Efficacy of Ferric carboxymaltose in heart failure with iron deficiency: an individual patient data meta-analysis
European heart journal. 2023
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Whereas a beneficial effect of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) on symptoms and exercise capacity among patients with iron deficiency (ID) and heart failure (HF) has been consistently demonstrated, the effects of treatment on clinical events remain the subject of research. This meta-analysis aimed to characterize the effects of FCM therapy on hospitalizations and mortality. METHODS Patient-level data from randomized, placebo-controlled FCM trials including adults with HF and ID with ≥52 weeks follow-up were analysed. The co-primary efficacy endpoints were (1) composite of total/recurrent cardiovascular hospitalizations and cardiovascular death, and (2) composite of total HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular death, through 52 weeks. Key secondary endpoints included individual composite endpoint components. Event rates were analysed using a negative binomial model. Treatment-emergent adverse events were also examined. RESULTS Three FCM trials with a total of 4501 patients were included. FCM was associated with a significantly reduced risk of co-primary endpoint 1 (rate ratio [RR] 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-0.98; P=0.029; Cochran Q: 0.008), with a trend towards a reduction of co-primary endpoint 2 (RR 0.87; 95% CI 0.75-1.01; P=0.076; Cochran Q: 0.024). Treatment effects appeared to result from reduced hospitalization rates, not improved survival. Treatment appeared to have a good safety profile and was well-tolerated. CONCLUSIONS In iron-deficient patients with HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, intravenous FCM was associated with significantly reduced risk of hospital admissions for HF and cardiovascular causes, with no apparent effect on mortality.
Adults with heart failure (HF) and iron deficiency enrolled in the ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) trials: CONFIRM-HF, AFFIRM-AHF, and HEART-FID (3 randomised controlled trials, n= 4,501).
FCM (n= 2,251).
Placebo (n= 2,250).
The co-primary efficacy endpoints were (1) composite of total/recurrent cardiovascular hospitalizations and cardiovascular death, and (2) composite of total HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular death, through 52 weeks. FCM was associated with a significantly reduced risk of co-primary endpoint 1 (rate ratio [RR] 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.75, 0.98]; Cochran Q: 0.008), with a trend towards a reduction of co-primary endpoint 2 (RR 0.87; 95% CI [0.75, 1.01]; Cochran Q: 0.024).
Effects of Intravenous Iron Replacement Therapy on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease. 2023;10(3)
(1) Background: Iron deficiency (ID) is an important adverse prognostic marker in patients with heart failure (HF); however, it is unclear whether intravenous iron replacement reduces cardiovascular mortality in this patient group. Here, we estimate the effect of intravenous iron replacement therapy on hard clinical outcomes following the publication of IRONMAN, the largest trial in this field. (2) Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, prospectively registered with PROSPERO and reported according to PRISMA guidelines, we searched PubMed and Embase for randomized controlled trials investigating intravenous iron replacement in patients with HF and co-existing ID. The primary outcome was cardiovascular mortality and secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, hospitalizations for HF and a combination of the primary outcome and hospitalizations for HF. (3) Results: A total of 1671 items were identified and after removal of duplicates we screened titles and abstracts of 1202 records. Some 31 studies were identified for full-text review and 12 studies were included in the final review. The odds ratio (OR) for cardiovascular death using a random effects model was 0.85 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.04) and for all-cause mortality it was 0.83 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.15). There was a significant reduction in hospitalizations for HF (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.69) and the combination of hospitalizations for HF and cardiovascular death (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.85). (4) Conclusions: This review supports the use of IV iron replacement reducing hospitalization rates for HF, however more research is required to determine the effect on cardiovascular mortality and to identify the patient population most likely to benefit.
Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose for iron repletion following acute heart failure in patients with and without diabetes: a subgroup analysis of the randomized AFFIRM-AHF trial
Cardiovascular diabetology. 2023;22(1):215
BACKGROUND In AFFIRM-AHF, treatment of iron deficiency with intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) reduced the risk of heart failure (HF) hospitalization and improved quality of life (QoL) vs placebo in patients stabilized following an acute HF (AHF) episode, with no effect on cardiovascular (CV) death. Diabetes and iron deficiency frequently accompany AHF. This post hoc analysis explored the effects of diabetes on outcomes in AFFIRM-AHF patients. METHODS Patients were stratified by diabetes yes/no at baseline. The effects of FCM vs placebo on primary (total HF hospitalizations and CV death) and secondary (total CV hospitalizations and CV death; CV death; total HF hospitalizations; time to first HF hospitalization or CV death; and days lost due to HF hospitalizations or CV death) endpoints at Week 52 and change vs baseline in disease-specific QoL (12-item Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire [KCCQ-12]) at Week 24 were assessed by subgroup. For each endpoint, the interaction between diabetes status and treatment outcome was explored. RESULTS Of 1108 AFFIRM-AHF patients, 475 (FCM: 231; placebo: 244) had diabetes and 633 (FCM: 327; placebo: 306) did not have diabetes. Patients with diabetes were more commonly male (61.5% vs 50.9%), with a higher frequency of ischemic HF etiology (57.9% vs 39.0%), prior HF history (77.7% vs 66.5%), and comorbidities (including previous myocardial infarction [49.3% vs 32.9%] and chronic kidney disease [51.4% vs 32.4%]) than those without diabetes. The annualized event rate/100 patient-years with FCM vs placebo for the primary endpoint was 66.9 vs 80.9 in patients with diabetes (rate ratio [RR]: 0.83, 95% CI 0.58-1.81) and 51.3 vs 66.9 in patients without diabetes (RR: 0.77, 95% CI 0.55-1.07), with no significant interaction between diabetes status and treatment effect (p(interaction) = 0.76). Similar findings were observed for secondary outcomes. Change from baseline in KCCQ-12 overall summary score was numerically greater with FCM vs placebo at almost all time points in both subgroups, with no interaction between diabetes and treatment effect at Week 24. CONCLUSIONS The clinical and QoL benefits observed with intravenous FCM in patients with iron deficiency following stabilization from an AHF episode are independent of diabetes status. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02937454 (registered 10.18.2016).
Effect of Intravenous Iron Replacement on Recurrent Heart Failure Hospitalizations and Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients with Heart Failure and Iron Deficiency: A Bayesian Meta-Analysis
European journal of heart failure. 2023
AIMS: Iron deficiency is common in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and is associated with a poor prognosis. Whether intravenous iron replacement improves recurrent HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular mortality of these patients is uncertain although several trials were conducted. Moreover, none of the trials were powered to assess the effect of intravenous iron in clinically important subgroups. Therefore, we conducted a Bayesian analysis to derive precise estimates of the effect of intravenous iron replacement on recurrent HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular mortality in iron-deficient HFrEF patients using consistent subgroup definitions across trials. METHODS Individual participant data was used from the FAIR-HF (n=459), CONFIRM-HF (n=304) and AFFIRM-AHF (n=1,108) trials. This data was re-analyzed following as closely as possible the approach taken in the analyses of IRONMAN (n=1,137), for which study level data was used. Definitions of outcomes and subgroups from the FAIR-HF, CONFIRM-HF and AFFIRM-AHF were matched with those used in IRONMAN. The primary endpoint was recurrent HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular mortality. The analysis of recurrent events was based on rate ratios (RR) derived from the Lin-Wei-Yang-Ying model, and the data were pooled using Bayesian random effect meta-analysis. RESULTS Compared with placebo, intravenous iron significantly reduced the rates of recurrent HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular mortality (RR: 0.73, 95% credible interval (CI) [0.48-0.99]; between-trial heterogeneity tau=0.16). The pooled treatment effects did not provide evidence for any differential effects for subgroups based on sex (ratio of rate ratios [RRR]: 1.49 , 95% CI [0.95-2.37], age < vs ≥69.4 years (RRR= 0.68 [0.40-1.15]), ischemic vs non-ischemic etiology of HF (RRR=0.73 [0.42-1.33]), transferrin saturation < vs ≥20% (RRR=0.75 [0.40-1.34]), estimated glomerular filtration rate (≤ vs >60 mL/min/1.73m(2) (RRR=0.97 [0.56-1.68]), haemoglobin < vs ≥ 11.8 (RRR=0.95 [0.53-1.60]), ferritin < vs ≥35 μg/L (RRR=1.26 [0.72-2.48]) and New York Heart Association Class II vs III/IV (RRR=0.91 [0.54-1.56]). CONCLUSIONS Treatment of iron-deficient HFrEF patients with intravenous iron - namely with ferric carboxymaltose or ferric derisomaltose - results in significant reduction in recurrent HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular mortality. Results were nominally consistent across the subgroups studied, but for several of these subgroups uncertainty remains present. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Ferric Carboxymaltose in Iron-Deficient Patients with Hospitalized Heart Failure and Reduced Kidney Function
Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN. 2023
BACKGROUND Reduced kidney function is common among patients with heart failure. In patients with heart failure and/or kidney disease, iron deficiency is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes. In the AFFIRM-AHF trial, acute heart failure patients with iron deficiency treated with intravenous ferric carboxymaltose demonstrated reduced risk of heart failure hospitalization, with improved quality of life. We aimed to further characterize the impact of ferric carboxymaltose among patients with coexisting kidney impairment. METHODS The double-blind, placebo-controlled AFFIRM-AHF trial randomized 1132 stabilized adults with acute heart failure (left ventricular ejection fraction <50%) and iron deficiency. Patients on dialysis were excluded. The primary endpoint was a composite of total heart failure hospitalizations and cardiovascular death during the 52-week follow-up period. Additional endpoints included cardiovascular hospitalizations, total heart failure hospitalizations, and days lost to heart failure hospitalizations or cardiovascular death. For this subgroup analysis, patients were stratified according to baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS Overall, 60% of patients had an eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 (the lower eGFR subgroup). These patients were significantly older, more likely to be female and to have ischemic heart failure, and had higher baseline serum phosphate levels and higher rates of anemia. For all endpoints, event rates were higher in the lower eGFR group. In the lower eGFR group, the annualized event rates for the primary composite outcome were 68.96 and 86.30 per 100 patient-years in the ferric carboxymaltose and placebo arms, respectively (rate ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-1.06). The treatment effect was similar in the higher eGFR subgroup (rate ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-1.02; Pinteraction =0.60). A similar pattern was observed for all endpoints ( Pinteraction >0.05). CONCLUSIONS In a cohort of patients with acute heart failure, left ventricular ejection fraction <50%, and iron deficiency, the safety and efficacy of ferric carboxymaltose were consistent across a range of eGFR values.
Ferric Carboxymaltose in Heart Failure with Iron Deficiency
The New England journal of medicine. 2023
BACKGROUND Ferric carboxymaltose therapy reduces symptoms and improves quality of life in patients who have heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction and iron deficiency. Additional evidence about the effects of ferric carboxymaltose on clinical events is needed. METHODS In this double-blind, randomized trial, we assigned ambulatory patients with heart failure, a left ventricular ejection fraction of 40% or less, and iron deficiency, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive intravenous ferric carboxymaltose or placebo, in addition to standard therapy for heart failure. Ferric carboxymaltose or placebo was given every 6 months as needed on the basis of iron indexes and hemoglobin levels. The primary outcome was a hierarchical composite of death within 12 months after randomization, hospitalizations for heart failure within 12 months after randomization, or change from baseline to 6 months in the 6-minute walk distance. The significance level was set at 0.01. RESULTS We enrolled 3065 patients, of whom 1532 were randomly assigned to the ferric carboxymaltose group and 1533 to the placebo group. Death by month 12 occurred in 131 patients (8.6%) in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 158 (10.3%) in the placebo group; a total of 297 and 332 hospitalizations for heart failure, respectively, occurred by month 12; and the mean (±SD) change from baseline to 6 months in the 6-minute walk distance was 8±60 and 4±59 m, respectively (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney P = 0.02; unmatched win ratio, 1.10; 99% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.23). Repeated dosing of ferric carboxymaltose appeared to be safe with an acceptable adverse-event profile in the majority of patients. The number of patients with serious adverse events occurring during the treatment period was similar in the two groups (413 patients [27.0%] in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 401 [26.2%] in the placebo group). CONCLUSIONS Among ambulatory patients who had heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction and iron deficiency, there was no apparent difference between ferric carboxymaltose and placebo with respect to the hierarchical composite of death, hospitalizations for heart failure, or 6-minute walk distance. (Funded by American Regent, a Daiichi Sankyo Group company; HEART-FID ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03037931.).
Patients with heart failure and iron deficiency (n= 3,065).
Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose group (n= 1,532).
Placebo (n= 1,533).
Death by month 12 occurred in 131 patients (8.6%) in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 158 (10.3%) in the placebo group; a total of 297 and 332 hospitalizations for heart failure, respectively, occurred by month 12; and the mean (±SD) change from baseline to 6 months in the 6-minute walk distance was 8±60 and 4±59 m, respectively (unmatched win ratio, 1.10; 99% confidence interval [0.99, 1.23]). The number of patients with serious adverse events occurring during the treatment period was similar in the two groups: 413 patients (27.0%) in the ferric carboxymaltose group, and 401 (26.2%) in the placebo group.
Treating Iron Deficiency (ID) Anemia in Heart Failure (HF) Patients with IV Iron: A Meta-Analysis
Findings on the effects of iron on heart failure (HF) hospitalizations and mortality among patients with iron deficiency (ID) and HF remain conflicting across different studies. We performed a meta-analysis of clinical trials assessing the clinical, hematic and cardiovascular benefits of treating ID in HF patients. We completed a systematic search for studies comparing IV iron to placebo in HF patients with ID. The primary outcomes were rates of HF hospitalization and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included change in hematic values, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and ejection fraction. We applied a random-effects model with planned sensitivity analyses of studies with skewed effect sizes. Nine studies were included with a total of 2,261 patients. Analysis revealed that treatment of HF patients with IV iron replacement significantly reduced the odds of HF hospitalization (odds ratio (OR): 0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24 to 0.78; p=0.005, I(2)=67%),) but did not significantly impact all-cause mortality compared to placebo (OR: 0.89; 95%, CI: 0.67 to 1.19; p=0.44, I(2): 0%). Analysis showed that IV iron treatment group had significantly higher serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. They also had lower NYHA class -1.90 (95% CI (-2.91 to -0.89); p<0.001, I(2):89%) with higher ejection fraction 0.50 (95% CI (0.09 to 0.90) p=0.016, I(2):86%). Treatment with IV iron in HF patients with ID is associated with a significant reduction of HF hospitalization but no effects on all-cause mortality. There were also significant increases in hematic values and ejection fraction with a reduction in NYHA class.
Impact of ferric carboxymaltose for iron deficiency at discharge after heart failure hospitalisation: A European multinational economic evaluation
European journal of heart failure. 2023
AIMS: Iron deficiency (ID) is comorbid in up to 50% patients with heart failure (HF) and exacerbates disease burden. Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) reduced HF hospitalisations and improved quality of life when used to treat ID at discharge in patients hospitalised for acute HF with left-ventricular ejection fraction of <50% in the AFFIRM-AHF trial. We quantified the effect of FCM on burden of disease and the wider pharmacoeconomic implications in France, Germany, Poland, Spain and Sweden. METHODS AND RESULTS The per country eligible population was calculated, aligning with the ESC 2021 HF guidelines and the AFFIRM-AHF trial. Changes in burden of disease with FCM versus standard of care (SoC) were represented by disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), hospitalisation episodes and bed days, using AFFIRM-AHF data. A Markov model was adapted to each country to estimate cost-effectiveness and combined with epidemiology data to calculate the impact on healthcare budgets. Between 335 (Sweden) and 13,237 (Germany) DALYs were predicted to be avoided with FCM use annually. Fewer hospitalisations and shorter lengths of stay associated with FCM compared to SoC were projected to result in substantial annual savings in bed days, from 5,215 in Sweden to 205,630 in Germany. In all countries, FCM was predicted to be dominant (cost saving with gains in quality-adjusted life years), resulting in net savings to healthcare budgets within one year. CONCLUSIONS This comprehensive evaluation of FCM therapy highlights the potential benefits that could be realised through implementation of the ESC HF guideline recommendations regarding ID treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Association Between Hemoglobin Levels and Efficacy of Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose in Patients With Acute Heart Failure and Iron Deficiency: An AFFIRM-AHF Subgroup Analysis
BACKGROUND Iron deficiency, with or without anemia, is an adverse prognostic factor in heart failure (HF). In AFFIRM-AHF (a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial comparing the effect of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose on hospitalizations and mortality in iron-deficient subjects admitted for acute heart failure), intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), although having no significant effect on the primary end point, reduced the risk of HF hospitalization (hHF) and improved quality of life versus placebo in iron-deficient patients stabilized after an acute HF (AHF) episode. These prespecified AFFIRM-AHF subanalyses explored the association between hemoglobin levels and FCM treatment effects. METHODS AFFIRM-AHF was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of FCM in hospitalized AHF patients with iron deficiency. Patients were stratified by baseline hemoglobin level (<12 versus â‰¥12 g/dL). In each subgroup, the primary composite (total hHF and cardiovascular death) and secondary (total hHF; total cardiovascular hospitalizations and cardiovascular death; time to cardiovascular death, and time to first/days lost due to hHF or cardiovascular death) outcomes were assessed with FCM versus placebo at week 52. Sensitivity analyses using the World Health Organization anemia definition (hemoglobin level <12 g/dL [women] or <13 g/dL [men]) were performed, among others. RESULTS Of 1108 AFFIRM-AHF patients, 1107 were included in these subanalyses: 464 (FCM group, 228; placebo group, 236) had a hemoglobin level <12 g/dL, and 643 (FCM, 329; placebo, 314) had a hemoglobin level â‰¥12 g/dL. Patients with a hemoglobin level <12 g/dL were older (mean, 73.7 versus 69.1 years), with more frequent previous HF (75.0% versus 68.7%), serum ferritin <100 Î¼g/L (75.4% versus 68.1%), and transferrin saturation <20% (87.9% versus 81.4%). For the primary outcome, annualized event rates per 100 patient-years with FCM versus placebo were 71.1 and 73.6 (rate ratio, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.66-1.41]), respectively, and 48.5 versus 72.9 (RR, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.48-0.93]) in the hemoglobin levels <12 and â‰¥12 g/dL subgroups, respectively. No significant interactions between hemoglobin subgroup and treatment effect were observed for primary (P(interaction)=0.15) or secondary outcomes. Changes from baseline in hemoglobin, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation were significantly greater with FCM versus placebo in both subgroups between weeks 6 and 52. Findings were similar using the World Health Organization definition for anemia. CONCLUSIONS The effects of intravenous FCM on outcomes in iron-deficient patients stabilized after an AHF episode, including improvements in iron parameters over time, did not differ between patients with hemoglobin levels <12 and â‰¥12 g/dL. REGISTRATION URL: https://www. CLINICALTRIALS gov; Unique identifier: NCT02937454.
Intravenous iron therapy among patients with heart failure and iron deficiency: An updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
BACKGROUND Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the role of intravenous (IV) iron administration in patients with heart failure (HF) and iron deficiency (ID) have yielded inconsistent results. METHODS Electronic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and OVID databases was performed until November 2022 for RCTs that evaluated the role of IV iron administration in patients with HF and ID. The main study outcomes were the composite of HF hospitalization or cardiovascular mortality, and individual outcome of HF hospitalization. Summary estimates were evaluated using random effects model. RESULTS The final analysis included 12 RCTs with 3,492 patients (1,831 patients in the IV iron group and 1,661 patients in the control group). The mean follow-up was 8.3 months. IV iron was associated with a lower incidence in the composite of HF hospitalization or cardiovascular mortality (31.9% vs. 45.3%; relative risk [RR] 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-0.88) and individual outcome of HF hospitalization (28.4% vs. 42.2; RR 0.69; 95% CI 0.57-0.85). There was no significant difference between both groups in cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.75-1.04) and all-cause mortality (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.83-1.09). IV iron was associated with lower New York Heart Association class and higher left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Meta-regression analyses showed no effect modification for the main outcomes based on age, hemoglobin level, ferritin level or LVEF. CONCLUSION Among patients with HF and ID, IV iron administration was associated with reduction in the composite of HF hospitalization or cardiovascular mortality and driven by a reduction in HF hospitalization.