The effects of plasma exchange in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis
BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2022;376:e064604
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of plasma exchange on important outcomes in anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA Randomised controlled trials investigating effects of plasma exchange in patients with AAV or pauci-immune rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and at least 12 months' follow-up. INFORMATION SOURCES Prior systematic reviews, updated by searching Medline, Embase, and CENTRAL to July 2020. RISK OF BIAS Reviewers independently identified studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. SYNTHESIS OF RESULTS Meta-analyses were conducted using random effects models to calculate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Quality of evidence was summarised in accordance with GRADE methods. Outcomes were assessed after at least12 months of follow-up and included all-cause mortality, end stage kidney disease (ESKD), serious infections, disease relapse, serious adverse events, and quality of life. RESULTS Nine trials including 1060 participants met eligibility criteria. There were no important effects of plasma exchange on all-cause mortality (relative risk 0.90 (95% CI 0.64 to 1.27), moderate certainty). Data from seven trials including 999 participants that reported ESKD demonstrated that plasma exchange reduced the risk of ESKD at 12 months (relative risk 0.62 (0.39 to 0.98), moderate certainty) with no evidence of subgroup effects. Data from four trials including 908 participants showed that plasma exchange increased the risk of serious infections at 12 months (relative risk 1.27 (1.08 to 1.49), moderate certainty). The effects of plasma exchange on other outcomes were uncertain or considered unimportant to patients. LIMITATIONS OF EVIDENCE There is a relative sparsity of events, and treatment effect estimates are therefore imprecise. Subgroup effects at the participant level could not be evaluated. INTERPRETATION For the treatment of AAV, plasma exchange has no important effect on mortality, reduces the 12 month risk of ESKD, but increases the risk of serious infections. FUNDING No funding was received. REGISTRATION This is an update of a previously unregistered systematic review and meta-analysis published in 2014.
Patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (9 studies, n= 1,060).
No plasma exchange.
There were no important effects of plasma exchange on all-cause mortality (relative risk 0.90, moderate certainty). Data from seven trials (n= 999) reporting end stage kidney disease (ESKD) demonstrated that plasma exchange reduced the risk of ESKD at 12 months (relative risk 0.62, moderate certainty) with no evidence of subgroup effects. Data from four trials (n= 908) showed that plasma exchange increased the risk of serious infections at 12 months (relative risk 1.27, moderate certainty). The effects of plasma exchange on other outcomes were uncertain or considered unimportant to patients.
Carvedilol versus endoscopic band ligation for secondary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding-Long-term follow-up of a randomised control trial
Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2022
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Carvedilol reduces rates of variceal bleeding and rebleeding by lowering portal pressure. However, an associated pleiotropic survival benefit has been proposed. We aimed to assess long-term survival in a cohort of patients previously randomised to receive either carvedilol or endoscopic band ligation (EBL) following oesophageal variceal bleeding (OVB). METHODS The index study randomised 64 cirrhotic patients with OVB between 2006 and 2011 to receive either carvedilol or EBL. Follow-up was undertaken to April 2020 by review of electronic patient records. The primary outcome was survival. Other outcomes including variceal rebleeding and liver decompensation events were compared. RESULTS 26 out of 33 participants received carvedilol in the follow-up period and 28 out of 31 attended regular EBL sessions. The median number of follow-up days for all patients recruited was 1459 (SE = 281.74). On the intention to treat analysis, there was a trend towards improved survival in the carvedilol group (p = 0.09). On per-protocol analysis, carvedilol use was associated with improved long-term survival (p = 0.005, HR 3.083, 95% CI 1.397-6.809), fewer liver-related deaths (0% vs 22.57%, p = 0.013, OR ∞, 95%CI 1.565-∞) and fewer admissions with decompensated liver disease (12% vs 64.29%, p = 0.0002, OR 13.2, 95% CI 3.026-47.23) compared to the EBL group. There was no statistically significant difference in variceal rebleeding rates. CONCLUSION Following OVB in cirrhotic patients, carvedilol use is associated with survival benefit, fewer liver-related deaths and fewer hospital admissions with decompensated liver disease. Further studies are needed to validate this finding.
Bleeding Episodes in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Very Early Versus Standard Care Invasive Examination (from the Very EaRly vs Deferred Invasive Evaluation Using Computerised Tomography [VERDICT] Trial)
The American journal of cardiology. 2022
Bleeding is known to influence the prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes. In this predefined secondary outcome analysis of the Very EaRly vs Deferred Invasive evaluation using Computerized Tomography (VERDICT) trial, we investigated whether a very early invasive coronary angiography (ICA), compared with one performed within 48 to 72 hours (standard care), was associated with fewer serious bleedings. Furthermore, we tested the association between demographic data including GRACE score and serious bleedings as well as bleedings and mortality. In the 2,147 patients included in the main study, bleedings within 30 days of admission were assessed based on Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium criteria. Differences were calculated by cumulative incidence methods and Grays test. Variables associated with bleeding and mortality were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. Serious (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium 3abc) bleeding rates were low (15 [1.4%, standard] vs 12 [1.2%, early], p = 0.56). There were no fatal bleedings or serious bleedings before ICA in either group. By multivariate analysis, there was no difference in bleedings between the 2 groups. Female gender (hazard ratio [HR] 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 6.4; p = 0.02), anemia (HR 7.0, 95% CI 2.8 to 17.0; p <0.001), and increasing blood pressure (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.5; p = 0.01) were individually associated with serious bleeding, whereas GRACE score >140 was not (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.4 to 2.9; p = 0.96). In conclusion, serious bleedings were few, and there were none before ICA in either group. A very early invasive strategy did not reduce serious bleedings within 30 days, which was associated with female gender, increasing blood pressure, and anemia.
IV Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex in Patients with Iron Deficiency hospitalized due to Acute Heart Failure- Investigator initiated, Randomized controlled trial
Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology. 2022
Heart failure (HF) patients with iron deficiency (ID) have worse NYHA class and are at a higher risk of recurrent hospitalizations. Intravenous (IV) iron has been shown to improve exercise ability and reduce hospitalizations. IV Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex (SFGC) has been found to be safe and affordable but has not been studied in this population in a randomized trial. This was prospective, single-blind, investigator-initiated, randomized controlled trial. Patients admitted for acute heart failure with ID were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive IV SFGC on top of optimal medical treatment. The primary outcome was the change in 6-minute walk test (6MWT) from baseline to 3 and 6 months. Between September 2019 and May 2021, 34 patients were randomized. 19 patients (55%) were randomized to the treatment arm receiving 125 mg of IV SFGC per day for 3 to 5 days . COVID-19 was a major barrier to the implementation of the study follow-up protocol, which caused the study to end early. Both groups of patients had similar clinical characteristics, comorbidities, median LVEF, and rate of death and readmissions due to HF. A higher level of NT-proBNP was observed in patients treated with IV iron (7902 pg/ml vs 3158, p=0.04). There was no difference in 6MWT change between groups at 3 months (improvement of 21.6 vs 24.1 meters), or 6 months (-5 meters vs. 46 meters). In conclusion, IV SFGC treated patients had comparable 6-minute walk at 3 and 6 months despite suffering from more severe HF with higher baseline NT-Pro BNP. (NCT04063033).
Health Status Improvement with Ferric Carboxymaltose in Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction and Iron Deficiency
European journal of heart failure. 2022
AIM: Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) has been shown to improve overall quality of life in iron-deficient heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) patients at a trial population level. This FAIR-HF and CONFIRM-HF pooled analysis explored the likelihood of individual improvement or deterioration in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) domains with FCM vs placebo and evaluated the stability of this response over time. METHODS Changes vs baseline in KCCQ overall summary score (OSS), clinical summary score (CSS) and total symptom score (TSS) were assessed at weeks 12 and 24 in FCM and placebo groups . Mean between-group differences were estimated and individual responder analyses and analyses of response stability were performed. RESULTS Overall, 760 (FCM: 454) patients were studied. At week 12, the mean improvement in KCCQ OSS was 10.6 points with FCM vs 4.8 points with placebo (least-square mean difference [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 4.36 [2.14;6.59] points). A higher proportion of patients on FCM vs placebo experienced a KCCQ OSS improvement of ≥5 (58.3% vs 43.5%; odds ratio [95% CI]: 1.81 [1.30;2.51]), ≥10 (42.4% vs 29.3%; 1.73 [1.23;2.43]) or ≥15 (32.1% vs 22.6%; 1.46 [1.02;2.11]) points. Differences were similar at week 24 and for CSS and TSS domains. Of FCM patients with a ≥5-, ≥10- or ≥15-point improvement in KCCQ OSS at week 12, >75% sustained this improvement at week 24. CONCLUSION Treatment of iron-deficient HFrEF patients with intravenous FCM conveyed clinically relevant improvements in health status at an individual-patient level; benefits were sustained over time in most patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Transfusion strategies in patients with acute coronary syndrome and anemia: a meta-analysis
The Egyptian heart journal : (EHJ) : official bulletin of the Egyptian Society of Cardiology. 2022;74(1):17
BACKGROUND Anemia is a known risk factor for ischemic heart disease and serves as an independent predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This meta-analysis pools data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to better define hemoglobin (Hb) thresholds for transfusion in this setting. RESULTS MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched using the terms "Acute Coronary Syndrome" AND "Blood Transfusion" including their synonyms. A total of three randomized controlled trials were included. Restrictive transfusion strategy (RTS) was defined as transfusing for Hb ≤ 8 g/dl with a post-transfusion goal of 8 to 10 g/dl. Liberal transfusion strategy (LTS) was defined as Hb ≤ 10 g/dl and post-transfusion goal of at least 11 g/dl. The primary end point was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included recurrent ACS events, new or worsening CHF within 30 days, and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The primary analytic method used was random effects model. Out of 821 patients, 400 were randomized to LTS, and 421 to RTS. Mean age was 70.3 years in RTS versus 76.4 in LTS. There was no statistically significant difference for 30-day mortality in LTS compared to RTS [odds ratio (OR) 1.69; 95% CI 0.35 to 8.05]. Similarly, there was no difference in MACE (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.21 to 2.63), CHF (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.18 to 3.76), or the incidence of recurrent ACS (OR 1.21; 95% CI 0.49 to 2.95). CONCLUSIONS In the setting of ACS, there is no difference between LTS and RTS for the outcomes of mortality, MACE, recurrent ACS, or CHF at 30 days. Further evidence in the form of high-quality RCTs are needed to compare RTS and LTS.
Autologous Cultured Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Fibrin Spray to Treat Venous Ulcers: A Randomized Controlled Double-Blind Pilot Study
Surgical technology international. 2022;40
We treated a small cohort of venous ulcers that were very unresponsive to standard and advanced therapies with autologous cultured bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This pilot clinical trial was randomized, controlled, and double-blinded. Subjects were treated with either normal saline (Group A), fibrin spray alone (Group B), or MSCs in fibrin (1 million cells/cm2 of wound bed surface) (Group C). The control and test materials were applied to the wound using a double-barreled syringe with thrombin and fibrinogen (with or without MSCs) in each barrel, or saline alone in both barrels. The MSCs were separated, cultured in vitro, and expanded in a dedicated Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) facility from 30-50 ml of bone marrow aspirate obtained from the iliac crest in Group C subjects. To ensure that the study remained controlled and blinded, subjects who were randomized to one of the two control arms (saline or fibrin) underwent sham bone marrow aspiration performed by a hematologist who anesthetized the iliac crest area down to and pushing against the periosteum, but without penetrating the bone marrow. Therefore, both the clinician who evaluated wound progress and the study subjects had no knowledge of whether bone aspiration was actually performed and what treatment had been applied to the wound. The study was performed after full FDA investigational new drug (IND) approval. The primary endpoint was the rate of healing (wound closure as linear healing from the wound margins in cm/week), as measured by the Gilman equation. One-way ANOVA was used to calculate the statistical significance of differences between the mean healing rates of each of the 3 treatment groups every 4 weeks and over the 24 weeks of treatment. Overall, treatment with MSCs accelerated the healing rate by about 10-fold compared to those in the saline and fibrin control groups. Although the total number of patients in this pilot study was small (n=11), the statistical significance was surprisingly promising: p<0.01 and f-ratio of 15.9358. No serious adverse events were noted. This small but carefully performed prospective, controlled, randomized, and double-blinded pilot study in a rare population of totally unresponsive patients adds to previous reports showing the promise of MSCs in the treatment of chronic wounds and provides proof of principle for how to approach this type of very demanding clinical and translational research.
Combined diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and venous thrombosis in a patient with granulomatosis with polyangiitis: Case report and systematic review of literature
Lung India : official organ of Indian Chest Society. 2022;39(1):70-73
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis has associations with both thrombosis and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH). Management of patients having coexistence of both thrombotic and hemorrhagic manifestations is challenging. Thrombotic conditions require anticoagulation, which can theoretically increase the risk of bleeding and thereby worsen DAH. In this review, we highlight the management of a patient of granulomatosis with polyangiitis with DAH who developed deep vein thrombosis. A systematic review of the literature was also performed summarizing and discussing the issues pertaining to the management of such patients.
Recent Advancements in the Management of Anti-neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis: A Systematic Review
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis is a rare multisystem autoimmune condition that causes inflammation of small and medium-sized blood vessels and is more commonly seen in the geriatric population. ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) is typically characterized as necrotizing vasculitis and includes granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). The mortality rate remains high, with especially cardiovascular disease, infections, and malignancies being the leading causes of death. Existing treatment options depend heavily on the use of glucocorticoids (GCs), often in combination with cyclophosphamide (CYC); however, as the multitude of adverse effects associated with these agents has increased, numerous studies are being conducted to reduce not only these harmful effects but also improve remission rates. Rituximab, avacopan, corticosteroids, including intravenous pulse methylprednisolone, plasma exchange, and immunological targeting are among the emerging treatments. The purpose of this review is to emphasize the pathogenesis and traditional treatment modalities and give insights into the recent advances in managing this disorder in an attempt to spare the adverse effects of conventional therapies while achieving better remission rates with combination therapies as well. The authors explored multiple databases, employing appropriate keywords, satisfying the quality appraisal, after which a total of 14 reports were included in this review. Upon overall analysis, it can be concluded that rituximab and CYC, when used in combination, provided a safer alternative to GCs while exhibiting equal, if not superior, effectiveness and results, thus, paving the way for additional in-depth research in a larger population of interest.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating pharmacologic therapies for acute and recurrent pericarditis
Trends in cardiovascular medicine. 2022
Acute idiopathic pericarditis (AIP) is a benign inflammatory condition associated with high recurrence rates. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) and colchicine are the recommended therapies. Our objective was to systematically assess effects of pharmacological therapies on recurrences or treatment failure in patients with first and subsequent AIP episodes. PubMed, BioMedCentral, Cochrane, Clinicaltrials.gov, Google Scholar and EMBASE (Ovid) were searched up to April 2020 for randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating NSAIDs, indomethacin, colchicine, steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, immunomodulators, or interleukin receptor antagonists in adult patients with acute episode of idiopathic pericarditis. Mantel-Haenzel random effects models were used for meta-analyses, and effects were reported as odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Six RCTs of colchicine plus NSAIDs (n=914 patients) and one RCT of anakinra (n=21) were found. No RCTs testing NSAIDs or corticosteroids were identified. Colchicine plus NSAIDs and anakinra significantly reduced recurrence (OR 0.37; 95%CI 0.27-0.51; and OR 0.02; 95%CI, 0.00-0.32, respectively). Colchicine plus NSAIDs also reduced treatment failure (OR 0.29; 95%CI 0.21-0.41). No differences in adverse events between colchicine and placebo were found (OR 1.16; 95%CI 0.72 to 1.86). In conclusion, Colchicine plus NSAIDS and anakinra are efficacious for preventing AIP recurrences. Colchicine reduces treatment failure as well. Although its use is supported by clinical experience, no solid evidence is currently available for the role of NSAIDs or steroids in the treatment of AIP.