The European Medicines Agency Review of Crizanlizumab for the Prevention of Recurrent Vaso-Occlusive Crises in Patients With Sickle Cell Disease
Crizanlizumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to P-selectin. On October 28, 2020, a conditional marketing authorization valid through the European Union (EU) was issued for crizanlizumab for the prevention of recurrent vaso-occlusive crises (VOCs) in patients with sickle cell disease aged 16 years or older. Crizanlizumab was evaluated in a phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized multicenter trial comparing high-dose (5 mg/kg) crizanlizumab, low-dose (2.5 mg/kg) crizanlizumab and placebo in patients with a history of 2-10 VOCs in the previous year. Patients who were receiving concomitant hydroxycarbamide (HC) as well as those not receiving HC were included in the study. The primary endpoint of the trial was the annual rate of sickle cell-related pain crises as adjudicated by a central review committee. High-dose crizanlizumab led to a 45.3% lower median annual rate of sickle cell-related pain crises compared to placebo (P = 0.010), with no statistically significant difference for the low dose. Treatment with high-dose crizanlizumab led to similar incidences of adverse events (AEs), grade 3 AEs, and serious AEs compared to placebo. Most frequently observed AEs that occurred more often in the crizanlizumab arm compared to placebo were infusion related reactions (34.8% versus 21%), arthralgia (18.2% versus 8.1%), diarrhea (10.6% versus 3.2%), and nausea (18.2% versus 11.3%). The aim of this article is to summarize the scientific review of the application leading to regulatory approval in the EU.
Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Thrombopoietin Receptor Agonists in Adults With Thrombocytopenia: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trial
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2021;12:704093
Thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) play a crucial role in stimulating thrombopoiesis. However, conventional meta-analyses have shown inconsistent results regarding the efficacy of thrombopoietin receptor agonists versus placebo. Therefore, we performed a network meta-analysis to assess the effects of five TPO-RAs via indirect comparison. For this network meta-analysis, we considered randomized trials that included any of the following interventions: avatrombopag, lusutrombopag, eltrombopag, romiplostim, recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO). We searched the Medline, PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases for randomized controlled clinical trials from inception to January 31, 2021. We use randomized controlled clinical trials of TPO-RAs for treatment of immune thrombocytopenia in adults. The primary outcome was the number of patients achieving platelet response which was defined as the achievement of a platelet count of more than 30 or 50 cells × 10(9)/L in the absence of rescue therapy, and the secondary outcome was the therapy-related serious adverse events and incidence of bleeding episodes. To obtain the estimates of efficacy and safety outcomes, we performed a random-effects network meta-analysis. These estimates were presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. We use surface under the cumulative ranking probabilities to rank the comparative effects and safety of all drugs against the placebo. In total, 2,207 patients were analyzed in 20 clinical trials. All preparations improved the point estimates of platelet response when compared with the placebo. Avatrombopag and lusutrombopag had the best platelet response compared to the placebo, the former had a non-significant advantage compared to the latter [odds ratio (OR) = 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 0.52, 7.05)]. The treatments were better than eltrombopag, romiplostim, rituximab, and rhTPO + rituximab, with corresponding ORs of 3.10 (1.01, 9.51), 9.96 (2.29, 43.29), 33.09 (8.76, 125.02), and 21.31 (3.78, 119.98) for avatrombopag and 1.62 (0.63, 4.17), 5.21 (1.54, 17.62), 17.34 (5.15, 58.36), and 11.16 (2.16, 57.62) for lusutrombopag. Regarding bleeding, the placebo group had the highest probability of bleeding, whereas lusutrombopag had the lowest risk of bleeding when compared to the placebo. Adverse events were slightly higher in patients receiving rituximab than in those receiving placebo or other treatments. Overall, this meta-analysis showed that avatrombopag may yield the highest efficacy because it has the most favorable balance of benefits and acceptability.
Adults with thrombocytopenia (20 studies, n= 2,207).
Thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs): avatrombopag, lusutrombopag, eltrombopag, romiplostim, recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO).
All preparations improved the point estimates of platelet response when compared with the placebo. Avatrombopag and lusutrombopag had the best platelet response compared to the placebo, the former had a non-significant advantage compared to the latter. Regarding bleeding, the placebo group had the highest probability of bleeding, whereas lusutrombopag had the lowest risk of bleeding when compared to the placebo. Adverse events were slightly higher in patients receiving rituximab than in those receiving placebo or other treatments.
Efficacy and safety evaluation of avatrombopag in immune thrombocytopenia: analyses of a phase III study and long-term extension
Avatrombopag is an oral thrombopoietin receptor agonist approved for chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). This is a post hoc analysis of the pivotal phase III study (NCT01438840) evaluating additional endpoints not previously described. Thirty-two ITP patients were randomized to avatrombopag and 17 were randomized to placebo during a 26-week core study period (with 21 study visits), followed by an open-label extension period, in which all patients received avatrombopag for varying lengths of time. In this analysis, we evaluated previously unreported response rates at the study visit level, durability of response, and reduction in corticosteroid use with avatrombopag treatment. In the core study, more avatrombopag-treated patients achieved either response (Plt ≥50 000/µL) or complete response (Plt ≥100 000/µL) than placebo-treated patients by day 8 (65.6% vs. 0%; P < .0001 for response; 37.5% vs. 0%; P < .0001 for complete response), day 28 (84.4% vs. 0%; P < .0001 for response; 71.9% vs. 0%; P < .0001 for complete response), and month 6 (87.5% vs. 5.9%; P < .0001 for response; 81.3% vs. 5.9%; P < .0001 for complete response). Durable responders from the core study achieved response and complete response at 96.1% and 60.1% of extension phase visits, respectively. Durable clinically relevant response (Plt ≥30 000/µL for 6 of the final 8 weeks of the core study) occurred in 64.0% of avatrombopag-treated patients versus 0% of placebo-treated patients. More than half (57.1%) of patients on chronic corticosteroids reduced or discontinued corticosteroids. In conclusion, avatrombopag enabled most patients with ITP to achieve clinically meaningful and durable platelet count improvements.
Intravenous iron is non-inferior to oral iron regarding cell growth and iron metabolism in colorectal cancer associated with iron-deficiency anaemia
Scientific reports. 2021;11(1):13699
Oral iron promotes intestinal tumourigenesis in animal models. In humans, expression of iron transport proteins are altered in colorectal cancer. This study examined whether the route of iron therapy alters iron transport and tumour growth. Colorectal adenocarcinoma patients with pre-operative iron deficiency anaemia received oral ferrous sulphate (n = 15), or intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (n = 15). Paired (normal and tumour tissues) samples were compared for expression of iron loading, iron transporters, proliferation, apoptosis and Wnt signalling using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Iron loading was increased in tumour and distributed to the stroma in intravenous treatment and to the epithelium in oral treatment. Protein and mRNA expression of proliferation and iron transporters were increased in tumours compared to normal tissues but there were no significant differences between the treatment groups. However, intravenous iron treatment reduced ferritin mRNA levels in tumours and replenished body iron stores. Iron distribution to non-epithelial cells in intravenous iron suggests that iron is less bioavailable to tumour cells. Therefore, intravenous iron may be a better option in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients with iron deficiency anaemia due to its efficiency in replenishing iron levels while its effect on proliferation and iron metabolism is similar to that of oral iron treatment.
Evidence-based interventions implemented in low-and middle-income countries for sickle cell disease management: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials
PloS one. 2021;16(2):e0246700
BACKGROUND Despite ~90% of sickle cell disease (SCD) occurring in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), the vast majority of people are not receiving evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to reduce SCD-related adverse outcomes and mortality, and data on implementation research outcomes (IROs) and SCD is limited. This study aims to synthesize available data on EBIs for SCD and assess IROs. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of RCTs reporting on EBIs for SCD management implemented in LMICs. We identified articles from PubMed/Medline, Global Health, PubMed Central, Embase, Web of Science medical subject heading (MeSH and Emtree) and keywords, published from inception through February 23, 2020, and conducted an updated search through December 24, 2020. We provide intervention characteristics for each study, EBI impact on SCD, and evidence of reporting on IROs. MAIN RESULTS 29 RCTs were analyzed. EBIs identified included disease modifying agents, supportive care agents/analgesics, anti-malarials, systemic treatments, patient/ provider education, and nutritional supplements. Studies using disease modifying agents, nutritional supplements, and anti-malarials reported improvements in pain crisis, hospitalization, children's growth and reduction in severity and prevalence of malaria. Two studies reported on the sustainability of supplementary arginine, citrulline, and daily chloroquine and hydroxyurea for SCD patients. Only 13 studies (44.8%) provided descriptions that captured at least three of the eight IROs. There was limited reporting of acceptability, feasibility, fidelity, cost and sustainability. CONCLUSION EBIs are effective for SCD management in LMICs; however, measurement of IROs is scarce. Future research should focus on penetration of EBIs to inform evidence-based practice and sustainability in the context of LMICs. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION This review is registered in PROSPERO #CRD42020167289.
Coadministration of silymarin with iron chelators in transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis for effect on iron overload
Expert review of clinical pharmacology. 2021;:1-9
Background and aim: We conducted a systematic review to apprise the efficacy of silymarin in conjunction with standard iron chelators on iron overload for transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia (TDT) patients.Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Sciencedirect, the Cochrane Library (the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to 1 May 2020. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) studies comparing the effect of iron chelators alone versus silymarin plus standard routine treatment on iron burden amid TDT were included in this review. Primary outcomes comprised serum ferritin level (ng/mL), liver iron concentration (LIC Fe/kg dry weight), and total iron binding capacity (TIBC mcg/dL)Results: Combination therapy of silymarin and iron chelators showed a significant improvement in serum ferritin level in TDT patients, compared to nonsilymarin users [eight studies, n = 477]; weighted mean difference (WMD) -1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.86 to -0.72, I(2) 96.1%; P = 0.001. Concurrent treatment with silymarin failed to significantly decrease LIC in TDT patients [two studies, n = 106]; WMD 0.74, 95% CI -1.62 to 3.10, I(2) 96.6%; P = 0.54.Conclusion: There is no evidence of the effectiveness of adding silymarin to standard iron chelators to reduce iron load in TDT.
A double-blind, controlled, crossover trial of amlodipine on iron overload status in transfusion dependent β-thalassemia patients
International journal of clinical practice. 2021;75(8):e14337
BACKGROUND AND AIM This study examined whether administration of amlodipine could improve myocardial iron loading status in patients with transfusion dependent β-thalassemia (TDT), through a placebo-controlled, crossover study. METHODS Amlodipine (5 mg, daily) or placebo were prescribed to all patients (n = 19) for 6 months, and after a 2-week washout period, patients were crossed over to the other group. The efficacy of amlodipine on iron loading was assessed by measuring myocardial T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI T2*, millisecond [ms]) and serum ferritin (ng/mL). RESULTS Seventeen patients completed the study. The mean ± standard deviation [SD] of myocardial MRI T2* at baseline was 9.83 ± 2.67 ms Myocardial MRI T2* value rose to 11.44 ± 4.14 ms post amlodipine treatment in all patients. After placebo, myocardial MRI T2* value reached 10.29 ± 4.01 ms After controlling the baseline measures, Hedges's g for ferritin and myocardial MRI T2* outcomes were estimated 3.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.68 to 4.97) and -1.80 (95% CI -2.58 to -0.10), respectively. CONCLUSION Amlodipine might improve myocardial MRI T2* and serum ferritin level compared to placebo. However, larger clinical studies are needed to confirm the results.
Eltrombopag Effectiveness and Tolerability in Chronic Immune Thrombocytopenia: A Meta-Analysis
Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis. 2021;27:10760296211005555
Eltrombopag is an orally administered, non-peptide, thrombopoietin receptor agonist which initiates thrombopoietin signaling and stimulates the production of normally functioning platelet. We aimed to do a systematic review and meta-analysis of currently available published data to verify whether eltrombopag treatment in patients with chronic immune-mediated thrombocytopenia can prolong survival. We searched for published, randomized, controlled trials in PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus databases using the following search strategy ("Eltrombopag" OR "Benzoates" OR "Hydrazines") AND ("Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura" OR "immune thrombocytopenia" OR "Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpuras" OR "Immune Thrombocytopenia" OR "Autoimmune Thrombocytopenia" OR "Werlhof"). The pooled relative risk (RR) showed that eltrombopag group has significantly higher overall platelet response than placebo group (MD = 3.42, 95% CI [2.51, 4.65], P > .0001); pooled results were homogenous (P = .27, I(2) = 22%). The pooled relative risk showed that eltrombopag group has lower incidence of any bleeding than placebo group (MD = 0.65, 95% CI [0.48, 0.87], P = .003); pooled results were heterogenous (P = .001, I(2) = 75%) and the detected heterogeneity was best resolved after excluding Bussel et al (P = .10). Homogeneous results were still favored eltrombopag group (MD = 0.75, 95% CI [0.60, 0.93], P = .008).
A multicenter, randomized phase III trial of hetrombopag: a novel thrombopoietin receptor agonist for the treatment of immune thrombocytopenia
Journal of hematology & oncology. 2021;14(1):37
BACKGROUND Hetrombopag, a novel thrombopoietin receptor agonist, has been found in phase I studies to increase platelet counts and reduce bleeding risks in adults with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). This phase III study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of hetrombopag in ITP patients. METHODS Patients who had not responded to or had relapsed after previous treatment were treated with an initial dosage of once-daily 2.5 or 5 mg hetrombopag (defined as the HETROM-2.5 or HETROM-5 group) or with matching placebo in a randomized, double-blind, 10-week treatment period. Patients who received placebo and completed 10 weeks of treatment switched to receive eltrombopag, and patients treated with hetrombopag in the double-blind period continued hetrombopag during the following open-label 14-week treatment. The primary endpoint was the proportion of responders (defined as those achieving a platelet count of ≥ 50 × 10(9)/L) after 8 weeks of treatment. RESULTS The primary endpoint was achieved by significantly more patients in the HETROM-2.5 (58.9%; odds ratio [OR] 25.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.83-68.63; p < 0.0001) and HETROM-5 (64.3%; OR 32.81, 95% CI 12.39-86.87; p < 0.0001) group than in the Placebo group (5.9%). Hetrombopag was also superior to placebo in achieving a platelet response and in reducing the bleeding risk and use of rescue therapy throughout 8 weeks of treatment. The durable platelet response to hetrombopag was maintained throughout 24 weeks. The most common adverse events were upper respiratory tract infection (42.2%), urinary tract infection (17.1%), immune thrombocytopenic purpura (17.1%) and hematuria (15%) with 24-week hetrombopag treatment. CONCLUSIONS In ITP patients, hetrombopag is efficacious and well tolerated with a manageable safety profile. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov NCT03222843 , registered July 19, 2017, retrospectively registered.
Neonatal Uterine Bleedings: An Ignored Sign but a Possible Cause of Early-Onset Endometriosis - A Systematic Review
Biomedicine hub. 2021;6(1):6-16
OBJECTIVE Based on the hypothesis that neonatal uterine bleedings (NUB), occurring mostly in the first week after birth, could represent a pathogenetic mechanism for early-onset endometriosis, this systematic review (SR) was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence and screening strategies used to assess and quantify NUB. DESIGN Both a SR and a sample literature search in PubMed and Embase were conducted to gather information on NUB prevalence and screening techniques. This was performed by an information specialist. Only full-text articles regarding the assessment of NUB in neonates in the first 2 weeks after birth were included. No limit on language or publication data was used. MATERIALS AND METHODS The SR was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42019138121). Data was first assessed for eligibility on title and abstract by 2 blinded review authors. Any disagreements were discussed with a third reviewer if necessary. Subsequently, full-text articles were read and assessed for quality using the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook. RESULTS Out of 1,988 articles in the systematic search, 10 relevant articles were selected, of which 8 were identified through the systematic search and 2 were found through other sources. The sample search of 4,445 articles did not bring up relevant articles. Results were not comparable due to the heterogeneity of screening techniques, although data showed consensus. The prevalence of visible bleeding ranged from 3.3 to 53.8% and the prevalence of occult bleeding from 25.4 to 96.7%. The occurrence was the highest between the 3rd and 7th day postpartum (PP) and the bleeding lasted for 3-4 days on average. Various screening techniques for detecting NUB were found in the literature, including the use of hemoglobin detection devices (such as Hemastix) in the vaginal vestibulum, comparison of diapers with stains of known volume, colposcopy, and ultrasonography. CONCLUSION The reported prevalence of NUB varies considerably, with a consistent occurrence between the 3rd and the 7th day PP. Literature to assess NUB is dated. The techniques are poorly described and heterogeneous. Future research should focus on prospective cohort studies in order to attempt to correlate NUB cases to (early-onset) endometriosis.