Access and use of immunoglobulins in secondary supportive cancer care: A systematic literature review
The journal of medicine access. 2023;7:27550834231197315
BACKGROUND Immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT) benefits patients with primary immuno deficiency (PID) originating from the innate or polygenic defects in the immune system. However, evidence supporting their therapeutic role is not as explicit in secondary immuno deficiency (SID) resulting from the treatment of haematological malignancies. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to (1) create a dataset of relevant research papers, which explore the use of IgRT in SID for analysis, (2) assess the risk of bias within this dataset and (3) study the characteristics of these papers. DESIGN This systematic review was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. In addition to the risk of bias, the study characteristics explored in this article included study design, study geographical location and year of publication. DATA SOURCES AND METHODS To identify studies relevant to the research question, EMBASE and PubMed databases were searched. The Population, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome (PICO) framework was used to assess study quality. Risk of bias and quality of studies were assessed in accordance with the study design. As one model was not appropriate to assess bias in all articles, several tools were used. RESULTS A total of 43 studies were identified from the literature search as relevant to the research objective. The most common study design was a retrospective case-control cohort study (n = 16/43), and randomised trials were among the least commonly used approaches (n = 1). Research in this area is occurring around the globe including the United States (n = 7), Italy (n = 7), China, India, Japan and throughout Europe. The annual number of papers in this area has varied from 2012 (n = 1) to 2021 (n = 7). The studies in this article demonstrated a varied risk of bias, with 9 of the 20 cohort studies scoring less than 5 out of 9 stars. CONCLUSIONS Randomised controlled trials are less frequently used to assess access and use of immunoglobulins. More commonly, a retrospective case-control cohort study was used which correlates with the higher risk of bias seen in the studies in this article. Most of the research concerning immunoglobulin use and access occurs in higher-income countries.
Comparative Efficacy of Rivaroxaban and Immunoglobulin Therapy in the Treatment of Livedoid Vasculopathy: A Systematic Review
Livedoid vasculopathy (LV) is an uncommon chronic coagulation disorder whose underlying etiology is not yet fully understood. It predominantly affects females, especially those in late adolescence. There is currently limited research on treatment options for those with this diagnosis. The present systematic review aims to compare the efficacy of rivaroxaban and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy in the treatment of livedoid vasculopathy. A detailed search was conducted from April 20, 2022, to May 1, 2022, using four databases: Elsevier, Medline Complete, Medline Ovid, and PubMed. Out of these, 20 relevant articles were used, and the data was extracted and analyzed. Both rivaroxaban and IVIG were shown to be effective treatment options with similar treatment response times. However, future large-scale clinical trials are needed to determine an established treatment regimen for these patients.
Systemic therapy of necrobiotic xanthogranuloma: a systematic review
Orphanet journal of rare diseases. 2022;17(1):132
BACKGROUND Even though a plethora of systemic therapies have been proposed for necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (NXG), there is no systematic review on this topic in literature. OBJECTIVE To review all existing literature on the systemic therapy of NXG in order to identify the most effective therapies. METHODS All reported papers in the literature were screened for systemic treatments of NXG. Papers without proper description of the therapies, papers describing topical therapy, and articles without assessment of effectiveness were excluded. Subsequently, we analyzed 79 papers and a total of 175 cases. RESULTS The most effective treatments for NXG are intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), corticosteroids, and combination therapies including corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS Corticosteroids and IVIG should therefore be considered first-line treatments in patients with NXG.
Neuromuscular Complications of Targeted Anticancer Agents: Can Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Induce Myasthenia Gravis? Getting Answers From a Case Report up to a Systematic Review
Frontiers in oncology. 2021;11:727010
More than 40 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have received hematological or oncological indications over the past 20 years, following the approval of imatinib, and many others are currently being tested in clinical and preclinical level. Beyond their common toxicities, no certain agent from this large class of molecularly targeted therapies was strongly associated with "off-target" impairment of neuromuscular transmission, and although myasthenia gravis (MG) is a well-characterized autoimmune disorder, only few sporadic events proven by serologically detected causative autoantibodies and/or by positive electrophysiological tests are reported in the literature. Herein, we present the first case of anti-MUSK (+) MG in a woman with metastatic BRAF-mutant melanoma after long-term treatment with dabrafenib (BRAF inhibitor) and trametinib (MEK inhibitor). Triggered by this report, a systematic literature review was conducted, summarizing all other cancer cases that developed MG, after exposure to any type of targeted agent and regardless of the underlying malignancy. All available data on the clinical diagnosis, the potential of administered TKIs to induce a seropositive myasthenic syndrome, the immune and non-immune-mediated pathogenesis of postsynaptic damage, and the challenging management of this neuromuscular toxicity were collected and discussed. In the presented case, MG was confirmed by both autoantibodies and nerve-conduction tests, while its reactivation after TKIs rechallenge supports a more than coincidental association. The following review identified 12 cancer cases with TKI-related MG in six case reports and one case series. In most of them, the myasthenia diagnosis was challenging, since the clinical symptomatology of fatigable weakness was not corroborating with consistent laboratory and electrophysiological findings. In fact, anti-AchR titers were positive in five and anti-MuSK only in the abovementioned individual. The symptomatology corresponded to TKI discontinuation and standard treatment with pyridostigmine and prednisolone; intravenous immunoglobulin was added only in three, and two required mechanical ventilation. In an era where TKIs will be prescribed more frequently for various malignancies, even in combinations with immune-checkpoint inhibitors, this report synthesizes their risk for neuromuscular complications and increases the clinicians' awareness in order to extend the on-treatment and overall survival of TKI-treated cancer patients.
Treatment of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) secondary to malignancy: a systematic review
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) can be associated with lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD) or solid tumors. A systematic review of published literature was conducted to evaluate response to treatment of ITP secondary to malignancy. Primary outcome was overall response (complete response+response) to first-line treatments [steroids alone or in combination with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg)]. Among secondary outcomes, overall response to second-line treatments [splenectomy, rituximab or thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RA)] and death were evaluated. Of the retrieved 238 text articles, 108 were analyzable, for a total of 154 patients: 142 in 105 case reports and 12 in 3 observational studies. Thirty-nine patients had solid tumors, 114 LPD, and 1 both. The median follow up was 19 months (IQR, 9-40). The overall response was 50% (62% in solid tumors, 46% in LPD) after steroids and 47% (67% in solid tumors, 36% in LPD) after steroids+IVIg, which are lower than historical responses observed in primary ITP (≈80%). The overall responses to rituximab (used in LPD only), splenectomy and TPO-RA (70%, 73% and 92%, respectively) were similar to those observed in primary ITP. Seven patients (6%) died due to bleeding events. ITP secondary to malignancy appears to be associated with unsatisfactory response to first-line treatments.
A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study and Systematic Review of Necrobiotic Xanthogranuloma With Proposed Diagnostic Criteria
JAMA dermatology. 2020
Importance: Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (NXG) is a non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis classically associated with paraproteinemia attributable to plasma-cell dyscrasias or lymphoproliferative disorders. Despite the morbidity of NXG, the literature is limited to case reports and small studies, and diagnostic criteria are lacking. Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of NXG and propose diagnostic criteria. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted at tertiary academic referral centers and followed by a systematic review and a consensus exercise. The multicenter cohort included patients with NXG diagnosed at the Brigham and Women's and Massachusetts General Hospitals (2000-2018), the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (2000-2018), and the University of Pennsylvania Health System (2008-2018). The systematic review was conducted in 2018 and included patients with NXG identified in the Cochrane, Ovid EMBASE, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. The consensus exercise was conducted by 8 board-certified dermatologists to identify diagnostic criteria. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographic factors, comorbidities, clinical features, and treatment response. Results: Of 235 included patients with NXG (34 from the multicenter cohort and 201 from the systematic review results), the mean (SD) age at presentation was 61.6 (14.2) years; 147 (62.6%) were female. Paraproteinemia was detected in 193 patients (82.1%), most often IgG-kappa (117 patients [50.0%]). A malignant condition was detected in 59 patients (25.1%), most often multiple myeloma (33 patients [14.0%]). The overall rate of paraproteinemia and/or a malignant condition was 83.8% (197 patients). In the multicenter cohort, evolution of paraproteinemia into multiple myeloma was observed up to 5.7 years (median [range], 2.4 [0.1-5.7] years) after NXG presentation. Cutaneous lesions consisted of papules, plaques, and/or nodules, typically yellow or orange in color (113 of 187 [60.4%]) with a periorbital distribution (130 of 219 [59.3%]). The eye was the leading site of extracutaneous involvement (34 of 235 [14.5%]). In the multicenter cohort, intravenous immunoglobulin had the best treatment response rate (9 of 9 patients [100%]), followed by antimalarial drugs (4 of 5 patients [80%]), intralesional triamcinolone (6 of 8 patients [75%]), surgery (3 of 4 patients [75%]), chemotherapy (8 of 12 patients [67%]), and lenalidomide or thalidomide (5 of 8 patients [63%]). The consensus exercise yielded 2 major criteria, which were (1) clinical and (2) histopathological features consistent with NXG, and 2 minor criteria, consisting of (1) paraproteinemia, plasma-cell dyscrasia, and/or other associated lymphoproliferative disorder and (2) periorbital distribution of cutaneous lesions. In the absence of foreign body, infection, or another identifiable cause, fulfillment of both major and at least 1 minor criterion were proposed to establish the diagnosis of NXG. Conclusions and Relevance: Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma is a multisystem disorder associated with paraproteinemia and malignant conditions. The proposed diagnostic criteria may advance clinical research and should be validated.
Effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulin use in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2020
: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) syndrome is an immune-mediated disorder producing thrombocytopenia and thrombosis, with or without prior exposure to heparin. Although avoidance of heparin products and nonheparin anticoagulants are used, immune-based therapies including intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) have been tried when the thrombocytopenia persists or there is breakthrough thrombosis. We sought to systematically review and analyze the published literature on use of IVIg in the treatment of HIT. A systematic search of PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE and SCOPUS for all study designs and reports were carried out from inception until April 2019. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel and Stata version 13. In 34 patients with HIT, the mean age was 60 years. About 70% cases were by unfractionated heparin exposure and 30% by low-molecular weight heparin. The most common precipitant in the patients without heparin exposure was recent surgery. Average nadir platelet count for which IVIg was used was 28 000/mul. Time from resolution of the thrombocytopenia after IVIg treatment was 3 days with average platelet count recovery to 159 000/mul. Mean time from diagnosis to administration of IVIg was day 18. Thrombosis was identified in 32% of patients. About 77% patients improved (platelet count >100 000/mul or cessation of thrombosis) following use of IVIg. Logistic regression did not identify any factors that predicted IVIg response (P > 0.05). No thrombotic events or other adverse events were noted with use of IVIg. IVIg appears to be a safe and effective treatment option for HIT-related thrombocytopenia and for refractory thrombosis.
Intravenous Immune Globulin (IVIG) for Treatment of Autoimmune Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia: A Systematic Review
Ann Pharmacother. 2020;:1060028020943542
Objective: To evaluate intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) for autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (aHIT), including platelet recovery, IVIG dose, dosing weight, IVIG product used, and complications reported. Data Sources: PubMed and EMBASE were searched from inception through June 21, 2020. Search terms included heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, HIT, intravenous immune globulin, IVIG, autoimmune HIT, aHIT, and immune globulin. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Patients administered IVIG for HIT and diagnosed by immunoassay (optical density ≥2) or positive activation assay were included. Data Synthesis: Twenty-four cases were reviewed; 92% had persistent aHIT. Time to IVIG administration post-nonheparin anticoagulant initiation was 9 days (median). Most common IVIG cumulative dose was 2 g/kg (dosed as 1 g/kg/d for 2 consecutive days); 75% had a favorable platelet increase (≥50 × 10(9)/L) within 5 days of initial IVIG dosing. Relevance to Patient Care and Clinical Practice: aHIT is characterized by critically low platelets, thrombosis, and a persistent delay in platelet recovery despite treatment with a nonheparin anticoagulant. An immunoassay and subsequent confirmatory activation assay (at low, high, and 0 IU/mL unfractionated heparin levels) is recommended to confirm diagnosis. Patients nonresponsive to nonheparin anticoagulants within 5 days of initiation should be evaluated for IVIG treatment (2 g/kg cumulative dose). More data are needed to clarify appropriate IVIG dosing weight, although based on current published literature, it is recommended to use actual body weight. Conclusions: Data reported support use of IVIG as adjunctive therapy for patients with aHIT. Judicious IVIG use based on key clinical and laboratory findings is critical.
What Is the Burden of Immunoglobulin Replacement Therapy in Adult Patients With Primary Immunodeficiencies? A Systematic Review
Frontiers in Immunology. 2018;9:1308
Background: Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) are a group of heterogeneous rare disorders, whereby the immune system is missing or not functioning adequately. For patients requiring treatment, the most common option is immunoglobulin replacement therapy (Ig). Treatment of PIDs is simultaneously associated with both improvements in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and increased treatment burden. Objectives: This review sought to review studies investigating the burden of Ig treatment, synthesize evidence in relation to administration routes (subcutaneous or intravenous) and instruments used, as well as make recommendations for clinical and research applications in this area for patients aged 16 years and older. Methods: We searched Medline, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library. Sifting of titles was performed by two reviewers, and the assessment of full-text articles by three. From a database which contained 3,770 unique results, 67 full texts were reviewed. Eventually, 17 studies were found to meet the inclusion criteria, and included in this review. Due to data heterogeneity, a narrative, descriptive synthesis of the evidence was undertaken. Results: Most studies were carried out in the USA/North America, used a prospective observational design and involved patients with common variable immune deficiency. Four studies measured the burden of receiving IVIg therapy and 13 measured SCIg therapy. A wide range of measures, primarily designed to measure aspects of treatment satisfaction (e.g., life quality index or a slightly modified version) and HRQoL (e.g., The Short Form-36) had been used. Conclusion: Lack of a parallel control group in most studies meant that changes in outcomes could be due to factors other than changes in the treatment regimen. However, overall, PID patients appeared to report little Ig treatment burden and were satisfied with either modality. However, patient preference appeared to be the delivery of the Ig treatment in the patient's home and SCIg was preferred after switching from IVIg therapy. Individual differences appeared to affect treatment preference and therefore understanding the decision support needs of PID patients facing IG treatment choices would be valuable. Using a questionnaire specifically designed to measure the burden of Ig treatment from the patient's perspective is recommended in future research.
Subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy for hypogammaglobulinemia secondary to malignancy or related drug therapy
Transfusion Medicine Reviews. 2016;31((1):):45-50
Immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IRT) has an important role in minimizing infections and improving the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with immunodeficiency, who would otherwise experience recurrent infections. These plasma-derived products are available as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) or subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg). The global demand for these products is growing rapidly and has placed pressure on supply. Some malignancies and their treatment (as well as other medical therapies) can lead to secondary hypogammaglobulinemia or secondary immunodeficiency (SID) requiring IRT. Although IVIg use in this cohort has well-established therapeutic benefits, little is known about SCIg use. A literature search in July 2015 found only 7 published articles on SCIg use. These articles found that both IRT modes had equivalent efficacy in regard to reduction of bacterial infections. In addition, SCIg was reported to produce higher serum IgG trough levels compared with IVIg on equivalent dosage with the added benefit of fewer adverse effects. Patient HRQoL reports demonstrate preference for SCIg because of reduced adverse effects and hospital visits. There are no health economic models published on SCIg use in SID, but models on primary immunodeficiency disease and IRT conclude that SCIg provided greater economic benefits than IVIg. The findings of this small number of reports suggest that SCIg therapy for patients with SID is likely to be beneficial for both the patient and health care providers. To substantiate wider use of SCIg in SID, larger and more detailed studies are needed to accurately quantify the effectiveness of SCIg.