Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser or Erbium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet Laser Assisted by Topical Application/Intradermal Injection of Platelet-Rich Plasma for Postacne Scars
Plastic and reconstructive surgery. 2021;148(6):915e-927e
BACKGROUND Fractional carbon dioxide or erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser combined with platelet-rich plasma has been used for postacne scars. Nevertheless, there is limited evidence on its use because of the small size of relevant studies. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma-assisted laser for postacne scars. METHODS Randomized controlled trials comparing carbon dioxide or erbium:YAG laser combined with platelet-rich plasma to laser alone were searched for using the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases. RESULTS In total, 13 studies involving 672 cases were included. The overall degree of clinical improvement favored platelet-rich plasma combined with carbon dioxide laser (mean difference, 0.55; 95 percent CI, 0.40 to 0.70) or erbium:YAG laser (mean difference, 0.63; 95 percent CI, 0.31 to 0.96). Notably, the use of carbon dioxide laser combined with platelet-rich plasma was more effective in both greater than 50 percent improvement of acne scars (OR, 1.63; 95 percent CI, 1.10 to 2.42) and greater than 75 percent improvement of acne scars (OR, 2.78; 95 percent CI, 1.75 to 4.42), compared with laser alone. Erbium:YAG laser combined with platelet-rich plasma was more effective in greater than 75 percent improvement of acne scars compared with laser alone (OR, 3.45; 95 percent CI, 1.31 to 9.05). Moreover, patient satisfaction was significantly higher with platelet-rich plasma combined with carbon dioxide laser (OR, 2.98; 95 percent CI, 1.72 to 5.16) or erbium:YAG laser (OR, 2.88; 95 percent CI, 1.33 to 6.21) compared to laser alone. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis provides reliable evidence that fractional carbon dioxide or erbium:YAG laser combined with platelet-rich plasma is an effective and safe combination therapy for postacne scars. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapeutic, II.
Platelet-rich plasma for striae distensae: What do we know about processed autologous blood contents for treating skin stretchmarks?-A systematic review
International wound journal. 2021
Striae distensae, also known as stretch marks, particularly associated with female sex, pregnancy, obesity, and/or hormonal change, are linear bands of benign dermal lesions. Although not posing any health risk, aesthetically unpleasing stretch marks can cause significant psychological distress among those affected. In abundance of therapeutic approaches, some literature sources proclaim platelet-rich plasma to be a promising treatment modality for striae distensae. We aimed to shed some light on the current literature evidence of platelet-rich plasma for treating stretch marks and performed an English literature analysis with two independent reviewers in accordance with PRISMA guidelines searching the PubMed and Web of Science databases in June 2019. Of the 12 found studies, 6 matched inclusion criteria. With no control groups in two, just two other reports used intraindividual comparisons, and all but one publication performed histopathological assessments. All studies observed clinical and subjective improvements without using validated scores or patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). The main findings were that multiple treatments with platelet-rich plasma demonstrated increased epidermal thickness, rete ridges formation, and collagen/elastin formation, while decreasing the inflammatory cell infiltrate. The current literature evidence supporting the use of platelet-rich plasma for striae distensae is poor. We propose in this review an outline for a study protocol with intraindividual control groups, standardised scores, validated PROMs, and participant incentives to enhance the scientific power in future clinical trials.
Platelet-Rich Plasma in Facial Rejuvenation: A Systematic Appraisal of the Available Clinical Evidence
Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dermatology. 2021;14:1697-1724
PURPOSE Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a promising noninvasive technique for facial rejuvenation. This systematic literature review aims to appraise the nature and quality of published evidence evaluating the effectiveness and safety of PRP in facial rejuvenation. PATIENTS AND METHODS A systematic literature review was conducted with the search string "Platelet-rich plasma AND Facial rejuvenation" in PubMed and Embase. Clinical studies evaluating the outcomes after PRP-based facial rejuvenation either as monotherapy or in combination with other treatment modalities were included. Studies evaluating wound-healing properties of PRP were excluded. The outcomes included both patient-reported and physician-assessed outcomes. Nonstatistical synthesis of evidence was performed by qualitative assessment. The results are reported by the Synthesis Without Meta-analysis (SWiM) reporting standard. RESULTS A total of 36 studies that included a total of 3172 patients were considered for the evidence synthesis. The number of patients in the included studies ranging from 11 to 2005 with a median of 27.5 patients that reflects the challenges in clinically assessing the aesthetic outcomes after PRP-based facial rejuvenation. Among the 36 studies, 17 were observational studies and 18 were interventional studies with 1 being case report PRP was evaluated either alone or in combination with hyaluronic acid, lipofilling, micro-needling technique, and laser-based interventions. Among the studies, 1 study reported the enhanced platelet concentrate in a fibrin matrix to be relatively safe and effective with a maximum benefit observed at 12 weeks suggesting the platelet-rich fibrin matrix may provide desired aesthetic outcomes and it requires further studies to substantiate. CONCLUSION The results suggest very limited clinical evidence, and further clinical studies are warranted to establish the effectiveness of PRP in facial rejuvenation. Furthermore, a consensus for end points used for establishing clinical utility in patients requiring facial rejuvenation is warranted.
Systematic review of platelet-rich plasma (prp) in treating alopecia: Focusing on efficacy, safety and therapeutic durability
Dermatologic therapy. 2021;:e14768
BACKGROUND & AIM: Considering the different forms, alopecia could be a very common condition with particular therapeutic concerns; thus, recent therapies still require further assessments. Aim of this systematic review was to evaluate efficacy, safety and therapeutic durability of platelet rich plasma (PRP) in treating various forms of alopecia. METHOD A total of 64 articles were found through a systematic search, and 8 original articles were included in the study, based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. RESULTS In most studies (62.5%) patients' conditions had improved by receiving PRP therapy; these cases experienced an increase in growth and thickness of hair. Simultaneous use of PRP and Minoxidil demonstrated the highest rate of improvement and satisfaction. The highest efficacy in patients with alopecia areata was 76% and the lowest efficacy was 31.7% and in patients with androgenetic alopecia the highest efficacy was 42.75% and the lowest reported efficacy was 25.55%. The main side effect was pain due to PRP injection, which disappeared after ending the treatment and only one article reported more serious side effects. Recurrence after treatment was also reported in only one article. CONCLUSION PRP is a safe and easy method for treating hair loss and has limited adverse effects. Optimization of this method depends on dosage, number of sessions and their intervals, and injection techniques. According to the results, the use of PRP due to its relatively high efficiency, low and tolerable side effects, and low recurrence rate can be a good method for the treatment of alopecia and hair loss. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Efficacy and Safety of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Melasma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Dermatology and therapy. 2021
INTRODUCTION Melasma is a chronic and recurrent skin problem for which an effective therapy is currently lacking. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has recently emerged as a novel treatment for melasma, but to date there has been no systematic evaluation of its efficacy and safety. METHODS The Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and the Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant articles using the search items "melasma," "chloasma" and "platelet-rich plasma." STATA version 15.1 software was used to analyze data. Study outcomes were calculated using standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS The database search identified ten studies involving 395 adult patients that met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Analysis of pre- and post-treatment data from these studies revealed that the post-treatment modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (mMASI) score decreased by 1.18 (95% CI 0.89-1.47; p = 0.02). Subjective satisfaction evaluation of PRP treatment showed that melasma treated with the combination therapy of PRP + microneedling may have been the most efficacious treatment compared to PRP alone or in combination with intradermal injection. Adverse reactions were minor, with only a few patients reporting local congestion, temporary erythema, hyperpigmentation and discoloration. CONCLUSION These results support the efficacy and safety of PRP used in combination or alone as treatment for melasma.
A Systematic Review of Fibrin Glue as an Ideal Treatment for the Pilonidal Disease
Pilonidal sinus is an acquired condition caused by irritation to the hair follicles at the natal cleft, presenting with an abscess or chronic infection. It is prevalent in young adults affecting their productive lifestyle with morbidities. There are varieties of treatment options; however, there is no consensus yet for the ideal procedure. Less invasive procedures have evolved to replace the traditional surgical techniques, which cannot significantly reduce the risks of recurrence and wound complications despite extensive surgeries. We aimed to assess the effect of fibrin glue as a primary treatment after cleaning the sinus in pilonidal sinus disease. We searched for articles from PubMed®, Ovid MEDLINE®, Ovid EMBASE®, and Cochrane CENTRAL. Six studies that included 336 patients in total were analyzed. Fibrin glue treatment in these studies reported a quicker return to normal activities postoperatively, a low rate of infection, and an acceptable rate of recurrence. Thus, fibrin glue seems beneficial in the management of pilonidal disease. However, further high-quality studies are essential to support and confirm this evidence. Future research should also evaluate its cost and implications in the ambulatory service.
Comparison of effectiveness of interventions in reducing mortality in patients of toxic epidermal necrolysis: A network meta-analysis
Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology. 2021;:1-17
BACKGROUND Limited evidence is available about effectiveness and choice of immunomodulating treatment modalities for toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). AIMS To compare the effectiveness of interventions to reduce mortality in patients of toxic epidermal necrolysis through network meta-analysis. METHODS Studies were retrieved using PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to September 18, 2018. Only English language articles were considered. Observational and randomized controlled studies having ≥ 5 TEN patients in each intervention arm were included. Two investigators independently extracted study characteristics, intervention details and mortality data. Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed using the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach through the random effect model. The ranking analysis was done to provide a hierarchy of interventions. The consistency between direct and indirect evidence was assessed through node spit analysis. The primary outcome was to compare the mortality [Odds ratio OR (95% credibility interval CrI)] among all treatment modalities of TEN. RESULTS Twenty-four studies satisfying the selection criteria were included. The network analysis showed improved survival with cyclosporine as compared to supportive care [OR- 0.19 (95% CrI: 0.05, 0.59)] and intravenous immunoglobulin [OR- 0.21 (95% CrI: 0.05, 0.76)]. The hierarchy of treatments based on "surface under the cumulative ranking curves" (SUCRA) value were cyclosporine (0.93), steroid+intravenous immunoglobulin (0.76), etanercept (0.59), steroids (0.46), intravenous immunoglobulin (0.40), supportive care (0.34) and thalidomide (0.02). No inconsistencies between direct and indirect estimates were observed for any of the treatment pairs. LIMITATIONS Evidence is mainly based on retrospective studies. CONCLUSION The use of cyclosporine can reduce mortality in TEN patients. Other promising immunomodulators could be steroid+intravenous immunoglobulin combination and etanercept.
Platelet rich plasma is a promising therapy for melasma
Journal of cosmetic dermatology. 2021
Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous blood product which has recently been used in multiple spheres of dermatology including facial rejuvenation, androgenetic alopecia, acne scars and wound healing. Its use in melasma is comparatively an understudied topic. PRP contains about 30 growth factors, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) being one of the growth factors having a predominant role in treatment of melasma. TGF-β decreases signal transduction of microphthalmia induced transcription factor and thus decreases tyrosinase and tyrosinase related proteins. In addition to this, PRP also has an additional benefit of inducing collagen synthesis thus improving the quality and texture of the skin. An extensive systematic literature search of the PubMed electronic database and Cochrane central register of controlled trials was done using the keywords 'platelet rich plasma' and 'melasma' in the title. Relevant studies were selected and data was analysed by two different authors. These studies showed that PRP has been used effectively not only as an adjuvant therapy but also as a standalone treatment for melasma. But there is a scarcity of data and large randomized controlled trials. The relevant references of the included articles were also traced and included. This review is an effort to highlight and upscale the use of this excellent blood product for melasma which is quite a treatment refractory disorder.
Rejuvenating the periorbital area using platelet-rich plasma: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Archives of dermatological research. 2021
Intradermal injection of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a non-surgical cosmetic therapy to rejuvenate the periorbital area pathologies of wrinkles, periorbital hyperpigmentation (POH), and photoaging. The past decade has seen the adoption of this novel therapy around the world. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating PRP treatment of periorbital pathologies. This is a PRISMA compliant review that includes a comprehensive search of the databases Cochrane Library, Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, and clinicaltrials.gov. The search was performed in June 2019 to obtain all peer-reviewed articles published in English that describe the application of PRP to periorbital pathologies. A meta-analysis of patient satisfaction was performed for randomized controlled trials. Nineteen studies treating 455 patients (95% female, age range 28-60) were included. Studies were categorized based on reported outcomes: wrinkles (11 studies), POH (7 studies), and photoaging (6 studies). Patients were treated a mean of 3 times (range 1-8) in mean intervals of 23 days (range 14-56 days). Follow-up averaged 3 months (range 1-6 months). Meta-analysis of 3 randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) shows that patients treated with PRP have increased satisfaction above controls of saline, platelet-poor plasma, mesotherapy, and as an adjunct to laser therapy (overall effect p = 0.001, heterogeneity I(2) = 64%). PRP treatment of periorbital area pathologies results in histologic improvements of photoaging, subjective satisfaction score increases, and blind evaluator assessments of rejuvenated skin appearance. Future studies are needed to address limitations of the current literature and should include long-term follow-up, delineation of the POH etiology that is treated, RCTs with low risk of bias, and be absent conflicts of interest or industry sponsors.Trial registration: Prospero Systematic Review Registration ID: CRD42019135968.
Systematic review: The platelet-rich plasma use in female androgenetic alopecia as effective autologous treatment of regenerative plastic surgery
Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS. 2021
BACKGROUND The number of clinical trials evaluating platelet-rich plasma (PRP) efficacy in female androgenetic alopecia (F-AGA) has exponentially increased during the last five years. A systematic review focused on this specific field has been performed by assessing the local infiltrations of PRP compared with any control for F-AGA in the selected studies. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the use of PRP in F-AGA. METHODS The protocol was developed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting for Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines. A multistep search of PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, PreMEDLINE, Ebase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Clinicaltrials.gov, Scopus database, and Cochrane databases has been performed to identify papers on female pattern hair loss (FPHL) treatment with PRP. Of the 63 articles initially identified, 11 articles focusing on AGA were selected and, consequently, only 5 articles focused exclusively on F-AGA were analyzed. Of this amount, 3 articles were randomized-controlled trials (RCTs), 1 clinical trial, and 1 double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study (DBPCPS). The studies included had to match predetermined criteria according to the PICOS (patients, intervention, comparator, outcomes, and study design) approach. RESULTS Eight percent of the articles selected and analyzed, reported a positive effect of PRP for F-AGA treatment. The information analyzed highlights the positive effects of PRP on F-AGA, without major side effects and thus, it may be considered as a safe and effective alternative procedure to treat hair loss compared with traditional drugs as Minoxidil® and Finasteride®. CONCLUSIONS The use of PRP in F-AGA was safe and effective for F-AGA.