Efficacy and safety of thrombopoietin receptor agonists in children and adults with persistent and chronic immune thrombocytopenia: a meta-analysis
Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. 2023;24(6):763-774
INTRODUCTION In this paper, we systematically review the efficacy and safety of thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPORAs) for treatment of persistent and chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in children and adults. METHODS We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Scopus, EMbase and the Cochrane Library to collect randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TPO-RAs which including avatrombopag hetrombopag eltrombopag and romiplostim treated persistent and chronic ITP from their earliest records to February 2022. RESULTS We included 15 RCTs with a total of 1563 patients. There were ten trials of adults and five trials of children. The results of meta-analysis showed that in adult patients, patients treated with TPO-RAs had longer duration of platelet response, higher platelet response rate, lower use of rescue therapy, and lower incidence of bleeding events, and similar incidence of adverse events compared with placebo. Except for the incidence of any bleeding, the results in children were consistent with those in adults. The network meta-analysis of data on overall platelet response rates in adults showed that avatrombopag was more effective than eltrombopag and hetrombopag. CONCLUSIONS TPO-RAs has better efficacy and higher safety in the treatment of ITP. And the overall response rate of avatrombopag in adults was higher than that in eltrombopag and hetrombopag.
Efficacy and safety of pharmacological interventions for managing sickle cell disease in children and adolescents: protocol for a systematic review with network meta-analysis
BMJ open. 2023;13(2):e064872
INTRODUCTION Sickle cell disease (SCD), an inherited haemoglobinopathy, has important impact on morbidity and mortality, especially in paediatrics. Previous systematic reviews are limited to adult patients or focused only on few therapies. We aim to synthesise the evidence on efficacy and safety of pharmacological interventions for managing SCD in children and adolescents. METHODS AND ANALYSIS This systematic review protocol is available at Open Science Framework (doi:10.17605/OSF.IO/CWAE9). We will follow international recommendations on conduction and report of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Searches will be conducted in PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science (no language nor time restrictions) (first pilot searches performed in May 2022). We will include randomised controlled trials comparing the effects of disease-modifying agents in patients with SCD under 18 years old. Outcomes of interest will include: vaso-occlusive crisis, haemoglobin levels, chest syndrome, stroke, overall survival and adverse events. We will provide a narrative synthesis of the findings, and whenever possible, results will be pooled by means of pairwise or Bayesian network meta-analyses with surface under the cumulative ranking curve analyses. Different statistical methods and models will be tested. Dichotomous outcomes will be reported as OR, risk ratio or HR, while continuous data will be reported as standard mean differences, both with 95% CI/credibility interval. The methodological quality of the trials will be evaluated using the Risk of Bias 2.0 tool, and the certainty of the evidence will be assessed with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION This study refers to a systematic review, so no ethics approval is necessary. We intent to publish our findings in international, peer-reviewed journal. Data will also be presented to peers in scientific events. Additionally, the results obtained in this study may contribute towards the update of therapeutic guidelines and for the development of health policies for SCD. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER CRD42022328471.
A Phase 2 Randomized Controlled Trial of Single-Agent Hydroxyurea Versus Thalidomide Among Adult Transfusion Dependent β Thalassemia Patients
Indian journal of hematology & blood transfusion : an official journal of Indian Society of Hematology and Blood Transfusion. 2023;:1-10
Hydroxyurea and low dose thalidomide are low-cost, easily accessible Hb F inducing agents that have been found to decrease transfusion dependency among transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients. However, these drugs have not much been explored in a randomized controlled setting. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of hydroxyurea and low dose thalidomide in adult transfusion dependent β thalassemia. A total of 39 transfusion dependent β thalassemia patients were randomized into three arms: Arm A (Hydroxyurea 500 mg/day), Arm B (thalidomide 50 mg/day), and Control Arm. The primary outcome was rise in haemoglobin at 24-weeks from the baseline levels. The mean age of the cohort was 26.9 ± 4.7 years. Total 13 patients (33.3%) were splenectomised. The mean rise of haemoglobin at the end of 24 weeks was 0.18 ± 0.645 g/dl, 0.56 ± 1.343 g/dl, and - 0.31 ± 0.942 g/dl in Arm A, Arm B and control arm, respectively, p = 0.127. The mean volume of blood transfused per unit body weight in 24 weeks was significantly less in the thalidomide arm compared with the control arm (p = 0.035). Abdominal pain (Grade 1-2, 23.1%) and pruritus (Grade 1, 15.4%) were the main adverse events in hydroxyurea arm, whereas somnolence was the main side effect noted in the thalidomide arm (Grade 1-2, 78.3%). Single agent hydroxyurea or thalidomide is ineffective in increasing haemoglobin and decreasing transfusion burden among majority of the adult transfusion dependent thalassemia patients. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12288-022-01620-3.
Efanesoctocog Alfa Prophylaxis for Patients with Severe Hemophilia A
The New England Journal of Medicine. 2023;388(4):310-318
BACKGROUND Efanesoctocog alfa provides high sustained factor VIII activity by overcoming the von Willebrand factor-imposed half-life ceiling. The efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of efanesoctocog alfa for prophylaxis and treatment of bleeding episodes in previously treated patients with severe hemophilia A are unclear. METHODS We conducted a phase 3 study involving patients 12 years of age or older with severe hemophilia A. In group A, patients received once-weekly prophylaxis with efanesoctocog alfa (50 IU per kilogram of body weight) for 52 weeks. In group B, patients received on-demand treatment with efanesoctocog alfa for 26 weeks, followed by once-weekly prophylaxis with efanesoctocog alfa for 26 weeks. The primary end point was the mean annualized bleeding rate in group A; the key secondary end point was an intrapatient comparison of the annualized bleeding rate during prophylaxis in group A with the rate during prestudy factor VIII prophylaxis. Additional end points included treatment of bleeding episodes, safety, pharmacokinetics, and changes in physical health, pain, and joint health. RESULTS In group A (133 patients), the median annualized bleeding rate was 0 (interquartile range, 0 to 1.04), and the estimated mean annualized bleeding rate was 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to 0.97). The mean annualized bleeding rate decreased from 2.96 (95% CI, 2.00 to 4.37) to 0.69 (95% CI, 0.43 to 1.11), a finding that showed superiority over prestudy factor VIII prophylaxis (P<0.001). A total of 26 patients were enrolled in group B. In the overall population, nearly all bleeding episodes (97%) resolved with one injection of efanesoctocog alfa. Weekly prophylaxis with efanesoctocog alfa provided mean factor VIII activity of more than 40 IU per deciliter for the majority of the week and of 15 IU per deciliter at day 7. Prophylaxis with efanesoctocog alfa for 52 weeks (group A) improved physical health (P<0.001), pain intensity (P = 0.03), and joint health (P = 0.01). In the overall study population, efanesoctocog alfa had an acceptable side-effect profile, and the development of inhibitors to factor VIII was not detected. CONCLUSIONS In patients with severe hemophilia A, once-weekly efanesoctocog alfa provided superior bleeding prevention to prestudy prophylaxis, normal to near-normal factor VIII activity, and improvements in physical health, pain, and joint health. (Funded by Sanofi and Sobi; XTEND-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04161495.).
Foetal haemoglobin inducers for reducing blood transfusion in non-transfusion-dependent beta-thalassaemias
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2023;1(1):Cd013767
BACKGROUND Non-transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia (NTDβT) is a subset of inherited haemoglobin disorders characterised by reduced production of the β-globin chain of haemoglobin leading to anaemia of varying severity. Although blood transfusion is not a necessity for survival, it may be required to prevent complications of chronic anaemia, such as impaired growth and hypercoagulability. People with NTDβT also experience iron overload due to increased iron absorption from food sources which becomes more pronounced in those requiring blood transfusion. People with a higher foetal haemoglobin (HbF) level have been found to require fewer blood transfusions, thus leading to the emergence of treatments that could increase its level. HbF inducers stimulate HbF production without altering any gene structures. Evidence for the possible benefits and harms of these inducers is important for making an informed decision on their use. OBJECTIVES To compare the effectiveness and safety of the following for reducing blood transfusion for people with NTDβT: 1. HbF inducers versus usual care or placebo; 2. single HbF inducer with another HbF inducer, and single dose with another dose; and 3. combination of HbF inducers versus usual care or placebo, or single HbF inducer. SEARCH METHODS We used standard, extensive Cochrane search methods. The latest search date was 21 August 2022. SELECTION CRITERIA We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing single HbF inducer with placebo or usual care, with another single HbF inducer or with a combination of HbF inducers; or comparing different doses of the same HbF inducer. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We used standard Cochrane methods. Our primary outcomes were blood transfusion and haemoglobin levels. Our secondary outcomes were HbF levels, the long-term sequelae of NTDβT, quality of life and adverse events. MAIN RESULTS We included seven RCTs involving 291 people with NTDβT, aged two to 49 years, from five countries. We reported 10 comparisons using eight different HbF inducers (four pharmacological and four natural): three RCTs compared a single HbF inducer to placebo and seven to another HbF inducer. The duration of the intervention lasted from 56 days to six months. Most studies did not adequately report the randomisation procedures or whether and how blinding was achieved. HbF inducer against placebo or usual care Three HbF inducers, HQK-1001, Radix Astragali or a 3-in-1 combined natural preparation (CNP), were compared with a placebo. None of the comparisons reported the frequency of blood transfusion. We are uncertain whether Radix Astragali and CNP increase haemoglobin at three months (mean difference (MD) 1.33 g/dL, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54 to 2.11; 1 study, 2 interventions, 35 participants; very low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain whether Radix Astragali and CNP have any effect on HbF (MD 12%, 95% CI -0.74% to 24.75%; 1 study, 2 interventions, 35 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Only medians on haemoglobin and HbF levels were reported for HQK-1001. Adverse effects reported for HQK-1001 were nausea, vomiting, dizziness and suprapubic pain. There were no prespecified adverse effects for Radix Astragali and CNP. HbF inducer versus another HbF inducer Four studies compared a single inducer with another over three to six months. Comparisons included hydroxyurea versus resveratrol, hydroxyurea versus thalidomide, hydroxyurea versus decitabine and Radix Astragali versus CNP. No study reported our prespecified outcomes on blood transfusion. Haemoglobin and HbF were reported for the comparison Radix Astragali versus CNP, but we are uncertain whether there were any differences (1 study, 24 participants; low-certainty evidence). Different doses of the same HbF inducer Two studies compared two different types of HbF inducers at different doses over two to six months. Comparisons included hydroxyurea 20 mg/kg/day versus 10 mg/kg/day and HQK-1001 10 mg/kg/day, 20 mg/kg/day, 30 mg/kg/day and 40 mg/kg/day. Blood transfusion, as prespecified, was not reported. In one study (61 participants) we are uncertain whether the lower levels of both haemoglobin and HbF at 24 weeks were due to the higher dose of hydroxyurea (haemoglobin: MD -2.39 g/dL, 95% CI -2.80 to -1.98; very low-certainty evidence; HbF: MD -10.20%, 95% CI -16.28% to -4.12%; very low-certainty evidence). The study of the four different doses of HQK-1001 did not report results for either haemoglobin or HbF. We are not certain if major adverse effects may be more common with higher hydroxyurea doses (neutropenia: risk ratio (RR) 9.93, 95% CI 1.34 to 73.97; thrombocytopenia: RR 3.68, 95% CI 1.12 to 12.07; very low-certainty evidence). Taking HQK-1001 20 mg/kg/day may result in the fewest adverse effects. A combination of HbF inducers versus a single HbF inducer Two studies compared three combinations of two inducers with a single inducer over six months: hydroxyurea plus resveratrol versus resveratrol or hydroxyurea alone, and hydroxyurea plus l-carnitine versus hydroxyurea alone. Blood transfusion was not reported. Hydroxyurea plus resveratrol may reduce haemoglobin compared with either resveratrol or hydroxyurea alone (MD -0.74 g/dL, 95% CI -1.45 to -0.03; 1 study, 54 participants; low-certainty evidence). We are not certain whether the gastrointestinal disturbances, headache and malaise more commonly reported with hydroxyurea plus resveratrol than resveratrol alone were due to the interventions. We are uncertain whether hydroxyurea plus l-carnitine compared with hydroxyurea alone may increase mean haemoglobin, and reduce pulmonary hypertension (1 study, 60 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Adverse events were reported but not in the intervention group. None of the comparisons reported the outcome of HbF. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS We are uncertain whether any of the eight HbF inducers in this review have a beneficial effect on people with NTDβT. For each of these HbF inducers, we found only one or at the most two small studies. There is no information on whether any of these HbF inducers have an effect on our primary outcome, blood transfusion. For the second primary outcome, haemoglobin, there may be small differences between intervention groups, but these may not be clinically meaningful and are of low- to very low-certainty evidence. Data on adverse effects and optimal doses are limited. Five studies are awaiting classification, but none are ongoing.
People of any age with non-transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia (7 randomised controlled trials, n= 291).
Single foetal haemoglobin (HbF) inducer.
Various comparators, including: usual care or placebo; another HbF inducer; a combination of HbF inducers; or different doses of the same HbF inducer.
The included studies varied widely in the type of HbF inducers investigated and their comparison, the doses and how outcomes were reported. The duration of the trials ranged from two to six months. The inducers used include hydroxyurea, decitabine, HQK‐1001, thalidomide, Radix Astragali, resveratrol, l‐carnitine and combined natural preparation.
Medical interventions for traumatic hyphema
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2023;3(3):Cd005431
BACKGROUND Traumatic hyphema is the entry of blood into the anterior chamber, the space between the cornea and iris, following significant injury to the eye. Hyphema may be associated with significant complications that uncommonly cause permanent vision loss. Complications include elevated intraocular pressure, corneal blood staining, anterior and posterior synechiae, and optic nerve atrophy. People with sickle cell trait or disease may be particularly susceptible to increases in intraocular pressure and optic atrophy. Rebleeding is associated with an increase in the rate and severity of complications. OBJECTIVES To assess the effectiveness of various medical interventions in the management of traumatic hyphema. SEARCH METHODS We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2022, Issue 3); MEDLINE Ovid; Embase.com; PubMed (1948 to March 2022); the ISRCTN registry; ClinicalTrials.gov; and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). The last date of the search was 22 March 2022. SELECTION CRITERIA Two review authors independently assessed the titles and abstracts of all reports identified by the electronic and manual searches. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials that compared various medical (non-surgical) interventions versus other medical interventions or control groups for the treatment of traumatic hyphema following closed-globe trauma. We applied no restrictions on age, gender, severity of the closed-globe trauma, or level of visual acuity at time of enrollment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and assessed the certainty of evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS We included 23 randomized and seven quasi-randomized studies with a total of 2969 participants. Interventions included antifibrinolytic agents (systemic and topical aminocaproic acid, tranexamic acid, and aminomethylbenzoic acid), corticosteroids (systemic and topical), cycloplegics, miotics, aspirin, conjugated estrogens, traditional Chinese medicine, monocular versus bilateral patching, elevation of the head, and bed rest. We found no evidence of an effect on visual acuity for any intervention, whether measured within two weeks (short term) or for longer periods. In a meta-analysis of two trials, we found no evidence of an effect of aminocaproic acid on long-term visual acuity (RR 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82 to 1.29) or final visual acuity measured up to three years after the hyphema (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.18). Oral tranexamic acid appeared to provide little to no benefit on visual acuity in four trials (RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.25). The remaining trials evaluated the effects of various interventions on short-term visual acuity; none of these interventions was measured in more than one trial. No intervention showed a statistically significant effect (RRs ranged from 0.75 to 1.10). Similarly, visual acuity measured for longer periods in four trials evaluating different interventions was also not statistically significant (RRs ranged from 0.82 to 1.02). The evidence supporting these findings was of low or very low certainty. Systemic aminocaproic acid reduced the rate of recurrent hemorrhage (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.60), as assessed in six trials with 330 participants. A sensitivity analysis omitting two studies not using an intention-to-treat analysis reduced the strength of the evidence (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.08). We obtained similar results for topical aminocaproic acid (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.10) in two trials with 131 participants. We assessed the certainty of the evidence as low. Systemic tranexamic acid had a significant effect in reducing the rate of secondary hemorrhage (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.53) in seven trials with 754 participants, as did aminomethylbenzoic acid (RR 0.10, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.41), as reported in one study. Evidence to support an associated reduction in risk of complications from secondary hemorrhage (i.e. corneal blood staining, peripheral anterior synechiae, elevated intraocular pressure, and development of optic atrophy) by antifibrinolytics was limited by the small number of these events. Use of aminocaproic acid was associated with increased nausea, vomiting, and other adverse events compared with placebo. We found no evidence of an effect on the number of adverse events with the use of systemic versus topical aminocaproic acid or with standard versus lower drug dose. The number of days for the primary hyphema to resolve appeared to be longer with the use of systemic aminocaproic acid compared with no use, but this outcome was not altered by any other intervention. The available evidence on usage of systemic or topical corticosteroids, cycloplegics, or aspirin in traumatic hyphema was limited due to the small numbers of participants and events in the trials. We found no evidence of an effect between a single versus binocular patch on the risk of secondary hemorrhage or time to rebleed. We also found no evidence of an effect on the risk of secondary hemorrhage between ambulation and complete bed rest. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS We found no evidence of an effect on visual acuity of any of the interventions evaluated in this review. Although the evidence was limited, people with traumatic hyphema who receive aminocaproic acid or tranexamic acid are less likely to experience secondary hemorrhage. However, hyphema took longer to clear in people treated with systemic aminocaproic acid. There is no good evidence to support the use of antifibrinolytic agents in the management of traumatic hyphema, other than possibly to reduce the rate of secondary hemorrhage. The potentially long-term deleterious effects of secondary hemorrhage are unknown. Similarly, there is no evidence to support the use of corticosteroids, cycloplegics, or non-drug interventions (such as patching, bed rest, or head elevation) in the management of traumatic hyphema. As these multiple interventions are rarely used in isolation, further research to assess the additive effect of these interventions might be of value.
Recombinant human thrombopoietin promotes platelet recovery in DCAG-treated patients with intermediate-high-risk MDS/hypoproliferative AML
BACKGROUND This study aimed to explore the effects of recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) on platelet recovery in decitabine, cytarabine, aclarubicin, and G-CSF (DCAG)-treated patients with intermediate-high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome/hypo proliferative acute myeloid leukemia. METHODS Recruited patients were at a ratio of 1:1 into 2 groups: the rhTPO group (DCAG + rhTPO) and control group (DCAG). The primary endpoint was the time for platelets to recover to ≥ 20 × 109/L. The secondary endpoints were the time for platelets to recover to ≥ 30 × 109/L and ≥ 50 × 109/L, overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS The time required for platelet recovery to ≥ 20 × 109/L, ≥30 × 109/L, and ≥ 50 × 109/L in the rhTPO group was significantly shorter (6.5 ± 2.2 vs 8.4 ± 3.1 days, 9.0 ± 2.7 vs 12.2 ± 3.9 days, 12.4 ± 4.7 vs 15.5 ± 9.3 days, respectively; all P < .05 vs controls). The amount of platelet transfusion in the rhTPO group was smaller (4.4 ± 3.1 vs 6.1 ± 4.0 U, P = .047 vs controls). The bleeding score was lower (P = .045 vs controls). The OS and PFS were significantly different (P = .009 and P = .004). The multivariable analysis showed that age, karyotype, and time for PLT recovery to ≥ 20 × 109/L were independently associated with OS. Adverse events were similar. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that rhTPO leads to a faster platelet recovery after DCAG treatment, reduces the risk of bleeding, reduces the number of platelet transfusions, and prolongs the OS and PFS.
Sovleplenib (HMPL-523), a novel Syk inhibitor, for patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia in China: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1b/2 study
The Lancet. Haematology. 2023
BACKGROUND Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) inhibitor is a treatment option for primary immune thrombocytopenia. We aimed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, preliminary activity, and recommended phase 2 dose of sovleplenib in patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia. METHODS This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1b/2 study was conducted at nine hospitals in China. Eligible patients were aged 18-75 years, had an ECOG performance score of 0-1, had primary immune thrombocytopenia for more than 6 months, and did not respond or relapsed after previous first-line treatment or had poor response or postoperative relapse after a splenectomy. Dose-escalation (100 mg, 200 mg, or 300 mg given orally once a day) and dose-expansion phases (recommended phase 2 dose) each consisted of an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled period in which patients were randomly assigned (3:1) to receive sovleplenib or placebo with an interactive web response system followed by a 16-week, open-label period with sovleplenib. Patients, investigators, and the sponsor were masked to treatment allocation during the first 8 weeks. The main efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients whose platelet count reached 30â€‰Ã—â€‰10(9) platelets per L or higher and was double of the baseline at two consecutive visits during 0-8 weeks without rescue therapy. Efficacy was evaluated by intention-to-treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03951623. FINDINGS Between May 30, 2019, and April 22, 2021, 62 patients were assessed for eligibility and 45 (73%) were randomly assigned. Patients received at least one dose of the study drug during the 8-week double-blind period (placebo [n=11] and sovleplenib 100 mg [n=6], 200 mg [n=6], 300 mg [n=16], and 400 mg [n=6]; this group was added following the observation of no protocol-specified safety events at the previous doses). All participants were Asian; 18 (40%) of 45 were male and 27 (60%) were female. The median age was 40Â·0 years (IQR 33Â·0-50Â·0). Ten (29%) of 34 patients in sovleplenib groups versus five (45%) of 11 in the placebo group received concomitant anti-primary immune thrombocytopenia therapy. The recommended phase 2 dose was determined as 300 mg once a day. The proportion of patients who met the main efficacy endpoint were three (50%; 95% CI 12-88) in the 100 mg group, three (50%; 12-88) in the 200 mg group, ten (63%; 35-85) in the 300 mg group, and two (33%; 4-78) in the 400 mg group compared with one (9%; 0-41) in the placebo group. The overall response rate in the 300 mg group was 80% (16 of 20 who received continuous sovleplenib plus those who crossed over from placebo) and the durable response rate was 31% (11-59; five of 16) in the continuous sovleplenib 300 mg and 75% (19-99; three of four) crossed from placebo to sovleplenib during 0-24 weeks. During the 28-day safety evaluation period, two grade 2 or worse treatment-related treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in the sovleplenib groups (hypertriglyceridaemia and anaemia). During 0-8 weeks, the most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events were an increase in blood lactate dehydrogenase, haematuria, and urinary tract infection (seven [21%] of 34 in sovleplenib groups vs one [9%] of 11 in the placebo group); and occult blood-positive and hyperuricaemia (four [12%] vs three [27%] for each). No fatal treatment-emergent adverse events were recorded. INTERPRETATION Sovleplenib was well tolerated, and the recommended phase 2 dose showed a promising durable response in patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia, which provides evidence for future investigations. A phase 3 trial is ongoing (NCT05029635) to confirm the efficacy and safety of sovleplenib in patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia. FUNDING HUTCHMED.
Efficacy and safety of caffeic acid tablets in the treatment of thrombocytopenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Caffeic acid tablets (CFA) are a proprietary Chinese medicine in treating thrombocytopenia. The efficacy and safety of CFA compared with other platelet-raising drugs for the treatment of thrombocytopenia have been widely reported in the literature, but there is no systematic evaluation. Therefore, we designed this meta-analysis to further establish the efficacy and safety of CFA in treating thrombocytopenia. METHODS A computerized search was conducted in the Chinese biomedical database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), PubMed, and Web of Science databases using the keywords "caffeic acid tablets" and "thrombocytopenia." All randomized controlled trials were selected for the timeframe of build to 02/2023 and then screened and analyzed using RevMan 5.4 and stata17.0 software. RESULTS A total of 35 publications with an overall 2533 patients were included in the study. The results of the meta-analysis showed that CFA were effective in the treatment of thrombocytopenia with a statistically significant difference [relative risk ratio (RR) = 1.24, 95% CI (1.17, 1.31), P < .00001] and in increasing platelet counts [standardized mean difference (SMD) = 1.50, 95% CI (1.09, 1.91), P < .00001], white blood cell count [SMD = 1.08, 95% CI (0.77, 1.39), P < .00001], and neutrophil count [SMD = 0.73, 95% CI (0.19, 1.28), P = .009], and CFA reduced myelosuppression [RR = 0.19, 95% CI (0.1, 0.37), P < .00001] and adverse effects [RR = 0.75, 95% CI (0.58, 0.96), P = .02]. CONCLUSION CFA can effectively improve the clinical outcome of patients with thrombocytopenia with a good safety profile and are worth promoting. However, due to the low quality and small sample size of the included literature, a larger sample size and more standardized, high-quality studies are needed to validate these results.
Effect of recombinant human thrombopoietin on IL-2, IL-4 and platelet parameters in thrombocytopenic purpura
Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France). 2023;69(5):119-125
The objective of this study was to observe the effect of recombinant human thrombopoietin on IL-2, IL-4 and platelet parameters in thrombocytopenic purpura. For this purpose, a convenient sampling method was used to select 84 patients with thrombocytopenic purpura who visited the hospital from January 2018 to December 2022. The patients were divided into the norm group and rhTPO group with 42 cases each by random number table. The norm group was treated with routine treatment, while the rhTPO group was treated with recombinant thrombopoietin based on routine treatment. The changes in IL-2, IL-4, platelet parameters, immune recovery and treatment efficiency of the two groups were compared before and after treatment. Findings suggested that the levels of IL-2 and IL-4 in both groups decreased after treatment compared with those before treatment. However, the level of IL-2 in the rhTPO group after treatment was lower than that in the norm group, and the level of IL-4 in the rhTPO group after treatment was higher than that in the norm group (P<0.05). The levels of platelet parameters PLT and PCT in the two groups after treatment were higher than those before treatment, but the levels of PLT and PCT in the rhTPO group after treatment were higher than those in the norm group (P<0.05). The PLT of the rhTPO group was (69.57±6.73)×109/L after 7 days of treatment, which was higher than that in the norm group (62.05 ± 8.52)×109/L (P<0.05). The levels of PDW and MPV in the two groups after treatment decreased compared with those before treatment, but the levels of PDW and MPV in the rhTPO group after treatment were lower than those in the norm group (P<0.05). The overall immune recovery and treatment effectiveness of the rhTPO group were significantly better than those of the norm group. In summary, recombinant human thrombopoietin used in patients with thrombocytopenic purpura can maintain the balance between T cell activation and inhibition homeostasis, and promote faster recovery of platelet parameters.