platelet transfusions and provide a long-lasting supply of platelet support.