IV Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex in Patients with Iron Deficiency hospitalized due to Acute Heart Failure- Investigator initiated, Randomized controlled trial
Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology. 2022
Heart failure (HF) patients with iron deficiency (ID) have worse NYHA class and are at a higher risk of recurrent hospitalizations. Intravenous (IV) iron has been shown to improve exercise ability and reduce hospitalizations. IV Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex (SFGC) has been found to be safe and affordable but has not been studied in this population in a randomized trial. This was prospective, single-blind, investigator-initiated, randomized controlled trial. Patients admitted for acute heart failure with ID were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive IV SFGC on top of optimal medical treatment. The primary outcome was the change in 6-minute walk test (6MWT) from baseline to 3 and 6 months. Between September 2019 and May 2021, 34 patients were randomized. 19 patients (55%) were randomized to the treatment arm receiving 125 mg of IV SFGC per day for 3 to 5 days . COVID-19 was a major barrier to the implementation of the study follow-up protocol, which caused the study to end early. Both groups of patients had similar clinical characteristics, comorbidities, median LVEF, and rate of death and readmissions due to HF. A higher level of NT-proBNP was observed in patients treated with IV iron (7902 pg/ml vs 3158, p=0.04). There was no difference in 6MWT change between groups at 3 months (improvement of 21.6 vs 24.1 meters), or 6 months (-5 meters vs. 46 meters). In conclusion, IV SFGC treated patients had comparable 6-minute walk at 3 and 6 months despite suffering from more severe HF with higher baseline NT-Pro BNP. (NCT04063033).
Health Status Improvement with Ferric Carboxymaltose in Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction and Iron Deficiency
European journal of heart failure. 2022
AIM: Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) has been shown to improve overall quality of life in iron-deficient heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) patients at a trial population level. This FAIR-HF and CONFIRM-HF pooled analysis explored the likelihood of individual improvement or deterioration in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) domains with FCM vs placebo and evaluated the stability of this response over time. METHODS Changes vs baseline in KCCQ overall summary score (OSS), clinical summary score (CSS) and total symptom score (TSS) were assessed at weeks 12 and 24 in FCM and placebo groups . Mean between-group differences were estimated and individual responder analyses and analyses of response stability were performed. RESULTS Overall, 760 (FCM: 454) patients were studied. At week 12, the mean improvement in KCCQ OSS was 10.6 points with FCM vs 4.8 points with placebo (least-square mean difference [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 4.36 [2.14;6.59] points). A higher proportion of patients on FCM vs placebo experienced a KCCQ OSS improvement of ≥5 (58.3% vs 43.5%; odds ratio [95% CI]: 1.81 [1.30;2.51]), ≥10 (42.4% vs 29.3%; 1.73 [1.23;2.43]) or ≥15 (32.1% vs 22.6%; 1.46 [1.02;2.11]) points. Differences were similar at week 24 and for CSS and TSS domains. Of FCM patients with a ≥5-, ≥10- or ≥15-point improvement in KCCQ OSS at week 12, >75% sustained this improvement at week 24. CONCLUSION Treatment of iron-deficient HFrEF patients with intravenous FCM conveyed clinically relevant improvements in health status at an individual-patient level; benefits were sustained over time in most patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Effect of iron supplementation in patients with heart failure and iron deficiency: A systematic review and meta-analysis
International journal of cardiology. Heart & vasculature. 2021;36:100871
BACKGROUND The effectiveness of oral and intravenous iron supplementation in reducing the risk of mortality and hospitalizations in HF patients with iron deficiency is not well-established. METHODS A thorough literature search was conducted across 2 electronic databases (Medline and Cochrane Central) from inception through March 2021. RCTs assessing the impact of iron supplementation on clinical outcomes in iron deficient HF patients were considered for inclusion. Primary end-points included all-cause mortality and HF hospitalization. Evaluations were reported as odds ratios (ORs) or risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and analysis was performed using a random effects model. I(2) index was used to assess heterogeneity. RESULTS From the 2599 articles retrieved from initial search, 10 potentially relevant studies (n = 2187 patients) were included in the final analysis. Both oral (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.08-11.30; p = 0.951) and intravenous (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.73-1.29; p = 0.840) iron supplementation did not significantly reduce all-cause mortality. However, intravenous iron supplementation significantly decreased the rates of overall (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33-0.81; p = 0.004) and HF (OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.22-0.80; p = 0.009) hospitalizations. In addition, intravenous ferric carboxymaltose therapy significantly reduced the time to first HF hospitalization or cardiovascular mortality (RR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.50-1.00; p = 0.048), but had no effect on time to first cardiovascular death (RR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.70-1.25; p = 0.655). CONCLUSION Oral or intravenous iron supplementation did not reduce mortality in iron deficient HF patients. However, intravenous iron supplementation was associated with a significant decrease in overall and HF hospitalizations.
Evaluation of pentoxifylline and ferrous sulfate for treatment of lower limb venous ulcers
Jornal vascular brasileiro. 2021;20:e2020167
BACKGROUND Venous ulcers (VU) are the most advanced stage of chronic venous disease (CVD) of the lower limbs. They are frequently associated with episodes of hemorrhage that can provoke chronic anemia (CA), delaying healing. There are no studies in the literature analyzing the prevalence of CA among patients with VU of the lower limbs and few studies have analyzed use of pentoxifylline to treat VU of the lower limbs. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the prevalence of CA in patients with lower limb VU and responses to treatment with ferrous sulfate (SF) compared with a combination of SF plus pentoxifylline as adjuvant treatment for VU of the lower limbs. METHODS A total of 67 patients with lower limb VU were recruited from a Lymphedema and Angiodysplasia Clinic at the Hospital das Clínicas, Recife, PE, Brazil. After initial clinical and laboratory assessments, patients diagnosed with CA were randomized into one of two groups: a control group, given SF (900 mg/day oral route), or a study group, treated with SF (900 mg/day oral route) and pentoxifylline (1,200 mg/day). All were reassessed after 90 days. RESULTS Twenty-seven patients (40%) had CA. After treatment, increases were observed in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, iron kinetics had improved, and both depth and area of VU had reduced in both groups, without statistically significant differences. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of anemia was detected in the study population. The combination of SF and pentoxifylline was not more effective than SF alone for adjuvant treatment of VU of the lower limbs.
The effect of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose on health-related quality of life in iron-deficient patients with acute heart failure: the results of the AFFIRM-AHF study
European heart journal. 2021
AIMS: Patients with heart failure (HF) and iron deficiency experience poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We evaluated the impact of intravenous (IV) ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) vs. placebo on HRQoL for the AFFIRM-AHF population. METHODS AND RESULTS The baseline 12-item Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ-12), which was completed for 1058 (535 and 523) patients in the FCM and placebo groups, respectively, was administered prior to randomization and at Weeks 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 52. The baseline KCCQ-12 overall summary score (OSS) mean ± standard error was 38.7 ± 0.9 (FCM group) and 37.1 ± 0.8 (placebo group); corresponding values for the clinical summary score (CSS) were 40.9 ± 0.9 and 40.1 ± 0.9. At Week 2, changes in OSS and CSS were similar for FCM and placebo. From Week 4 to Week 24, patients assigned to FCM had significantly greater improvements in OSS and CSS scores vs. placebo [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval, CI) at Week 4: 2.9 (0.5-5.3, P = 0.018) for OSS and 2.8 (0.3-5.3, P = 0.029) for CSS; adjusted mean difference (95% CI) at Week 24: 3.0 (0.3-5.6, P = 0.028) for OSS and 2.9 (0.2-5.6, P = 0.035) for CSS]. At Week 52, the treatment effect had attenuated but remained in favour of FCM. CONCLUSION In iron-deficient patients with HF and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤50% who had stabilized after an episode of acute HF, treatment with IV FCM, compared with placebo, results in clinically meaningful beneficial effects on HRQoL as early as 4 weeks after treatment initiation, lasting up to Week 24.
Ferric carboxymaltose for the treatment of iron deficiency in heart failure: a multinational cost-effectiveness analysis utilising AFFIRM-AHF
European journal of heart failure. 2021
AIMS: Iron deficiency is common in patients with heart failure (HF). In AFFIRM-AHF, ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) reduced the risk of hospitalisations for HF (HHF) and improved quality of life vs. placebo in iron-deficient patients with a recent episode of acute HF. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of FCM compared with placebo in iron-deficient patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <50%, stabilised after an episode of acute HF, using data from the AFFIRM-AHF trial from Italian, UK, US and Swiss payer perspectives. METHODS AND RESULTS A lifetime Markov model was built to characterise outcomes in patients according to the AFFIRM-AHF trial. Health states were defined using the 12-item Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ-12). Subsequent HHF were incorporated using a negative binomial regression model with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality incorporated via parametric survival analysis. Direct healthcare costs (2020 GBP/USD/EUR/CHF) and utility values were sourced from published literature and AFFIRM-AHF. Modelled outcomes indicated that treatment with FCM was dominant (cost saving with additional health gains) in the UK, USA and Switzerland, and highly cost-effective in Italy [incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) EUR 1269 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY)]. Results were driven by reduced costs for HHF events combined with QALY gains of 0.43-0.44, attributable to increased time in higher KCCQ states (representing better functional outcomes). Sensitivity and subgroup analyses demonstrated data robustness, with the ICER remaining dominant or highly cost-effective under a wide range of scenarios, including increasing treatment costs and various patient subgroups, despite a moderate increase in costs for de novo HF and smaller QALY gains for ischaemic aetiology. CONCLUSION Ferric carboxymaltose is estimated to be a highly cost-effective treatment across countries (Italy, UK, USA and Switzerland) representing different healthcare systems.
Supplementation with Iron in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Two Randomized Crossover Trials
Annals of the American Thoracic Society. 2021
RATIONALE Iron deficiency, in the absence of anaemia, is common in patients with idiopathic and heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and is associated with a worse clinical outcome. Oral iron absorption may be impeded by elevated circulating hepcidin levels. The safety and benefit of parenteral iron replacement in this patient population is unclear. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the safety and efficacy of parenteral iron replacement in pulmonary arterial hypertension. METHODS In two randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled 12 week crossover studies, 39 patients in Europe received a single infusion of ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject®) 1000 mg (or 15 mg/kg if weight < 66.7Kg) or saline as placebo and 17 patients in China received iron dextran (Cosmofer®) 20 mg iron/kg body weight or saline placebo. All patients had idiopathic or heritable PAH and iron deficiency at entry as defined by: a serum ferritin < 37 µg/l or iron < 10.3 µmol/l or transferrin saturations < 16.4%. RESULTS Both iron treatments were well tolerated and improved iron status. Analysed separately and combined, there was no effect on any measure of exercise capacity (using cardiopulmonary exercise testing or 6 minute walk test) or cardio-pulmonary haemodynamics, as assessed by right heart catheterisation, cardiac magnetic resonance or plasma NT-proBNP, at 12 weeks. CONCLUSION Iron repletion by administration of a slow release iron preparation as a single infusion to PAH patients with iron deficiency without overt anaemia was well tolerated but provided no significant clinical benefit at 12 weeks. Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01447628).
Short-term changes in left and right systolic function following ferric carboxymaltose: a substudy of the Myocardial-IRON trial
ESC heart failure. 2020
AIMS: The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in patients with heart failure (HF) and iron deficiency (ID) have not been completely characterized. The Myocardial-IRON trial was a double-blind, randomized trial that evaluated myocardial iron repletion following FCM vs. placebo in 53 patients with HF and ID. In this post hoc analysis, we evaluated whether treatment with FCM was associated with cardiac magnetic resonance changes in left and right ventricular function (LVEF and RVEF, respectively) at different points of systolic dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS We included patients from the Myocardial-IRON trial with left and right ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD and RVSD, respectively) at enrolment. Linear mixed regression models were used to evaluate changes at 7 and 30 days on LVEF and RVEF at cardiac magnetic resonance. At enrolment, 27 (50.9%) and 38 (71.7%) patients had LVEF < 40% (LVSD(1) ) or <45% (LVSD(2) ), respectively, and 10 (18.9%) and 17 (32.1%) patients had RVEF < 45% (RVSD(1) ) or <51% in women and <52% in men (RVSD(2)) , respectively. Treatment with FCM was associated with a significant improvement in LVEF at 30 days (LVSD(1) : Δ2.3%, P < 0.001; LVSD(2) : Δ4.1, P = 0.014). FCM was also associated with a significant and early improvement in RVEF at 7 days (RVSD(1) : Δ6.9%, P = 0.003; RVSD(2) : Δ3.2%, P = 0.003) that persisted at 30 days (RVSD(1) : Δ8.1%, P < 0.001; RVSD(2) : Δ4.7%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS In patients with HF and systolic dysfunction with ID, FCM was associated with short-term improvement in LVEF and, especially, in RVEF.
Ferric carboxymaltose for iron deficiency at discharge after acute heart failure: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled trial
Lancet (London, England). 2020
BACKGROUND Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose has been shown to improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure and iron deficiency. We aimed to evaluate the effect of ferric carboxymaltose, compared with placebo, on outcomes in patients who were stabilised after an episode of acute heart failure. METHODS AFFIRM-AHF was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised trial done at 121 sites in Europe, South America, and Singapore. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, were hospitalised for acute heart failure with concomitant iron deficiency (defined as ferritin <100 μg/L, or 100-299 μg/L with transferrin saturation <20%), and had a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 50%. Before hospital discharge, participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous ferric carboxymaltose or placebo for up to 24 weeks, dosed according to the extent of iron deficiency. To maintain masking of patients and study personnel, treatments were administered in black syringes by personnel not involved in any study assessments. The primary outcome was a composite of total hospitalisations for heart failure and cardiovascular death up to 52 weeks after randomisation, analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment and had at least one post-randomisation data point. Secondary outcomes were the composite of total cardiovascular hospitalisations and cardiovascular death; cardiovascular death; total heart failure hospitalisations; time to first heart failure hospitalisation or cardiovascular death; and days lost due to heart failure hospitalisations or cardiovascular death, all evaluated up to 52 weeks after randomisation. Safety was assessed in all patients for whom study treatment was started. A pre-COVID-19 sensitivity analysis on the primary and secondary outcomes was prespecified. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02937454, and has now been completed. FINDINGS Between March 21, 2017, and July 30, 2019, 1525 patients were screened, of whom 1132 patients were randomly assigned to study groups. Study treatment was started in 1110 patients, and 1108 (558 in the carboxymaltose group and 550 in the placebo group) had at least one post-randomisation value. 293 primary events (57·2 per 100 patient-years) occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 372 (72·5 per 100 patient-years) occurred in the placebo group (rate ratio [RR] 0·79, 95% CI 0·62-1·01, p=0·059). 370 total cardiovascular hospitalisations and cardiovascular deaths occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 451 occurred in the placebo group (RR 0·80, 95% CI 0·64-1·00, p=0·050). There was no difference in cardiovascular death between the two groups (77 [14%] of 558 in the ferric carboxymaltose group vs 78 [14%] in the placebo group; hazard ratio [HR] 0·96, 95% CI 0·70-1·32, p=0·81). 217 total heart failure hospitalisations occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 294 occurred in the placebo group (RR 0·74; 95% CI 0·58-0·94, p=0·013). The composite of first heart failure hospitalisation or cardiovascular death occurred in 181 (32%) patients in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 209 (38%) in the placebo group (HR 0·80, 95% CI 0·66-0·98, p=0·030). Fewer days were lost due to heart failure hospitalisations and cardiovascular death for patients assigned to ferric carboxymaltose compared with placebo (369 days per 100 patient-years vs 548 days per 100 patient-years; RR 0·67, 95% CI 0·47-0·97, p=0·035). Serious adverse events occurred in 250 (45%) of 559 patients in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 282 (51%) of 551 patients in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION In patients with iron deficiency, a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 50%, and who were stabilised after an episode of acute heart failure, treatment with ferric carboxymaltose was safe and reduced the risk of heart failure hospitalisations, with no apparent effect on the risk of cardiovascular death. FUNDING Vifor Pharma.
Noninvasive Imaging Estimation of Myocardial Iron Repletion Following Administration of Intravenous Iron: The Myocardial-IRON Trial
Journal of the American Heart Association. 2020;9(4):e014254
Background Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) improves symptoms, functional capacity, and quality of life in heart failure and iron deficiency. The mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to examine changes in myocardial iron content after FCM administration in patients with heart failure and iron deficiency using cardiac magnetic resonance. Methods and Results Fifty-three stable heart failure and iron deficiency patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive intravenous FCM or placebo in a multicenter, double-blind study. T2* and T1 mapping cardiac magnetic resonance sequences, noninvasive surrogates of intramyocardial iron, were evaluated before and 7 and 30 days after randomization using linear mixed regression analysis. Results are presented as least-square means with 95% CI. The primary end point was the change in T2* and T1 mapping at 7 and 30 days. Median age was 73 (65-78) years, with N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, ferritin, and transferrin saturation medians of 1690 pg/mL (1010-2828), 63 ng/mL (22-114), and 15.7% (11.0-19.2), respectively. Baseline T2* and T1 mapping values did not significantly differ across treatment arms. On day 7, both T2* and T1 mapping (ms) were significantly lower in the FCM arm (36.6 [34.6-38.7] versus 40 [38-42.1], P=0.025; 1061 [1051-1072] versus 1085 [1074-1095], P=0.001, respectively). A similar reduction was found at 30 days for T2* (36.3 [34.1-38.5] versus 41.1 [38.9-43.4], P=0.003), but not for T1 mapping (1075 [1065-1085] versus 1079 [1069-1089], P=0.577). Conclusions In patients with heart failure and iron deficiency, FCM administration was associated with changes in the T2* and T1 mapping cardiac magnetic resonance sequences, indicative of myocardial iron repletion. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03398681.