Efficacy of platelet poor plasma gel in combination with fractional CO(2) laser in striae distensae: a clinical, histological and immunohistochemical study
Journal of cosmetic dermatology. 2021
BACKGROUND Platelet-poor plasma gel is a semi-solid plasma formulation that recently recommended as autologous bio-filler for treatment of atrophic dermal scars. OBJECTIVE To compare the therapeutic efficacy and safety of intradermal injection of plasma gel in combination with fractional CO(2) laser versus fractional CO(2) laser alone in striae distensae (SD). PATIENTS AND METHODS This study included 36 SD patients treated by 3 sessions (one session/1.5 months) of fractional CO(2) laser on all SD lesions following intradermal injection of plasma gel on one side, and saline (as placebo) on the other side. RESULTS Significant clinical improvements associated with remarkable narrowing of SD lesions and prominent enhancement of skin texture were observed on both treatment sides. Obviously, higher degrees of clinical improvements of SD lesions were reported following combined therapy with fractional CO(2) laser and plasma gel rather than fractional CO(2) laser monotherapy. However, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) was reported more frequently with fractional CO(2) laser monotherapy. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed significant epidermal improvement, and homogenization, and orientation of dermal collagen bundles as a result of both therapeutic procedures. CONCLUSION Plasma gel in combination with fractional CO(2) laser could be considered a promising novel treatment modality for SD. Plasma gel not only improves the efficacy of fractional CO(2) laser, but also decreases the frequency of PIH.
A randomized trial of albumin infusion to prevent intradialytic hypotension in hospitalized hypoalbuminemic patients
Critical care (London, England). 2021;25(1):18
BACKGROUND Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a frequent complication of intermittent hemodialysis (IHD), occurring from 15 to 50% of ambulatory sessions, and is more frequent among hospitalized patients with hypoalbuminemia. IDH limits adequate fluid removal and increases the risk for vascular access thrombosis, early hemodialysis (HD) termination, and mortality. Albumin infusion before and during therapy has been used for treating IDH with the varying results. We evaluated the efficacy of albumin infusion in preventing IDH during IHD in hypoalbuminemic inpatients. METHODS A randomized, crossover trial was performed in 65 AKI or ESKD patients with hypoalbuminemia (albumin < 3 g/dl) who required HD during hospitalization. Patients were randomized to receive 100 ml of either 0.9%sodium chloride or 25% albumin intravenously at the initiation of each dialysis. These two solutions were alternated for up to six sessions. Patients' vital signs and ultrafiltration removal rate were recorded every 15 to 30 min during dialysis. IDH was assessed by different definitions reported in the literature. All symptoms associated with a noted hypotensive event as well as interventions during the dialysis were recorded. RESULTS Sixty-five patients were submitted to 249 sessions; the mean age was 58 ([Formula: see text] 12), and 46 (70%) were male with a mean weight of 76 ([Formula: see text] 18) kg. The presence of IDH was lower during albumin sessions based on all definitions. The hypotension risk was significantly decreased based on the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative definition; (15% with NS vs. 7% with albumin, p = 0.002). The lowest intradialytic SBP was significantly worse in patients who received 0.9% sodium chloride than albumin (NS 83 vs. albumin 90 mmHg, p = 0.035). Overall ultrafiltration rate was significantly higher in the albumin therapies [NS - 8.25 ml/kg/h (- 11.18 5.80) vs. 8.27 ml/kg/h (- 12.22 to 5.53) with albumin, p = 0.011]. CONCLUSION In hypoalbuminemic patients who need HD, albumin administration before the dialysis results in fewer episodes of hypotension and improves fluid removal. Albumin infusion may be of benefit to improve the safety of HD and achievement of fluid balance in these high-risk patients. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04522635.
Oral Proton Pump Inhibitors May Be as Effective as Intravenous in Peptic Ulcer Bleeding: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Clinical and translational gastroenterology. 2021;12(4):e00341
INTRODUCTION Current guidelines recommend intravenous (IV) proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy in peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). We aimed to compare the efficacy of oral and IV administration of PPIs in PUB. METHODS We performed a systematic search in 4 databases for randomized controlled trials, which compared the outcomes of oral PPI therapy with IV PPI therapy for PUB. The primary outcomes were 30-day recurrent bleeding and 30-day mortality. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for dichotomous outcomes, while weighted mean differences (WMDs) with CI were calculated for continuous outcomes in meta-analysis. The protocol was registered a priori onto PROSPERO (CRD42020155852). RESULTS A total of 14 randomized controlled trials reported 1,951 peptic ulcer patients, 977 and 974 of which were in the control and intervention groups, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between oral and IV administration regarding 30-day rebleeding rate (OR = 0.96, CI: 0.65-1.44); 30-day mortality (OR = 0.70, CI: 0.35-1.40); length of hospital stay (WMD = -0.25, CI: -0.93 to -0.42); transfusion requirements (WMD = -0.09, CI: -0.07 to 0.24); need for surgery (OR = 0.91, CI: 0.40-2.07); further endoscopic therapy (OR = 1.04, CI: 0.56-1.93); and need for re-endoscopy (OR = 0.81, CI: 0.52-1.28). Heterogeneity was negligible in all analysis, except for the analysis on the length of hospitalization (I2 = 82.3%, P = 0.001). DISCUSSION Recent evidence suggests that the oral administration of PPI is not inferior to the IV PPI treatment in PUB after endoscopic management, but further studies are warranted.
Is There a Role for Tranexamic Acid in Upper GI Bleeding? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Surgery research and practice. 2021;2021:8876991
INTRODUCTION Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic agent which is licensed in the management of haemorrhage associated with trauma. It has been suggested that tranexamic acid may be able to play a role in upper GI bleeding. However, there is currently no recommendation to support this. AIM: The aim of this study was to synthesise available evidence of the effect of TXA on upper GI bleeding. METHODS AND MATERIALS A systematic review was conducted. PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched for relevant studies. A random effects meta-analysis was performed to determine the risk ratio of primary and secondary outcomes pertaining to the use of TXA in upper GI bleeding. RESULTS A total of 8 studies were included in this systematic review. The total number of patients in all studies was 12994 including 4550 females (35%) and 8444 males (65%). The mean age of participants in 6 of the studies was 59.3; however the mean age for either intervention or placebo group was not reported in two of the studies. All studies reported on the effect of TXA on mortality, and the risk ratio was 0.95; however, with the 95% CI ranging from 0.80 to 1.13, this was not statistically significant. 6 of the studies reported on rebleeding rate, the risk ratio was 0.64, and with a 95% CI ranging from 0.47 to 0.86, this was statistically significant. 3 of the studies reported on the risk of adverse thromboembolic events, and the risk ratio was 0.93; however, the 95% CI extended from 0.62 to 1.39 and so was not statistically significant. 7 of the studies reported on the need for surgery, and the risk ratio was 0.59 and was statistically significant with a 95% CI ranging from 0.38 to 0.94. CONCLUSION In conclusion, the use of TXA in upper GI bleeding appears to have a beneficial effect in terms of decreasing the risk of re-bleeding and decreasing the need for surgery. However, we could not find a statistically significant effect on need for blood transfusions, risk of thromboembolic events, or effect on mortality. Future randomised controlled trials may elucidate these outcomes.
Patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding (8 studies, n= 12,994).
Meta-analysis to synthesise available evidence of the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) on upper GI bleeding.
All studies reported on the effect of TXA on mortality, and the risk ratio was 0.95; however, this was not statistically significant. 6 of the studies reported on rebleeding rate, the risk ratio was 0.64, and this was statistically significant. 3 of the studies reported on the risk of adverse thromboembolic events, and the risk ratio was 0.93; however, was not statistically significant. 7 of the studies reported on the need for surgery, and the risk ratio was 0.59 and was statistically significant.
Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Improves Erectile Function: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
The journal of sexual medicine. 2021
BACKGROUND Animal studies postulate that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections improve key elements of the pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to erectile dysfunction (ED). AIM: To conduct the first double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial assessing the efficacy and safety of PRP injections in patients with mild and moderate ED. METHODS Sixty sexually active patients with mild and moderate ED were randomly assigned to two sessions, with a one-month difference, of 10 mL PRP (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) intracavernosal injections. An FDA-approved separation system was used. Patients were evaluated at 1, 3 and 6 months after completion of the treatment protocol. A per-protocol analysis was applied. All participants withheld any ED treatment during the trial. OUTCOMES The achievement of minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in the International Index of Erectile Function - Erectile Domain (IIEF-EF) from baseline to 6 months after final treatment. Erectile function at all time points, as well as safety of PRP injections, were also evaluated. RESULTS At 6 months, a MCID was achieved by 20/29 (69%) patients in the PRP group compared to 7/26 (27%) in the placebo group. The risk difference between the two groups was 42% (95%CI: 18-66), P < 0.001 and the baseline-adjusted mean between-group-difference in the IIEF-EF score was 3.9 points (95%CI: 1.8-5.9). Similarly, a statistically significant difference of both the number of participants attaining a MCID and the IIEF-EF score was also observed at the 1- and 3-month evaluation between the two groups. Accordingly, patients receiving PRP were more satisfied with the treatment. No adverse events were observed during the study period. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS Intracavernosal PRP injection therapy used as outlined in this trial appears to be a safe and effective short-term treatment for the management of mild to moderate ED. STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS We conducted the first clinical trial exploring the role of PRP in the management of ED. Conversely, our findings lack external validity due to single-center design. Furthermore, our results cannot be extrapolated to other PRP separation systems. CONCLUSIONS PRP intracavernosal injections may be a promising addition to the urologist's armamentarium for the management of ED. Still, further high-quality studies are warranted to corroborate our findings. Evangelos P, Mykoniatis I, Pyrgidis N, et al. Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Improves Erectile Function: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. J Sex Med 2021;XX:XXX-XXX.
Patient Preferences for Subcutaneous versus Intravenous Administration of Treatment for Chronic Immune System Disorders: A Systematic Review
Patient preference and adherence. 2021;15:811-834
BACKGROUND For many chronic immune system disorders, the available treatments provide several options for route of administration. The objective of this systematic literature review is to inform discussions about therapy choices for individual patients by summarizing the available evidence regarding the preferences of patients with chronic immune system disorders for intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) administration. METHODS Searches of the MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were conducted using terms designed to capture studies reporting patient preferences between IV and SC therapy published in English. Relevant studies were limited to those in which mode of administration, including treatment frequency and setting, was the main difference between comparators. RESULTS In total, 49 studies were included in the review. Among 18 studies that compared IV and SC immunoglobulin therapy, 16 found patients to prefer the SC administration route. The results of the 31 studies comparing IV infusion and SC injection of non-immunoglobulin therapies were mixed, with patients favoring SC administration in 20, IV infusion in seven, and having no overall preference in four. Patient experience had a strong effect on preferences, with treatment-experienced patients preferring their current administration route in most studies. Patients preferring SC administration tended also to prefer treatment at home, mainly due to the convenience and comfort of home treatment and the avoidance of having to attend hospital. By contrast, patients preferring IV infusion tended to cite the lower treatment frequency and a dislike of self-injecting, and preferred hospital treatment, mainly due to the presence of healthcare professionals and resulting feelings of safety. CONCLUSION In general patients with chronic immune system disorders tend to be more likely to choose SC administration than IV infusion, but preferences may vary according among individuals. These findings may assist discussions around appropriate treatment choices for each patient.
The effectiveness of infliximab for Kawasaki disease in children: systematic review and meta-analysis
Translational pediatrics. 2021;10(5):1294-1306
BACKGROUND Kawasaki disease (KD) is a self-limited illness that results in coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) and threatens children's health and lives. The therapeutic effects of single intravenous immunoglobulin gamma (IVIG) vs. infliximab (IFX) (with or without IVIG) in young children with KD remain unclear. Thus, we made a meta-analysis and systematic review, including all of the studies which have evaluated the effectiveness and safety of IFX and IVIG KD patients. METHODS The databases of the Cochrane Library, PubMed and Embase websites were searched for articles appearing from inception until December 31, 2020. Clinical studies that compared IFX either as initial therapy plus IVIG or rescue therapy after IVIG (IFX group) failure compared with IVIG treatment alone (IVIG group) in treating KD patients were included. RESULTS The meta-analysis included nine studies characterizing 712 patients. The treatment response was significantly higher in the adjunctive IFX therapy group than in the IVIG therapy group [odds ratio (OR) 2.64; 95% CI: 1.52-4.59; P=0.0005]. Subgroup analysis, the effect of IFX therapy on treatment response is more effectiveness in the group of the high-risk KD patients than IVIG therapy (OR 6.07; 95% CI: 2.30-16.04; P=0.0003; random-effects model). Further analysis showed no difference in the improvement of CAAs in short-term follow-up between the two groups. However, adding IFX either as initial therapy or as additional therapy all showed an advantageous effect regarding the ∆Z score of the left anterior descending (LAD) (MD =0.29; 95% CI: 0.27-0.31; P<0.00001) and right coronary artery (RCA) (MD =0.24; 95% CI: 0.22-0.26; P<0.00001). Further, IFX exhibited significant effect on the treatment response compared with IVIG therapy in the Asian group (OR, 2.84; 95% CI: 1.51-5.36; P=0.001; random-effects model), and the beneficial effects of IFX were given without increasing the risk of AEs. CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis emphasizes the importance of IFX on the treatment response in the high-risk KD patients. IFX may play a role in the Asian KD patients and prevention of progressive CAA, and does not increase the risk of AEs in KD patients.
Treatment for bleeding oesophageal varices in people with decompensated liver cirrhosis: a network meta-analysis
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2021;4:Cd013155
BACKGROUND Approximately 40% to 95% of people with liver cirrhosis have oesophageal varices. About 15% to 20% of oesophageal varices bleed within about one to three years after diagnosis. Several different treatments are available, including, among others, endoscopic sclerotherapy, variceal band ligation, somatostatin analogues, vasopressin analogues, and balloon tamponade. However, there is uncertainty surrounding the individual and relative benefits and harms of these treatments. OBJECTIVES To compare the benefits and harms of different initial treatments for variceal bleeding from oesophageal varices in adults with decompensated liver cirrhosis, through a network meta-analysis; and to generate rankings of the different treatments for acute bleeding oesophageal varices, according to their benefits and harms. SEARCH METHODS We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and trials registers until 17 December 2019, to identify randomised clinical trials (RCTs) in people with cirrhosis and acute bleeding from oesophageal varices. SELECTION CRITERIA We included only RCTs (irrespective of language, blinding, or status) in adults with cirrhosis and acutely bleeding oesophageal varices. We excluded RCTs in which participants had bleeding only from gastric varices, those who failed previous treatment (refractory bleeding), those in whom initial haemostasis was achieved before inclusion into the trial, and those who had previously undergone liver transplantation. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We performed a network meta-analysis with OpenBUGS software, using Bayesian methods, and calculated the differences in treatments using odds ratios (OR) and rate ratios with 95% credible intervals (CrI) based on an available-case analysis, according to National Institute of Health and Care Excellence Decision Support Unit guidance. We performed also the direct comparisons from RCTs using the same codes and the same technical details. MAIN RESULTS We included a total of 52 RCTs (4580 participants) in the review. Forty-eight trials (4042 participants) were included in one or more comparisons in the review. The trials that provided the information included people with cirrhosis due to varied aetiologies and those with and without a previous history of bleeding. We included outcomes assessed up to six weeks. All trials were at high risk of bias. A total of 19 interventions were compared in the trials (sclerotherapy, somatostatin analogues, vasopressin analogues, sclerotherapy plus somatostatin analogues, variceal band ligation, balloon tamponade, somatostatin analogues plus variceal band ligation, nitrates plus vasopressin analogues, no active intervention, sclerotherapy plus variceal band ligation, balloon tamponade plus sclerotherapy, balloon tamponade plus somatostatin analogues, balloon tamponade plus vasopressin analogues, variceal band ligation plus vasopressin analogues, balloon tamponade plus nitrates plus vasopressin analogues, balloon tamponade plus variceal band ligation, portocaval shunt, sclerotherapy plus transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), and sclerotherapy plus vasopressin analogues). We have reported the effect estimates for the primary and secondary outcomes when there was evidence of differences between the interventions against the reference treatment of sclerotherapy, but reported the other results of the primary and secondary outcomes versus the reference treatment of sclerotherapy without the effect estimates when there was no evidence of differences in order to provide a concise summary of the results. Overall, 15.8% of the trial participants who received the reference treatment of sclerotherapy (chosen because this was the commonest treatment compared in the trials) died during the follow-up periods, which ranged from three days to six weeks. Based on moderate-certainty evidence, somatostatin analogues alone had higher mortality than sclerotherapy (OR 1.57, 95% CrI 1.04 to 2.41; network estimate; direct comparison: 4 trials; 353 participants) and vasopressin analogues alone had higher mortality than sclerotherapy (OR 1.70, 95% CrI 1.13 to 2.62; network estimate; direct comparison: 2 trials; 438 participants). None of the trials reported health-related quality of life. Based on low-certainty evidence, a higher proportion of people receiving balloon tamponade plus sclerotherapy had more serious adverse events than those receiving only sclerotherapy (OR 4.23, 95% CrI 1.22 to 17.80; direct estimate; 1 RCT; 60 participants). Based on moderate-certainty evidence, people receiving vasopressin analogues alone and those receiving variceal band ligation had fewer adverse events than those receiving only sclerotherapy (rate ratio 0.59, 95% CrI 0.35 to 0.96; network estimate; direct comparison: 1 RCT; 219 participants; and rate ratio 0.40, 95% CrI 0.21 to 0.74; network estimate; direct comparison: 1 RCT; 77 participants; respectively). Based on low-certainty evidence, the proportion of people who developed symptomatic rebleed was smaller in people who received sclerotherapy plus somatostatin analogues than those receiving only sclerotherapy (OR 0.21, 95% CrI 0.03 to 0.94; direct estimate; 1 RCT; 105 participants). The evidence suggests considerable uncertainty about the effect of the interventions in the remaining comparisons where sclerotherapy was the control intervention. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Based on moderate-certainty evidence, somatostatin analogues alone and vasopressin analogues alone (with supportive therapy) probably result in increased mortality, compared to endoscopic sclerotherapy. Based on moderate-certainty evidence, vasopressin analogues alone and band ligation alone probably result in fewer adverse events compared to endoscopic sclerotherapy. Based on low-certainty evidence, balloon tamponade plus sclerotherapy may result in large increases in serious adverse events compared to sclerotherapy. Based on low-certainty evidence, sclerotherapy plus somatostatin analogues may result in large decreases in symptomatic rebleed compared to sclerotherapy. In the remaining comparisons, the evidence indicates considerable uncertainty about the effects of the interventions, compared to sclerotherapy.
Primary and Secondary Prevention Strategies for Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients with Left Ventricular Assist Device: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis
Current problems in cardiology. 2021;:100835
Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is a common complication following left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. Our study aimed to estimate the comparative efficacy of different pharmacologic interventions for the prevention of GIB, through a network meta-analysis (NMA). A total of 13 observational studies comparing six strategies. Among those, 4 were for primary, and 9 were for secondary prevention of GIB. On NMA, thalidomide (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.016, Credible interval [CrI]I: 0.00053-0.12), omega-3-fatty acid (HR:0.088, CrI: 0.026-0.77), octreotide (HR: 0.17, CrI: 0.0589-0.41) and danazol (HR:0.17, CrI: 0.059-0.41) reduced the risk of GIB. The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blocker (ACEi/ARB) and digoxin were not associated with any significant reduction. Based on NMA, combining indirect treatment comparisons, thalidomide, danazol, and octreotide treatments were associated with decreased risk of recurrent GIB. Additionally, Omega 3 fatty acids were associated with a lower risk of the primary episode of GIB in the LVAD patient population.
Primary prevention of variceal bleeding in people with oesophageal varices due to liver cirrhosis: a network meta-analysis
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2021;4:Cd013121
BACKGROUND Approximately 40% to 95% of people with cirrhosis have oesophageal varices. About 15% to 20% of oesophageal varices bleed in about one to three years. There are several different treatments to prevent bleeding, including: beta-blockers, endoscopic sclerotherapy, and variceal band ligation. However, there is uncertainty surrounding their individual and relative benefits and harms. OBJECTIVES To compare the benefits and harms of different treatments for prevention of first variceal bleeding from oesophageal varices in adults with liver cirrhosis through a network meta-analysis and to generate rankings of the different treatments for prevention of first variceal bleeding from oesophageal varices according to their safety and efficacy. SEARCH METHODS We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and trials registers to December 2019 to identify randomised clinical trials in people with cirrhosis and oesophageal varices with no history of bleeding. SELECTION CRITERIA We included only randomised clinical trials (irrespective of language, blinding, or status) in adults with cirrhosis and oesophageal varices with no history of bleeding. We excluded randomised clinical trials in which participants had previous bleeding from oesophageal varices and those who had previously undergone liver transplantation or previously received prophylactic treatment for oesophageal varices. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We performed a network meta-analysis with OpenBUGS using Bayesian methods and calculated the differences in treatments using hazard ratios (HR), odds ratios (OR), and rate ratios with 95% credible intervals (CrI) based on an available-case analysis, according to National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Decision Support Unit guidance. We performed the direct comparisons from randomised clinical trials using the same codes and the same technical details. MAIN RESULTS We included 66 randomised clinical trials (6653 participants) in the review. Sixty trials (6212 participants) provided data for one or more comparisons in the review. The trials that provided the information included people with cirrhosis due to varied aetiologies and those at high risk of bleeding from oesophageal varices. The follow-up in the trials that reported outcomes ranged from 6 months to 60 months. All but one of the trials were at high risk of bias. The interventions compared included beta-blockers, no active intervention, variceal band ligation, sclerotherapy, beta-blockers plus variceal band ligation, beta-blockers plus nitrates, nitrates, beta-blockers plus sclerotherapy, and portocaval shunt. Overall, 21.2% of participants who received non-selective beta-blockers ('beta-blockers') - the reference treatment (chosen because this was the most common treatment compared in the trials) - died during 8-month to 60-month follow-up. Based on low-certainty evidence, beta-blockers, variceal band ligation, sclerotherapy, and beta-blockers plus nitrates all had lower mortality versus no active intervention (beta-blockers: HR 0.49, 95% CrI 0.36 to 0.67; direct comparison HR: 0.59, 95% CrI 0.42 to 0.83; 10 trials, 1200 participants; variceal band ligation: HR 0.51, 95% CrI 0.35 to 0.74; direct comparison HR 0.49, 95% CrI 0.12 to 2.14; 3 trials, 355 participants; sclerotherapy: HR 0.66, 95% CrI 0.51 to 0.85; direct comparison HR 0.61, 95% CrI 0.41 to 0.90; 18 trials, 1666 participants; beta-blockers plus nitrates: HR 0.41, 95% CrI 0.20 to 0.85; no direct comparison). No trials reported health-related quality of life. Based on low-certainty evidence, variceal band ligation had a higher number of serious adverse events (number of events) than beta-blockers (rate ratio 10.49, 95% CrI 2.83 to 60.64; 1 trial, 168 participants). Based on low-certainty evidence, beta-blockers plus nitrates had a higher number of 'any adverse events (number of participants)' than beta-blockers alone (OR 3.41, 95% CrI 1.11 to 11.28; 1 trial, 57 participants). Based on low-certainty evidence, adverse events (number of events) were higher in sclerotherapy than in beta-blockers (rate ratio 2.49, 95% CrI 1.53 to 4.22; direct comparison rate ratio 2.47, 95% CrI 1.27 to 5.06; 2 trials, 90 participants), and in beta-blockers plus variceal band ligation than in beta-blockers (direct comparison rate ratio 1.72, 95% CrI 1.08 to 2.76; 1 trial, 140 participants). Based on low-certainty evidence, any variceal bleed was lower in beta-blockers plus variceal band ligation than in beta-blockers (direct comparison HR 0.21, 95% CrI 0.04 to 0.71; 1 trial, 173 participants). Based on low-certainty evidence, any variceal bleed was higher in nitrates than beta-blockers (direct comparison HR 6.40, 95% CrI 1.58 to 47.42; 1 trial, 52 participants). The evidence indicates considerable uncertainty about the effect of the interventions in the remaining comparisons. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Based on low-certainty evidence, beta-blockers, variceal band ligation, sclerotherapy, and beta-blockers plus nitrates may decrease mortality compared to no intervention in people with high-risk oesophageal varices in people with cirrhosis and no previous history of bleeding. Based on low-certainty evidence, variceal band ligation may result in a higher number of serious adverse events than beta-blockers. The evidence indicates considerable uncertainty about the effect of beta-blockers versus variceal band ligation on variceal bleeding. The evidence also indicates considerable uncertainty about the effect of the interventions in most of the remaining comparisons.