Efficacy of Ferric carboxymaltose in heart failure with iron deficiency: an individual patient data meta-analysis
European heart journal. 2023
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Whereas a beneficial effect of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) on symptoms and exercise capacity among patients with iron deficiency (ID) and heart failure (HF) has been consistently demonstrated, the effects of treatment on clinical events remain the subject of research. This meta-analysis aimed to characterize the effects of FCM therapy on hospitalizations and mortality. METHODS Patient-level data from randomized, placebo-controlled FCM trials including adults with HF and ID with ≥52 weeks follow-up were analysed. The co-primary efficacy endpoints were (1) composite of total/recurrent cardiovascular hospitalizations and cardiovascular death, and (2) composite of total HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular death, through 52 weeks. Key secondary endpoints included individual composite endpoint components. Event rates were analysed using a negative binomial model. Treatment-emergent adverse events were also examined. RESULTS Three FCM trials with a total of 4501 patients were included. FCM was associated with a significantly reduced risk of co-primary endpoint 1 (rate ratio [RR] 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-0.98; P=0.029; Cochran Q: 0.008), with a trend towards a reduction of co-primary endpoint 2 (RR 0.87; 95% CI 0.75-1.01; P=0.076; Cochran Q: 0.024). Treatment effects appeared to result from reduced hospitalization rates, not improved survival. Treatment appeared to have a good safety profile and was well-tolerated. CONCLUSIONS In iron-deficient patients with HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, intravenous FCM was associated with significantly reduced risk of hospital admissions for HF and cardiovascular causes, with no apparent effect on mortality.
Adults with heart failure (HF) and iron deficiency enrolled in the ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) trials: CONFIRM-HF, AFFIRM-AHF, and HEART-FID (3 randomised controlled trials, n= 4,501).
FCM (n= 2,251).
Placebo (n= 2,250).
The co-primary efficacy endpoints were (1) composite of total/recurrent cardiovascular hospitalizations and cardiovascular death, and (2) composite of total HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular death, through 52 weeks. FCM was associated with a significantly reduced risk of co-primary endpoint 1 (rate ratio [RR] 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.75, 0.98]; Cochran Q: 0.008), with a trend towards a reduction of co-primary endpoint 2 (RR 0.87; 95% CI [0.75, 1.01]; Cochran Q: 0.024).
Effects of Intravenous Iron Replacement Therapy on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease. 2023;10(3)
(1) Background: Iron deficiency (ID) is an important adverse prognostic marker in patients with heart failure (HF); however, it is unclear whether intravenous iron replacement reduces cardiovascular mortality in this patient group. Here, we estimate the effect of intravenous iron replacement therapy on hard clinical outcomes following the publication of IRONMAN, the largest trial in this field. (2) Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, prospectively registered with PROSPERO and reported according to PRISMA guidelines, we searched PubMed and Embase for randomized controlled trials investigating intravenous iron replacement in patients with HF and co-existing ID. The primary outcome was cardiovascular mortality and secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, hospitalizations for HF and a combination of the primary outcome and hospitalizations for HF. (3) Results: A total of 1671 items were identified and after removal of duplicates we screened titles and abstracts of 1202 records. Some 31 studies were identified for full-text review and 12 studies were included in the final review. The odds ratio (OR) for cardiovascular death using a random effects model was 0.85 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.04) and for all-cause mortality it was 0.83 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.15). There was a significant reduction in hospitalizations for HF (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.69) and the combination of hospitalizations for HF and cardiovascular death (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.85). (4) Conclusions: This review supports the use of IV iron replacement reducing hospitalization rates for HF, however more research is required to determine the effect on cardiovascular mortality and to identify the patient population most likely to benefit.
Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose for iron repletion following acute heart failure in patients with and without diabetes: a subgroup analysis of the randomized AFFIRM-AHF trial
Cardiovascular diabetology. 2023;22(1):215
BACKGROUND In AFFIRM-AHF, treatment of iron deficiency with intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) reduced the risk of heart failure (HF) hospitalization and improved quality of life (QoL) vs placebo in patients stabilized following an acute HF (AHF) episode, with no effect on cardiovascular (CV) death. Diabetes and iron deficiency frequently accompany AHF. This post hoc analysis explored the effects of diabetes on outcomes in AFFIRM-AHF patients. METHODS Patients were stratified by diabetes yes/no at baseline. The effects of FCM vs placebo on primary (total HF hospitalizations and CV death) and secondary (total CV hospitalizations and CV death; CV death; total HF hospitalizations; time to first HF hospitalization or CV death; and days lost due to HF hospitalizations or CV death) endpoints at Week 52 and change vs baseline in disease-specific QoL (12-item Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire [KCCQ-12]) at Week 24 were assessed by subgroup. For each endpoint, the interaction between diabetes status and treatment outcome was explored. RESULTS Of 1108 AFFIRM-AHF patients, 475 (FCM: 231; placebo: 244) had diabetes and 633 (FCM: 327; placebo: 306) did not have diabetes. Patients with diabetes were more commonly male (61.5% vs 50.9%), with a higher frequency of ischemic HF etiology (57.9% vs 39.0%), prior HF history (77.7% vs 66.5%), and comorbidities (including previous myocardial infarction [49.3% vs 32.9%] and chronic kidney disease [51.4% vs 32.4%]) than those without diabetes. The annualized event rate/100 patient-years with FCM vs placebo for the primary endpoint was 66.9 vs 80.9 in patients with diabetes (rate ratio [RR]: 0.83, 95% CI 0.58-1.81) and 51.3 vs 66.9 in patients without diabetes (RR: 0.77, 95% CI 0.55-1.07), with no significant interaction between diabetes status and treatment effect (p(interaction) = 0.76). Similar findings were observed for secondary outcomes. Change from baseline in KCCQ-12 overall summary score was numerically greater with FCM vs placebo at almost all time points in both subgroups, with no interaction between diabetes and treatment effect at Week 24. CONCLUSIONS The clinical and QoL benefits observed with intravenous FCM in patients with iron deficiency following stabilization from an AHF episode are independent of diabetes status. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02937454 (registered 10.18.2016).
Effect of Intravenous Iron Replacement on Recurrent Heart Failure Hospitalizations and Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients with Heart Failure and Iron Deficiency: A Bayesian Meta-Analysis
European journal of heart failure. 2023
AIMS: Iron deficiency is common in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and is associated with a poor prognosis. Whether intravenous iron replacement improves recurrent HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular mortality of these patients is uncertain although several trials were conducted. Moreover, none of the trials were powered to assess the effect of intravenous iron in clinically important subgroups. Therefore, we conducted a Bayesian analysis to derive precise estimates of the effect of intravenous iron replacement on recurrent HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular mortality in iron-deficient HFrEF patients using consistent subgroup definitions across trials. METHODS Individual participant data was used from the FAIR-HF (n=459), CONFIRM-HF (n=304) and AFFIRM-AHF (n=1,108) trials. This data was re-analyzed following as closely as possible the approach taken in the analyses of IRONMAN (n=1,137), for which study level data was used. Definitions of outcomes and subgroups from the FAIR-HF, CONFIRM-HF and AFFIRM-AHF were matched with those used in IRONMAN. The primary endpoint was recurrent HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular mortality. The analysis of recurrent events was based on rate ratios (RR) derived from the Lin-Wei-Yang-Ying model, and the data were pooled using Bayesian random effect meta-analysis. RESULTS Compared with placebo, intravenous iron significantly reduced the rates of recurrent HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular mortality (RR: 0.73, 95% credible interval (CI) [0.48-0.99]; between-trial heterogeneity tau=0.16). The pooled treatment effects did not provide evidence for any differential effects for subgroups based on sex (ratio of rate ratios [RRR]: 1.49 , 95% CI [0.95-2.37], age < vs ≥69.4 years (RRR= 0.68 [0.40-1.15]), ischemic vs non-ischemic etiology of HF (RRR=0.73 [0.42-1.33]), transferrin saturation < vs ≥20% (RRR=0.75 [0.40-1.34]), estimated glomerular filtration rate (≤ vs >60 mL/min/1.73m(2) (RRR=0.97 [0.56-1.68]), haemoglobin < vs ≥ 11.8 (RRR=0.95 [0.53-1.60]), ferritin < vs ≥35 μg/L (RRR=1.26 [0.72-2.48]) and New York Heart Association Class II vs III/IV (RRR=0.91 [0.54-1.56]). CONCLUSIONS Treatment of iron-deficient HFrEF patients with intravenous iron - namely with ferric carboxymaltose or ferric derisomaltose - results in significant reduction in recurrent HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular mortality. Results were nominally consistent across the subgroups studied, but for several of these subgroups uncertainty remains present. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Impact of transfusion strategy on platelet aggregation and biomarkers in myocardial infarction patients with anemia
European heart journal. Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy. 2023
BACKGROUND Higher rates of thrombotic events have been reported in myocardial infarction (MI) patients requiring blood transfusion. The impact of blood transfusion strategy on thrombosis and inflammation is still unknown. OBJECTIVE To compare the impact of a liberal vs. a restrictive transfusion strategy on P2Y12 platelet reactivity and biomarkers in the multicentric randomized REALITY trial. METHODS Patients randomized to a liberal (hemoglobin ≤10 g/dL) or a restrictive (hemoglobin ≤8 g/dL) transfusion strategy had VASP-PRI platelet reactivity measured centrally in a blinded fashion and platelet reactivity unit (PRU) measured locally using encrypted VerifyNow; at baseline and after randomization. Biomarkers of thrombosis (P-selectin, PAI-1, vWF) and inflammation (TNF-α) were also measured. The primary endpoint was the change in the VASP-PRI (difference from baseline and post randomization) between the randomized groups. RESULTS A total of 100 patients randomized were included in this study (n = 50 in each group). Transfused patients received on average 2.4 ± 1.6 units of blood. We found no differences in change of the VASP PRI (difference 1.2% 95% CI (-10.3-12.7%)) or by the PRU (difference 13.0 95% CI (-21.8-47.8)) before and after randomization in both randomized groups. Similar results were found in transfused patients (n = 71) regardless of the randomized group, VASP PRI (difference 1.7%; 95% CI (-9.5-1.7%)) or PRU (difference 27.0; 95% CI (-45.0-0.0)). We did not find an impact of transfusion strategy or transfusion itself in the levels of P-selectin, PAI-1, vWF, and TNF-α. CONCLUSION In this study, we found no impact of a liberal vs. a restrictive transfusion strategy on platelet reactivity and biomarkers in MI patients with anemia. A conclusion that should be tempered due to missing patients with exploitable biological data that has affected our power to show a difference.
Ferric Carboxymaltose in Iron-Deficient Patients with Hospitalized Heart Failure and Reduced Kidney Function
Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN. 2023
BACKGROUND Reduced kidney function is common among patients with heart failure. In patients with heart failure and/or kidney disease, iron deficiency is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes. In the AFFIRM-AHF trial, acute heart failure patients with iron deficiency treated with intravenous ferric carboxymaltose demonstrated reduced risk of heart failure hospitalization, with improved quality of life. We aimed to further characterize the impact of ferric carboxymaltose among patients with coexisting kidney impairment. METHODS The double-blind, placebo-controlled AFFIRM-AHF trial randomized 1132 stabilized adults with acute heart failure (left ventricular ejection fraction <50%) and iron deficiency. Patients on dialysis were excluded. The primary endpoint was a composite of total heart failure hospitalizations and cardiovascular death during the 52-week follow-up period. Additional endpoints included cardiovascular hospitalizations, total heart failure hospitalizations, and days lost to heart failure hospitalizations or cardiovascular death. For this subgroup analysis, patients were stratified according to baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS Overall, 60% of patients had an eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 (the lower eGFR subgroup). These patients were significantly older, more likely to be female and to have ischemic heart failure, and had higher baseline serum phosphate levels and higher rates of anemia. For all endpoints, event rates were higher in the lower eGFR group. In the lower eGFR group, the annualized event rates for the primary composite outcome were 68.96 and 86.30 per 100 patient-years in the ferric carboxymaltose and placebo arms, respectively (rate ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-1.06). The treatment effect was similar in the higher eGFR subgroup (rate ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-1.02; Pinteraction =0.60). A similar pattern was observed for all endpoints ( Pinteraction >0.05). CONCLUSIONS In a cohort of patients with acute heart failure, left ventricular ejection fraction <50%, and iron deficiency, the safety and efficacy of ferric carboxymaltose were consistent across a range of eGFR values.
Optimal Hemostatic Band Duration After Transradial Angiography or Intervention: Insights From a Mixed Treatment Comparison Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials
Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions. 2023;16(2):e012781
BACKGROUND The optimal duration of hemostatic compression post transradial access is controversial. Longer duration increases the risk of radial artery occlusion (RAO) while shorter duration increases the risk of access site bleeding or hematoma. As such, a target of 2 hours is typically used. Whether a shorter or longer duration is better is not known. METHODS A PubMed, EMBASE, and clinicaltrials.gov databases were searched for randomized clinical trials of different duration (<90 minutes, 90 minutes, 2 hours, and 2-4 hours) of hemostasis banding. The efficacy outcome was RAO, primary safety outcome was access site hematoma, and secondary safety outcome was access site rebleeding. Primary analysis compared the effect of various duration in reference to the 2 hours duration using a mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis. RESULTS Of the 10 randomized clinical trials included with 4911 patients, when compared to the 2-hour reference duration, there was a significantly higher risk of access site hematoma with 90 minutes (odds ratio, 2.39 [95% CI, 1.40-4.06]) and <90 minutes (odds ratio, 3.61 [95% CI, 1.79-7.29]) but not with the 2 to 4 hours duration. When compared with the 2-hour reference, there was no significant difference in access site rebleeding or RAO with shorter or longer duration but the point estimates favored longer duration for access site rebleeding and shorter duration for RAO. Duration of <90 minutes and 90 minutes ranked 1 and duration of 2 hours ranked 2 as the most efficacious duration whereas duration of 2 hours ranked 1 and 2 to 4 hours ranked 2 as the safest duration. CONCLUSIONS In patients undergoing transradial access for coronary angiography or intervention, a hemostasis duration of 2 hours offers the best balance for efficacy (prevention of RAO) and safety (prevention of access site hematoma/rebleeding).
Ferric Carboxymaltose in Heart Failure with Iron Deficiency
The New England journal of medicine. 2023
BACKGROUND Ferric carboxymaltose therapy reduces symptoms and improves quality of life in patients who have heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction and iron deficiency. Additional evidence about the effects of ferric carboxymaltose on clinical events is needed. METHODS In this double-blind, randomized trial, we assigned ambulatory patients with heart failure, a left ventricular ejection fraction of 40% or less, and iron deficiency, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive intravenous ferric carboxymaltose or placebo, in addition to standard therapy for heart failure. Ferric carboxymaltose or placebo was given every 6 months as needed on the basis of iron indexes and hemoglobin levels. The primary outcome was a hierarchical composite of death within 12 months after randomization, hospitalizations for heart failure within 12 months after randomization, or change from baseline to 6 months in the 6-minute walk distance. The significance level was set at 0.01. RESULTS We enrolled 3065 patients, of whom 1532 were randomly assigned to the ferric carboxymaltose group and 1533 to the placebo group. Death by month 12 occurred in 131 patients (8.6%) in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 158 (10.3%) in the placebo group; a total of 297 and 332 hospitalizations for heart failure, respectively, occurred by month 12; and the mean (±SD) change from baseline to 6 months in the 6-minute walk distance was 8±60 and 4±59 m, respectively (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney P = 0.02; unmatched win ratio, 1.10; 99% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.23). Repeated dosing of ferric carboxymaltose appeared to be safe with an acceptable adverse-event profile in the majority of patients. The number of patients with serious adverse events occurring during the treatment period was similar in the two groups (413 patients [27.0%] in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 401 [26.2%] in the placebo group). CONCLUSIONS Among ambulatory patients who had heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction and iron deficiency, there was no apparent difference between ferric carboxymaltose and placebo with respect to the hierarchical composite of death, hospitalizations for heart failure, or 6-minute walk distance. (Funded by American Regent, a Daiichi Sankyo Group company; HEART-FID ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03037931.).
Patients with heart failure and iron deficiency (n= 3,065).
Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose group (n= 1,532).
Placebo (n= 1,533).
Death by month 12 occurred in 131 patients (8.6%) in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 158 (10.3%) in the placebo group; a total of 297 and 332 hospitalizations for heart failure, respectively, occurred by month 12; and the mean (±SD) change from baseline to 6 months in the 6-minute walk distance was 8±60 and 4±59 m, respectively (unmatched win ratio, 1.10; 99% confidence interval [0.99, 1.23]). The number of patients with serious adverse events occurring during the treatment period was similar in the two groups: 413 patients (27.0%) in the ferric carboxymaltose group, and 401 (26.2%) in the placebo group.
Treating Iron Deficiency (ID) Anemia in Heart Failure (HF) Patients with IV Iron: A Meta-Analysis
Findings on the effects of iron on heart failure (HF) hospitalizations and mortality among patients with iron deficiency (ID) and HF remain conflicting across different studies. We performed a meta-analysis of clinical trials assessing the clinical, hematic and cardiovascular benefits of treating ID in HF patients. We completed a systematic search for studies comparing IV iron to placebo in HF patients with ID. The primary outcomes were rates of HF hospitalization and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included change in hematic values, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and ejection fraction. We applied a random-effects model with planned sensitivity analyses of studies with skewed effect sizes. Nine studies were included with a total of 2,261 patients. Analysis revealed that treatment of HF patients with IV iron replacement significantly reduced the odds of HF hospitalization (odds ratio (OR): 0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24 to 0.78; p=0.005, I(2)=67%),) but did not significantly impact all-cause mortality compared to placebo (OR: 0.89; 95%, CI: 0.67 to 1.19; p=0.44, I(2): 0%). Analysis showed that IV iron treatment group had significantly higher serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. They also had lower NYHA class -1.90 (95% CI (-2.91 to -0.89); p<0.001, I(2):89%) with higher ejection fraction 0.50 (95% CI (0.09 to 0.90) p=0.016, I(2):86%). Treatment with IV iron in HF patients with ID is associated with a significant reduction of HF hospitalization but no effects on all-cause mortality. There were also significant increases in hematic values and ejection fraction with a reduction in NYHA class.
Impact of ferric carboxymaltose for iron deficiency at discharge after heart failure hospitalisation: A European multinational economic evaluation
European journal of heart failure. 2023
AIMS: Iron deficiency (ID) is comorbid in up to 50% patients with heart failure (HF) and exacerbates disease burden. Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) reduced HF hospitalisations and improved quality of life when used to treat ID at discharge in patients hospitalised for acute HF with left-ventricular ejection fraction of <50% in the AFFIRM-AHF trial. We quantified the effect of FCM on burden of disease and the wider pharmacoeconomic implications in France, Germany, Poland, Spain and Sweden. METHODS AND RESULTS The per country eligible population was calculated, aligning with the ESC 2021 HF guidelines and the AFFIRM-AHF trial. Changes in burden of disease with FCM versus standard of care (SoC) were represented by disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), hospitalisation episodes and bed days, using AFFIRM-AHF data. A Markov model was adapted to each country to estimate cost-effectiveness and combined with epidemiology data to calculate the impact on healthcare budgets. Between 335 (Sweden) and 13,237 (Germany) DALYs were predicted to be avoided with FCM use annually. Fewer hospitalisations and shorter lengths of stay associated with FCM compared to SoC were projected to result in substantial annual savings in bed days, from 5,215 in Sweden to 205,630 in Germany. In all countries, FCM was predicted to be dominant (cost saving with gains in quality-adjusted life years), resulting in net savings to healthcare budgets within one year. CONCLUSIONS This comprehensive evaluation of FCM therapy highlights the potential benefits that could be realised through implementation of the ESC HF guideline recommendations regarding ID treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.