Safety of Vitamin K in mechanical heart valve patients with supratherapeutic INR: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Sapapsap B, Srisawat C, Suthumpoung P, Luengrungkiat O, Leelakanok N, Saokaew S, Kanchanasurakit S
BACKGROUND Patients who had mechanical heart valves and an international normalized ratio (INR) of >5.0 should be managed by temporary cessation of vitamin K antagonist. This study aimed to investigate the safety of low-dose vitamin K1 in patients with mechanical heart valves who have supratherapeutic INR. METHODS CINAHL, Cochran Library, Clinical trial.gov, OpenGrey, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus were systematically searched from the inception up to October 2021 without language restriction. Studies comparing the safety of low-dose vitamin K1 treatment in patients with placebo or other anticoagulant reversal agents were included. We used a random-effect model for the meta-analysis. Publication bias was determined by a funnel plot with subsequent Begg's test and Egger's test. RESULTS From 7529 retrieved studies, 3 randomized control trials were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled data demonstrated that low-dose vitamin K was not associated with thromboembolism rate (risk ratio [RR] = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.19-4.55) major bleeding rate (RR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.07-4.82), and minor bleeding rate (RR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.07-5.09). Subgroup and sensitivity analysis demonstrated the nonsignificant effect of low-dose vitamin K on the risk of thromboembolism. Publication bias was not apparent, according to Begg's test and Egger's test (P = .090 and 0.134, respectively). CONCLUSION The current evidence does not support the role of low-dose vitamin K as a trigger of thromboembolism in supratherapeutic INR patients with mechanical heart valves. Nevertheless, more well-designed studies with larger sample sizes are required to justify this research question.
Systematic review and meta-analysis of intravenous iron-carbohydrate complexes in HFrEF patients with iron deficiency
Sindone A, Doehner W, Comin-Colet J
ESC heart failure. 2022
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Iron deficiency (ID) is a common co-morbidity in patients with heart failure (HF). The present meta-analysis evaluates the effect of intravenous (IV) iron-carbohydrate complex supplementation in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and ID/iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing IV iron-carbohydrate complexes with placebo/standard of care in patients with HFrEF with ID/IDA were identified using Embase (from 1957) and PubMed (from 1989) databases through 25 May 2021. Twelve RCTs including 2381 patients were included in this analysis. The majority (90.8%) of patients receiving IV iron-carbohydrate therapy were administered ferric carboxymaltose (FCM); 7.5% received iron sucrose and 1.6% received iron isomaltoside. IV iron-carbohydrate therapy significantly reduced hospitalization for worsening HF [0.53 (0.42-0.65); P < 0.0001] and first hospitalization for worsening HF or death [0.75 (0.59-0.95); P = 0.016], but did not significantly impact all-cause mortality, compared with control. IV iron-carbohydrate therapy significantly improved functional and exercise capacity compared with the control. There was no significant difference in outcome between IV iron-carbohydrate formulations when similar endpoints were measured. No significant difference in adverse events (AE) was observed between the treatment groups. IV iron-carbohydrate therapy resulted in improvements in a range of clinical outcomes and increased functional and exercise capacity, whereas AEs were not significantly different between IV iron-carbohydrate and placebo/standard of care arms. These findings align with the European Society of Cardiology's 2021 HF guidelines, which recommend the consideration of FCM in symptomatic patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and ID.
Patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and iron deficiency, (12 randomised controlled trials, n= 2,381).
Intravenous (IV) iron-carbohydrate complex supplementation.
Placebo or standard of care.
The majority (90.8%) of patients receiving IV iron-carbohydrate therapy were administered ferric carboxymaltose; 7.5% received iron sucrose and 1.6% received iron isomaltoside. IV iron-carbohydrate therapy significantly reduced hospitalization for worsening HF [0.53 (0.42-0.65)] and first hospitalization for worsening HF or death [0.75 (0.59-0.95)], but did not significantly impact all-cause mortality, compared with control. IV iron-carbohydrate therapy significantly improved functional and exercise capacity compared with the control. There was no significant difference in outcome between IV iron-carbohydrate formulations when similar endpoints were measured. No significant difference in adverse events (AE) was observed between the treatment groups. IV iron-carbohydrate therapy resulted in improvements in a range of clinical outcomes and increased functional and exercise capacity, whereas AEs were not significantly different between IV iron-carbohydrate and placebo/standard of care arms.
Efficacy of pharmacologic treatment for treating gastrointestinal angiodysplasias-related bleeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Gkolfakis P, Fostier R, Tziatzios G, Lazaridis N, Fernandez Y Viesca M, Facciorusso A, Despott E, Triantafyllou K, Devière J, Arvanitakis M
European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology. 2022
INTRODUCTION We evaluated the efficacy of pharmacologic treatments for patients with overt or occult bleeding due to gastrointestinal angiodysplasias (GIADs). METHODS A systematic computer-aided literature search across Medline, Cochrane, Scopus and Embase databases was performed. Studies evaluating pharmacologic treatments for patients presenting with GIADs-related overt or occult bleeding were included. Post-treatment rebleeding was the primary outcome. Need for red blood cells (RBC) transfusion, post-treatment hemoglobin levels and adverse events rate comprised secondary outcomes. Results are presented as odds ratio (OR), mean difference (MD) or pooled rates (%) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS Four types of pharmacologic treatment were identified (25 studies): somatostatin analogs, hormonal therapy, thalidomide and angiogenesis inhibitors. Pharmacologic treatment of any kind led to significantly reduced bleeding episodes [OR (95% CI), 0.08 (0.04-0.18)]. No pharmacologic treatment was superior to others (P = 0.46). Overall, pooled rebleeding rate post-treatment was 34% (26-43%). Similarly, significantly fewer patients required RBC transfusion during the post-treatment period [0.03 (0.03-0.07)], with no differences among various treatments (P = 0.83), yielding an overall pooled transfusion rate of 33% (19-46%). Administration of pharmacological treatment led to significant improvement in terms of hemoglobin levels [MD (95% CI), 3.21 g/dL (2.42-3.99)]. The pooled rate of adverse events was 32% (22-42%). CONCLUSION In patients with GIADs administration of any pharmacologic treatment significantly decreases rebleeding episodes and transfusions leading to higher hemoglobin values. One-third of them experience at least one adverse event related to the treatment.
A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Indirect Comparison of Blindly Adjudicated Cardiovascular Event Incidence with Ferric Derisomaltose, Ferric Carboxymaltose, and Iron Sucrose
Pollock RF, Kalra PA, Kalra PR, Ahmed FZ
Advances in therapy. 2022
INTRODUCTION Intravenous (IV) iron is the preferred treatment for patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) who require rapid replenishment of iron stores or in whom oral iron is not tolerated or effective. Data from two large-scale randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have recently been published reporting the incidence of adjudicated cardiovascular events after ferric derisomaltose (FDI) and iron sucrose (IS). The objective was to calculate the relative incidence of cardiovascular events with FDI and IS, and to conduct an indirect comparison with ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) based on previously published studies of cardiovascular risk. METHODS RCTs reporting the incidence of blindly adjudicated cardiovascular events in IDA patients treated with IV iron were identified by systematic literature review (SLR). Pairwise random effects meta-analyses of FDI versus IS, and FCM versus IS were conducted for the pre-specified adjudicated composite cardiovascular endpoint of: death due to any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, unstable angina requiring hospitalization, congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, and protocol-defined hypertensive and hypotensive events. Analyses were also conducted for the composite endpoint excluding blood pressure events. Meta-analysis results were combined in an adjusted indirect comparison to provide an indirect estimate of cardiovascular risk with FDI versus FCM. RESULTS The SLR retrieved 694 unique articles, of which four were RCTs reporting the incidence of the composite cardiovascular endpoint; two studies comparing FCM (N = 1529) with IS (N = 1505), and two studies comparing FDI (N = 2008) with IS (N = 1000). The odds ratios of the composite CV endpoint were 0.59 (95% confidence interval: 0.39-0.90) for FDI versus IS, 1.12 (95% CI 0.90-1.40) for FCM versus IS, and the indirect OR for FDI versus FCM was 0.53 (95% CI 0.33-0.85). CONCLUSIONS Pooling data from four large-scale RCTs suggested that FDI was associated with significantly lower incidence of cardiovascular adverse events compared to both FCM and IS.
Comparative efficacy of intravenous and oral iron supplements for the treatment of iron deficiency in patients with heart failure: A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Mei Z, Chen J, Luo S, Jin L, Liu Q, Chen Y
Pharmacological research. 2022;182:106345
OBJECTIVE We aimed at comparing the efficacy of intravenous and oral iron supplementations for the treatment of iron deficiency (ID) in patients with heart failure (HF). METHODS We searched the PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase databases from inception to January 15, 2022. We included randomized controlled trials enrolling patients with HF who were treated for ID with intravenous iron supplements, oral iron supplements, or placebo. The primary outcomes were all-cause death, cardiovascular mortality, and hospitalization for heart failure. The secondary outcomes were evaluated through the six-minute walking test (6MWT) and the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ). RESULTS The network meta-analysis included sixteen studies. Compared to placebo/control groups, intravenous iron supplements did not decrease all-cause death (0.69, 0.39-1.23) or cardiovascular mortality (0.89, 0.66-1.20). After 12 weeks, a reduced hospitalization for heart failure was associated with the administration of intravenous iron supplementations (0.58, 0.34-0.97). The most significant improvements regarding 6MWT (44.44, 6.10-82.79) and KCCQ (5.96, 3.19-8.73) were observed with intravenous iron supplements. Oral iron supplements reduced hospitalization for heart failure (0.36, 0.14-0.96) and all-cause death (0.34, 0.12-0.95), but did not influence the 6MWT (29.74, -47.36 to 106.83) and KCCQ (0.10, -10.95 to 11.15). CONCLUSIONS Administering intravenous iron supplements for ID in patients with HF improves their exercise capacity and quality of life. In order to reduce hospitalizations for heart failure, the supplementation should be administered for more than 12 weeks. Although oral iron supplements did not improve exercise capacity and quality of life, they could reduce all-cause death and hospitalizations for heart failure.
Primary and Secondary Prevention Strategies for Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients with Left Ventricular Assist Device: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis
Rai D, Tariq R, Tahir MW, Chowdhury M, Wahab A, Kharsa A, Bandyopadhyay D, Feitell SC, Parikh V, Aronow WS, et al
Current problems in cardiology. 2021;:100835
Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is a common complication following left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. Our study aimed to estimate the comparative efficacy of different pharmacologic interventions for the prevention of GIB, through a network meta-analysis (NMA). A total of 13 observational studies comparing six strategies. Among those, 4 were for primary, and 9 were for secondary prevention of GIB. On NMA, thalidomide (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.016, Credible interval [CrI]I: 0.00053-0.12), omega-3-fatty acid (HR:0.088, CrI: 0.026-0.77), octreotide (HR: 0.17, CrI: 0.0589-0.41) and danazol (HR:0.17, CrI: 0.059-0.41) reduced the risk of GIB. The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blocker (ACEi/ARB) and digoxin were not associated with any significant reduction. Based on NMA, combining indirect treatment comparisons, thalidomide, danazol, and octreotide treatments were associated with decreased risk of recurrent GIB. Additionally, Omega 3 fatty acids were associated with a lower risk of the primary episode of GIB in the LVAD patient population.
Safety and Efficacy of Thrombin for Bleeding Gastric Varices: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Bhurwal A, Makar M, Patel A, Mutneja H, Goel A, Bartel M, Shahid H, Gjeorgjievski M, Rustgi V, Sarkar A
Digestive diseases and sciences. 2021
INTRODUCTION The optimal therapy for bleeding-related gastric varices is still a controversial topic. There is a paucity of literature that comprehensively summarizes the available literature regarding safety and efficacy of thrombin in bleeding gastric varices. METHODS Four independent reviewers performed a comprehensive review of all original articles published from inception to October 2020, describing the use of thrombin for management of bleeding gastric varices. Primary outcomes were (1) pooled early and late rebleeding rate, (2) pooled gastric variceal related mortality rate, (3) pooled rescue therapy rate, and (4) pooled adverse event rate with the use of thrombin in bleeding gastric varices. The meta-analysis was performed and the statistics were two-tailed. Finally, probability of publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and with Egger's test. RESULTS Eleven studies were included in the analysis after comprehensive search. This yielded a pooled early rebleeding rate of 9.3% (95% CI 4.9-17) and late rebleeding rate 13.8% (95% CI 9-20.4). Pooled rescue therapy rate after injecting thrombin in bleeding gastric varices was 10.1% (95% CI 6.1-16.3). The pooled 6-week gastric variceal-related mortality rate after injecting thrombin in bleeding gastric varices was 7.6% (95% CI 4.5-12.5). There were a total of four adverse events out of a total of 222 patients with pooled adverse event rate after injecting thrombin in bleeding gastric varices was 5.6% (95% CI 2.9-10.6). CONCLUSION In summary, the systematic review and meta-analysis on the use of thrombin for bleeding gastric varices suggest low rates of rebleeding and minimal rates of adverse events. While, early and late rebleeding rate and rescue therapy rate are similar to cyanoacrylate-based therapy, the minimal rates of adverse events are perhaps the most important benefit of thrombin. Thus, the current data suggest that thrombin is a very promising therapeutic alternative with low risk of adverse events for bleeding gastric varices.
Dissolvable intranasal haemostatic agents for acute epistaxis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Milinis K, Swords C, Hardman J, Slovick A, Hutson K, Kuhn I, Smith ME
Clinical otolaryngology : official journal of ENT-UK ; official journal of Netherlands Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology & Cervico-Facial Surgery. 2021
INTRODUCTION Nasal packing is the mainstay of epistaxis management; however, packs cause patient discomfort and can lead to hospital admission. Absorbable haemostats provide clotting factors or act as a substrate to stimulate clotting and represent a potential treatment alternative. A systematic review was performed to evaluate the efficacy of topical haemostats in the management of epistaxis. METHODS A systematic literature search of 7 databases was performed. Only eligible randomised controlled-trials (RCTs) and observational studies were included. The primary outcome was short-term haemostatic success (<7 days). Secondary outcomes included long-term haemostatic control (no re-bleeding 7-30 days), patient discomfort and adverse effects. Meta-analysis was performed where possible. RESULTS Of 2,249 records identified, 12 were included in the qualitative synthesis and 4 RCTs were included in meta-analysis. The following haemostats were reported: gelatin-thrombin matrix (n=8), aerosolised/gel tranexamic acid (n=1), cellulose agents (n=2), and fibrin sealants (n=1). Studies involving tranexamic acid on removable delivery devices (e.g. pledgets) were excluded. There was heterogeneity in outcome measures and inclusion criteria (coagulopathies/anticoagulants were excluded in 3 RCTs and 2 observational studies). The short-term haemostatic success varied between studies (13.9% to 100%). No significant post-procedural complications were reported. The meta-analysis favoured absorbable haemostatic agent versus packing (risk ratio 1.20; 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.37; p=0.007). The risk of bias across all studies was moderate to high. CONCLUSIONS The evidence suggests haemostatic agents are effective at managing acute epistaxis when compared with nasal packing. More data are required before recommendations can be made regarding management in patients on anticoagulants.
Beta-blockers versus placebo or no intervention for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis
Cifuentes LI, Gattini D, Torres-Robles R, Gana JC
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2021;1:Cd011973
BACKGROUND Portal hypertension commonly accompanies advanced liver disease and often gives rise to life-threatening complications, including haemorrhage from oesophageal and gastrointestinal varices. Variceal haemorrhage commonly occurs in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis. Therefore, prevention is important. Band ligation, beta-blockers, and sclerotherapy have been proposed as alternatives for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children. However, primary prophylaxis is not the current standard of care in paediatric patients because it is unknown whether those treatments are of benefit or harm when used for primary prophylaxis in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES To determine the benefits and harms of beta-blockers compared with placebo or no intervention for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis. SEARCH METHODS We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, LILACS, and Science Citation Index Expanded (April 2020). We screened the reference lists of the retrieved publications and manually searched the main paediatric gastroenterology and hepatology conference (NASPGHAN and ESPGHAN) abstract books from 2008 to December 2019. We searched clinicaltrials.gov, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and the World Health Organization (WHO) for ongoing clinical trials. We imposed no language or document type restrictions on our search. SELECTION CRITERIA We planned to include randomised clinical trials, irrespective of blinding, language, or publication status to assess benefits and harms. We included observational studies, retrieved with the searches for randomised clinical trials, for a narrative report of harm. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We planned to summarise data from randomised clinical trials by standard Cochrane methodologies. We planned to asses risk of bias and use GRADE to assess the certainty of evidence. Our primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, serious adverse events and liver-related morbidity, and health-related quality of life. Our secondary outcomes were oesophageal variceal bleeding and adverse events not considered serious. We planned to use intention-to-treat principle. We planned to analyse data with RevMan Analysis. MAIN RESULTS We found no randomised clinical trials that assessed beta-blockers compared with sham or no intervention for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis. We found four observational studies that reported on harms. As a systematic search for observational studies was not planned, we only listed the reported harms in a table. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Randomised clinical trials assessing the benefits or harms of beta-blockers versus placebo or no intervention for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis are lacking. Therefore, trials with adequate power and proper design, assessing the benefits and harms of beta-blockers versus placebo on patient-relevant clinical outcomes, such as mortality, quality of life, failure to control variceal bleeding, and adverse events are needed. Unless such trials are conducted and the results become published, we cannot make any conclusions regarding the benefits or harms of the two interventions.
Effect of iron supplementation in patients with heart failure and iron deficiency: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Yamani N, Ahmed A, Gosain P, Fatima K, Shaikh AT, Qamar H, Shahid I, Arshad MS, Almas T, Figueredo V
International journal of cardiology. Heart & vasculature. 2021;36:100871
BACKGROUND The effectiveness of oral and intravenous iron supplementation in reducing the risk of mortality and hospitalizations in HF patients with iron deficiency is not well-established. METHODS A thorough literature search was conducted across 2 electronic databases (Medline and Cochrane Central) from inception through March 2021. RCTs assessing the impact of iron supplementation on clinical outcomes in iron deficient HF patients were considered for inclusion. Primary end-points included all-cause mortality and HF hospitalization. Evaluations were reported as odds ratios (ORs) or risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and analysis was performed using a random effects model. I(2) index was used to assess heterogeneity. RESULTS From the 2599 articles retrieved from initial search, 10 potentially relevant studies (n = 2187 patients) were included in the final analysis. Both oral (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.08-11.30; p = 0.951) and intravenous (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.73-1.29; p = 0.840) iron supplementation did not significantly reduce all-cause mortality. However, intravenous iron supplementation significantly decreased the rates of overall (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33-0.81; p = 0.004) and HF (OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.22-0.80; p = 0.009) hospitalizations. In addition, intravenous ferric carboxymaltose therapy significantly reduced the time to first HF hospitalization or cardiovascular mortality (RR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.50-1.00; p = 0.048), but had no effect on time to first cardiovascular death (RR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.70-1.25; p = 0.655). CONCLUSION Oral or intravenous iron supplementation did not reduce mortality in iron deficient HF patients. However, intravenous iron supplementation was associated with a significant decrease in overall and HF hospitalizations.