Impact of restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategy on thrombosis-related events: A meta-analysis and systematic review
Vox sanguinis. 2022
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES There is an ongoing controversy regarding the risks of restrictive and liberal red blood cell (RBC) transfusion strategies. This meta-analysis assessed whether transfusion at a lower threshold was superior to transfusion at a higher threshold, with regard to thrombosis-related events, that is, whether these outcomes can benefit from a restrictive transfusion strategy is debated. MATERIALS AND METHODS We searched PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Scopus from inception up to 31 July 2021. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in any clinical setting that evaluated the effects of restrictive versus liberal RBC transfusion in adults. We used random-effects models to calculate the risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on pooled data. RESULTS Thirty RCTs involving 17,334 participants were included. The pooled RR for thromboembolic events was 0.65 (95% CI 0.44-0.94; p = 0.020; I(2) = 0.0%, very low-quality evidence), favouring the restrictive strategy. There were no significant differences in cerebrovascular accidents (RR = 0.83; 95% CI 0.64-1.09; p = 0.180; I(2) = 0.0%, very low-quality evidence) or myocardial infarction (RR = 1.05; 95% CI 0.87-1.26; p = 0.620; I(2) = 0.0%, low-quality evidence). Subgroup analyses showed that a restrictive (relative to liberal) strategy reduced (1) thromboembolic events in RCTs conducted in North America and (2) myocardial infarctions in the subgroup of RCTs where the restrictive transfusion threshold was 7 g/dl but not in the 8 g/dl subgroup (with a liberal transfusion threshold of 10 g/dl in both subgroups). CONCLUSIONS A restrictive (relative to liberal) transfusion strategy may be effective in reducing venous thrombosis but not arterial thrombosis.
Adult patients in any clinical setting (30 studies, n= 17,334).
Restrictive red blood cell transfusion.
Liberal red blood cell transfusion.
The pooled risk ratio (RR) for thromboembolic events was 0.65 (very low-quality evidence), favouring the restrictive strategy. There were no significant differences in cerebrovascular accidents (RR= 0.83, very low-quality evidence) or myocardial infarction (RR= 1.05, low-quality evidence). Subgroup analyses showed that a restrictive (relative to liberal) strategy reduced thromboembolic events in trials conducted in North America, and myocardial infarctions in the subgroup of trials where the restrictive transfusion threshold was 7 g/dl but not in the 8 g/dl subgroup (with a liberal transfusion threshold of 10 g/dl in both subgroups).
Transfusion strategies in patients with acute coronary syndrome and anemia: a meta-analysis
The Egyptian heart journal : (EHJ) : official bulletin of the Egyptian Society of Cardiology. 2022;74(1):17
BACKGROUND Anemia is a known risk factor for ischemic heart disease and serves as an independent predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This meta-analysis pools data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to better define hemoglobin (Hb) thresholds for transfusion in this setting. RESULTS MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched using the terms "Acute Coronary Syndrome" AND "Blood Transfusion" including their synonyms. A total of three randomized controlled trials were included. Restrictive transfusion strategy (RTS) was defined as transfusing for Hb ≤ 8 g/dl with a post-transfusion goal of 8 to 10 g/dl. Liberal transfusion strategy (LTS) was defined as Hb ≤ 10 g/dl and post-transfusion goal of at least 11 g/dl. The primary end point was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included recurrent ACS events, new or worsening CHF within 30 days, and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The primary analytic method used was random effects model. Out of 821 patients, 400 were randomized to LTS, and 421 to RTS. Mean age was 70.3 years in RTS versus 76.4 in LTS. There was no statistically significant difference for 30-day mortality in LTS compared to RTS [odds ratio (OR) 1.69; 95% CI 0.35 to 8.05]. Similarly, there was no difference in MACE (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.21 to 2.63), CHF (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.18 to 3.76), or the incidence of recurrent ACS (OR 1.21; 95% CI 0.49 to 2.95). CONCLUSIONS In the setting of ACS, there is no difference between LTS and RTS for the outcomes of mortality, MACE, recurrent ACS, or CHF at 30 days. Further evidence in the form of high-quality RCTs are needed to compare RTS and LTS.
Clinical studies on platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy for chronic cutaneous ulcers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Advances in wound care. 2021
SIGNIFICANCE Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may be a potential drug for treatment of chronic refractory ulcers, which increase the risk of systemic infection and local canceration. However, the efficacy and safety of clinical application of PRP are still controversial. Thus, this study was aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of PRP in patients with chronic ulcers. Recent Advances: For this meta-analysis, Cochrane's Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge databases were searched. Results were pooled using a random-effects model. The primary outcome was the proportion of completely healed chronic ulcers. CRITICAL ISSUES Seventeen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Compared with the control group, PRP significantly increased the fraction of healed ulcers (pooled RR =1.50; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.87; I2=47.8%). In autologous PRP (APRP) and homologous PRP (HPRP) subgroups, there were statistical differences between the control group vs. treatment subgroup (pooled RR=1.30, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.54, I2=25.7%; pooled RR=3.53, 95% CI 1.94 to 6.43, I2=0.0%, respectively). In terms of percent of chronic ulcers area healed, there was a statistically significant difference between the PRP-treated group vs. the control group (SMD=1.37, 95%CI=0.91 to 1.82, I2=22.1 %). As for PRP safety, there existed a statistically significant difference between the APRP subgroup and the HPRP subgroup, respectively (pooled RR=0.58; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.98; I2=0.0%) and (pooled RR=4.12; 95% CI 1.55 to 10.96; I2=6.8%). FUTURE DIRECTIONS Our findings shows that PRP may be a beneficial treatment of chronic skin ulcers and that APRP may be much safer than HPRP.
Restrictive vs. Liberal Red Blood Cell Transfusion Strategy in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction and Anemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine. 2021;8:736163
Objective: Anemia is frequent in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and the optimal red blood cell transfusion strategy for AMI patients with anemia is still controversial. We aimed to compare the efficacy of restrictive and liberal red cell transfusion strategies in AMI patients with anemia. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrials.gov, from their inception until March 2021. Studies designed to compare the efficacy between restrictive and liberal red blood cell transfusion strategies in patients with AMI were included. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, including overall mortality, in-hospital or follow-up mortality. Risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were presented and pooled by random-effects models. Results: The search yielded a total of 6,630 participants in six studies. A total of 2,008 patients received restrictive red blood cell transfusion while 4,622 patients were given liberal red blood cell transfusion. No difference was found in overall mortality and follow-up mortality between restrictive and liberal transfusion groups (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.82-1.40, P = 0.62; RR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.56-1.42, P = 0.62). However, restrictive transfusion tended to have a higher risk of in-hospital mortality compared with liberal transfusion (RR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.00-1.50, P = 0.05). No secondary outcomes, including follow-up reinfarction, stroke, and acute heart failure, differed significantly between the two groups. In addition, subgroup analysis showed no differences in overall mortality between the two groups based on sample size and design. Conclusion: Restrictive and liberal red blood cell transfusion have a similar effect on overall mortality and follow-up mortality in AMI patients with anemia. However, restrictive transfusion tended to have a higher risk of in-hospital mortality compared with liberal transfusion. The findings suggest that transfusion strategy should be further evaluated in future studies.
Patients with acute myocardial infarction and anaemia (6 studies, n= 6,630).
Restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategy (n= 2,008).
Liberal red blood cell transfusion strategy (n= 4,622).
No difference was found in overall mortality and follow-up mortality between restrictive and liberal transfusion groups (RR= 1.07; 95% CI [0.82, 1.40]; RR= 0.89; 95% CI [0.56, 1.42]). However, restrictive transfusion tended to have a higher risk of in-hospital mortality compared with liberal transfusion (RR= 1.22; 95% CI [1.00, 1.50]). No secondary outcomes, including follow-up reinfarction, stroke, and acute heart failure, differed significantly between the two groups. In addition, subgroup analysis showed no differences in overall mortality between the two groups based on sample size and design.
The Effectiveness and Safety of Platelet-Rich Plasma for Chronic Wounds: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Mayo Clinic proceedings. 2021
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness and adverse events of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in individuals with lower-extremity diabetic ulcers, lower-extremity venous ulcers, and pressure ulcers. PATIENTS AND METHODS We searched multiple databases from database inception to June 11, 2020, for randomized controlled trials and observational studies that compared PRP to any other wound care without PRP in adults with lower-extremity diabetic ulcers, lower-extremity venous ulcers, and pressure ulcers. RESULTS We included 20 randomized controlled trials and five observational studies. Compared with management without PRP, PRP therapy significantly increased complete wound closure in lower-extremity diabetic ulcers (relative risk, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.32, moderate strength of evidence [SOE]), shortened time to complete wound closure, and reduced wound area and depth (low SOE). No significant changes were found in terms of wound infection, amputation, wound recurrence, or hospitalization. In patients with lower-extremity venous ulcers or pressure ulcers, the SOE was insufficient to estimate an effect on critical outcomes, such as complete wound closure or time to complete wound closure. There was no statistically significant difference in adverse events. CONCLUSION Autologous PRP may increase complete wound closure, shorten healing time, and reduce wound size in individuals with lower-extremity diabetic ulcers. The evidence is insufficient to estimate an effect on wound healing in individuals with lower-extremity venous ulcers or pressure ulcers. TRIAL REGISTRATION PROSPERO Identifier: CRD42020172817.
Clinical Study of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) for Lower Extremity Venous Ulcers: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review
The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds. 2021;:15347346211046203
To systematically evaluate the clinical effects of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of lower limb venous ulcers by applying a meta-analysis method. The Pubmed, Cochrance Library, Embase, and OVID EBM Reviews databases were searched for the search terms'platelet-rich plasma" or "Plasma, Platelet-Rich" or "Platelet Rich Plasma" and "lower extremity venous ulcers' or "Leg Ulcers' or "Ulcer, Leg", and a meta-analysis was performed on the published research literature on platelet-rich plasma for lower extremity venous ulcers from January 1900 to April 2021. The outcome indicators were: post-treatment trauma area and healing rate. Revman 5.3 statistical software was applied for meta-analysis. A total of 294 patients with lower extremity venous ulcers were included in six publications, including 148 patients in the experimental group treated with PRP versus 146 patients in the control group treated with conventional therapy. There was a statistically significant difference in the Formula of an ellipse at the end of treatment (CM²) between the experimental group and the control group, with a mean difference of -1.19 (95% CI -1.80 to -0.58, P = .0001; 6 studies, 294 participants moderate quality of evidence). The difference between the healing rate of the experimental group and the control group was statistically significant, with a risk ratio (RR) of 5.73 (95% CI 3.29 - 9.99, P < .00001; 5 studies, 248 participants moderate quality of evidence).There may be publication bias for both Formula of an ellipse at the end of treatment and healing rate. This comprehensive meta-analysis of available evidence suggests that the application of PRP for lower extremity venous ulcers accelerates the wound healing process and improves wound healing rates.
Outcomes after Intracranial Hemorrhage in Patients with Left Ventricular Assist Devices: A Systematic Review of Literature
World neurosurgery. 2019
Red blood cell transfusion in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction-a meta-analysis of more than 21,000 patients
Netherlands Heart Journal : Monthly Journal of the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Netherlands Heart Foundation. 2018;26((9):):454-460
BACKGROUND Red blood cell transfusion remains controversial in patients with acute coronary syndromes and particularly in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS We systematically searched PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Web of Science for studies published until January 2017 describing the outcomes in patients with STEMI who received red blood cell transfusion, compared with patients who did not. RESULTS A total of 21,770 patients with STEMI from 5 cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis, 984 (4.5%) received red blood cell transfusion and 20,786 (95.4%) did not. Red blood cell transfusion was associated with a higher risk of in-hospital and long-term mortality, emergency repeated percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), reinfarction rate, stroke rate, and heart failure. The group with red blood cell transfusion had a slightly higher incidence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, but a lower incidence of smoking. The two groups had the same incidence of prior myocardial infarction, prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery and malignancy. Prior heart failure, prior stroke and prior PCI were more frequent in the group that had received red blood cell transfusion. The mean nadir haemoglobin was 8.5+/- 0.1g/dl in the group with red blood cell transfusion and 12.5+/- 0.4g/dl in the control group, p< 0.001. CONCLUSIONS Red blood cell transfusion increases the morbidity and mortality in patients with STEMI. This difference could not be explained by the higher morbidity in the red blood cell transfusion group alone. Further randomised controlled trials are required to provide a reliable haemoglobin threshold for these patients.
Impact of red blood cell transfusion on acute coronary syndrome: a meta-analysis
Internal & Emergency Medicine. 13(2):231-241, 2018 03.. 2018;13((2):):231-241
The impact of red blood cell transfusion on outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome is controversial. Pubmed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched for studies of red blood cell transfusion and acute coronary syndrome that were published in any language, from January 1, 1966, to April 1, 2016. We analyzed 17 observational studies, of 2,525,550 subjects. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis of studies assessing the association between blood transfusion and the risk for all-cause mortality and reinfarction. The search yielded 17 observational studies, of 2,525,550 subjects, during a study follow-up period, ranging from 30 days to 5 years. Red blood cell transfusion compared with no blood transfusion is associated with higher short- and long-term all-cause mortality as well as reinfarction rates (adjusted RR 2.23; 95% CI 1.47-3.39; HR 1.93; 95% CI 1.12-3.34; RR 2.61; 95% CI 2.17-3.14, respectively). In hemoglobin-stratified analyses, a graded association between red blood cell transfusion and mortality was observed, transfusion and risk of all-cause mortality was borderline significant at hemoglobin levels below 8.0 g/dL (RR 0.52; 95% CI 0.25-1.06), and was associated with an increased risk of mortality at a hemoglobin above 10 g/dL (RR 3.34; 95% CI 2.25-4.97). Red blood cell transfusion was associated with an increased risk of short- and long-term mortality as well as myocardial reinfarction. However, transfusion appeared to have beneficial or neutral effects on mortality at hemoglobin levels below 8.0 g/dL, and harmful effects above 10 g/dL. A large definitive randomized controlled trial addressing this issue is urgently required.
Plasma D-Dimer Concentrations and Risk of Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in neurology. 2018;9:1114
Background: The aim of our meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between plasma d-dimer and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: Embase, Pubmed, and Web of Science were searched up to the date of March 19th, 2018, and manual searching was used to extract additional articles. Standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was calculated to evaluate d-dimer levels. Results: Thirteen studies including 891 ICH patients and 1,573 healthy controls were included. Our results revealed that higher levels of d-dimer were displayed in ICH patients than those in healthy controls (95% CI= 0.98-2.00, p< 0.001). Subgroup analysis based on continent of Asia and Europe, sample size, as well as age in relation to d-dimer levels between ICH patients and healthy controls did not change the initial observation; whereas no differences of d-dimer levels were found between ICH and controls in America. Conclusions: This meta-analysis revealed that high level of d-dimer is associated with the risk of ICH. Plasma d-dimer is suggested to be a potential biomarker for patients with ICH in Asia and Europe rather than in America. There were no impact of sample size-related differences and age-related diversities on the risk of ICH with respect to d-dimer levels.