Platelet-Rich Plasma Monotherapies for Androgenetic Alopecia: A Network Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression Study
Gupta A, Bamimore M
Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD. 2022;21(9):943-952
INTRODUCTION Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a commonly used therapeutic option for androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Evidence syntheses for the impact of PRP on AGA has been handicapped by non-standardized protocols for its administration. We quantitatively synthesized the evidence base to determine the relative efficacy of PRP regimens with different frequencies of administration. We defined frequency as a vector of the (i) number of sessions and (ii) time interval between the sessions. METHODS We systematically reviewed the peer-reviewed literature to obtain relevant data; we then conducted a multivariable meta-regression and network meta-analyses (NMAs). RESULTS Twenty-five trials met our eligibility criteria; 10 unique PRP regimens were ultimately identified for use in our analyses. Our NMAs produced surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) values that corroborated the findings of our multivariable meta-regression. The frequency of PRP sessions, chemical activation, number of centrifugations, the age and sex of the patient, and the design of PRP administration (ie, whole-head vs split-scalp) are correlated with the efficacy of PRP insofar as the mean change in total hair density at 6 months from baseline. CONCLUSIONS For the most part, regimens’ SUCRA rankings and relative effects support that the efficacy of PRP administration increases when: (i) the number of sessions increases and (ii) the time interval between sessions decreases; we found that chemically-activated PRP (vs inactivated), double centrifugation (vs single), younger (vs older) age of treated patients, female (vs male) sex, and whole-head (vs split-scalp) administration is associated with improved PRP efficacy. Our approach rules out much confounding as the analysis of our outcome was exclusive to monotherapy at a singular timepoint. Our results may reconcile discrepant findings among previous studies and may be helpful in updating clinical practice guidelines. J Drugs Dermatol. 2022;21(9):943-952. doi:10.36849/JDD.6948.
Use of autologous platelet-rich plasma in androgenetic alopecia in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Oliveira AFQ, Arcanjo FPN, Rodrigues MRP, Rosa E Silva AA, Hall PR
The Journal of dermatological treatment. 2022;:1-17
OBJECTIVE To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to verify the efficacy of using autologous PRP in female pattern alopecia. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov and EMBASE up to May 2021. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION We identified all studies evaluating the effect of PRP in female pattern alopecia. A narrative synthesis was performed from data on the efficacy of PRP treatment and adverse effects; quantitative results of PRP use compared to control treatment for female AGA were synthesized. The outcomes analyzed were terminal density and hair thickness. RESULTS Seven articles were selected for this review. Meta-analysis showed that PRP-based interventions were able to increase terminal hair density compared to control (SMD =2.98, 95% CI =1.10, 4.85), with no significant increase in hair thickness (SMD =1.16, 95% CI = -0.96, 3.28). During and after treatment, no major side effects were reported by patients or researchers. CONCLUSION The use of autologous PRP injections in female AGA seems to be promising, with more consistent results on terminal hair density. However, caution is recommended in the interpretation of these results until they can be replicated in larger and more representative samples. PROSPERO registration number CRD42021257154.
The effect of placebo in split-scalp and whole-head platelet-rich plasma trials for androgenetic alopecia differs: Findings from a systematic review with quantitative evidence syntheses
Gupta AK, Bamimore MA
Journal of cosmetic dermatology. 2022
BACKGROUND Some studies have shown that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) improves androgenetic alopecia (AGA)-while others do not. We determined whether the placebo effect significantly varies between split-scalp and whole-head trials on PRP monotherapy for AGA. Our rationale was based on the plausibility of PRP diffusing to the control (i.e., 'placebo') side of split-scalp trials. This is not possible in whole head studies. METHODS We systematically searched the literature for available data. Our choice of analyses and outcomes were determined by the available data. RESULTS Our endpoint was change in total hair density six months after baseline. Our regression showed that total hair density after six months was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the placebo arm of split-scalp trials, compared to whole-head studies, by 37 hairs/cm(2) . Our one-arm meta-analyses showed that the pooled change in total hair density between the PRP side and placebo side in split scalp studies was -3 hairs/cm(2) (p=0.37), that is, a slight decrease in hair density in the placebo side of the scalp. For whole head stdies the corresponding difference in total hair density between patients receiving PRP and those on placebo was -30 hairs/cm(2) (p=0.000017), that is, a much larger decrease in hair density. Patients in the placebo group in whole-head trials lost significantly more hair than in the placebo side of the split-head trials where hair loss was comparatively reduced-presumably because of PRP diffusing from the treatment side of the scalp. CONCLUSIONS The association between design (i.e., split-scalp vs. whole-head) and outcome, in placebo arms of AGA trials on PRP monotherapy, had never been reported. This 'design effect' could partly reconcile the incongruent conclusions across the PRP literature for AGA; furthermore, clinical guidelines can consider 'design effect' when selecting evidence to base care practices on.
Platelet-Rich Plasma in Alopecia Areata-A Steroid-Free Treatment Modality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials
Meznerics FA, Illés K, Dembrovszky F, Fehérvári P, Kemény LV, Kovács KD, Wikonkál NM, Csupor D, Hegyi P, Bánvölgyi A
BACKGROUND Alopecia areata (AA) is a chronic autoimmune condition that can lead to a serious deterioration in patients' quality of life. The first line of treatment in patchy AA is triamcinolone acetonide (TrA); however, the efficacy of the treatment varies greatly. Our aim was to investigate the therapeutic effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of AA. METHOD We performed a systematic literature search in four databases. Randomized clinical trials (RCT) reporting on patients with AA treated with PRP were included, comparing PRP with TrA or a placebo. The primary outcome was the Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) score. RESULTS Our systematic search provided a total of 2747 articles. We identified four studies eligible for quantitative analysis. The pooled mean differences from the four studies did not exhibit a significant difference in the mean change in the SALT score when PRP and TrA groups were compared (MD =-2.04, CI: -4.72-0.65; I(2) = 80.4%, p = 0.14). CONCLUSIONS PRP is a promising topical, steroid-free treatment modality in the therapy of AA. No significant difference was found between PRP and TrA treatment; however, further high-quality RCTs are needed to further assess the efficacy of PRP treatment and strengthen the quality of evidence.
Platelet-rich plasma in alopecia areata and primary cicatricial alopecias: A systematic review
Tejapira K, Yongpisarn T, Sakpuwadol N, Suchonwanit P
Frontiers in medicine. 2022;9:1058431
BACKGROUND Immune-mediated alopecias (IMAs), a group of hair disorders associated with immunological reactions, remain a therapeutic challenge since available treatments are generally unfavorable with potential side effects. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been recently proposed as a treatment option based on several limited-quality studies; however, there is no systematic evaluation of PRP efficacy on IMAs in the literature. OBJECTIVE To assess PRP's effects in treating IMAs using a systematic review. METHODS Electronic searches were conducted using PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases. A search strategy was designed to retrieve all studies exploring PRP in treating IMAs, including alopecia areata (AA) and primary cicatricial alopecias (PCAs). In addition, all randomized and non-randomized studies reporting subjective and/or objective outcomes of alopecia treatment with PRP were included. RESULTS Thirty-two studies were included, comprising 621 patients with AA and 19 patients with PCAs. PRP had superior efficacy as monotherapy in five studies, comparable to intralesional corticosteroids in six studies in AA treatment. In addition, in the analysis of PCAs, including lymphocytic and neutrophilic subtypes, PRP was efficacious in alleviating disease progression in nine studies. CONCLUSION PRP is considered a promising treatment for AA and PCAs in patients who experienced unfavorable outcomes from conventional treatment. However, its clinical application remains to be standardized, and its recommendation as a treatment for IMAs could not be ascertained due to a lack of high-quality evidence. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION [https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=353859], identifier [CRD42022353859].
Meta-analysis of platelet-rich plasma therapy for anal fistula
Luo Q, Zhou P, Chang S
Journal of cosmetic dermatology. 2022
OBJECTIVE To systematically evaluate the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in treating anal fistula. METHODS PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled studies (RCTs) and case-control studies published before June 2021 on evaluating the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in treating anal fistula. References of the journals were manually searched for relevant studies. Literature search, screening, data extraction, and bias assessment were carried out by two researcher independently. Stata13.0 and RevMan 5.3 software were used for statistical analysis of the cure rate and recurrence rate of anal fistula. RESULTS A total of 6 case-control studies and 3 RCTs involving 289 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that the pooled cure rate of all studies was 65% (95% CI 0.53-0.77), p = 0.000, and the pooled recurrence rate of all studies was 12% (95% CI 0.08-0.17). CONCLUSION Platelet-rich plasma is safe and effective in treating anal fistula and should be promoted and further studied in clinical practice.
Ablative Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser Combined with Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma in the Treatment of Atrophic Acne Scars: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Aljefri YE, Ghaddaf AA, Alahmadi RA, Alkhamisi TA, Alkhunani TA, Samarkandy S, Alamri A
Dermatologic therapy. 2022;:e15888
BACKGROUND Atrophic acne scars are the most common cutaneous seqaule of acne vulgaris, representing 80-90% of all acne scars. Ablative fractional carbon dioxide (FCO2) laser is the gold standard treatment for atrophic scars. Additionally, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is suggested to accelerate the healing process and collagen synthesis. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the efficacy and safety of PRP combined with Ablative FCO2 laser in the treatment of moderate to severe atrophic acne scars. METHODS Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have compared PRP in combination with ablative FCO2 laser to ablative FCO2 laser alone with respect to the efficacy and safety measures were included. We have systematically explored Embase, Medline, and CENTRAL databases via Ovid. The outcomes that our systematic review saught to evaluate were clinical improvement, patient satisfaction, and Goodman and Baron's qualitative acne scar score. The dichotomous outcomes were presented as odds ratio (OR) while the continuous outcomes were presented as standardized mean difference (SMD). RESULTS 11 RCTs that represents 313 participants were included. The combined use of laser and PRP showed a statistically significant clinical improvement and patient satisfaction compared to the use of laser alone (OR=2.56, 95% CI 1.37 to 4.78 and OR=3.38, 95% CI 1.80 to 6.34, respectively). Also, a significant improvement in Goodman and Baron's score was achieved by combining PRP with laser (SMD = -0.40, 95% CI -0.65 to -0.14). CONCLUSION The combined treatment of laser and PRP was highly synergistic, effective, and safe in treating moderate to severe atrophic acne scars. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of scars, to suggest or not to suggest? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Ebrahimi Z, Alimohamadi Y, Janani M, Hejazi P, Kamali M, Goodarzi A
Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. 2022
Despite the rising trend for applying platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the management of various types of scars, there is no convincing evidence supporting its use. This motivated us to review the randomized clinical trials that examine the effectiveness and safety of PRP, alone or in combination with other methods, for the management of atrophic or hypertrophic/keloidal scars. The Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched until September 1(st) , 2020. Thirteen clinical trials were enrolled in the meta-analysis, and 10 more were reviewed for their results. The random effect meta-analysis method was used to assess the effect size of each outcome for each treatment type, and I(2) was used to calculate the statistical heterogeneity between the studies. Patients treated with PRP experienced an overall response rate of 23%, comparable to the results seen with laser or micro-needling (22% and 23%, respectively) When used alone, moderate improvement was the most frequently observed degree of response with PRP (36%) whereas, when added to laser or micro-needling, most patients experienced marked (33%, 43%, respectively) or excellent (32% and 23%, respectively) results. Concerning the hypertrophic/keloid scars, the only study meeting the required criteria reported a better improvement and fewer adverse effects when PRP was added to the intralesional corticosteroids. Platelet-rich plasma appears to be a safe and effective treatment for various types of atrophic scars. In addition, when added to ablative lasers or micro-needling, it seems to considerably add to the efficacy of treatment and reduce the side effects.
Rejuvenating the periorbital area using platelet-rich plasma: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Evans AG, Ivanic MG, Botros MA, Pope RW, Halle BR, Glassman GE, Genova R, Al Kassis S
Archives of dermatological research. 2021
Intradermal injection of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a non-surgical cosmetic therapy to rejuvenate the periorbital area pathologies of wrinkles, periorbital hyperpigmentation (POH), and photoaging. The past decade has seen the adoption of this novel therapy around the world. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating PRP treatment of periorbital pathologies. This is a PRISMA compliant review that includes a comprehensive search of the databases Cochrane Library, Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, and clinicaltrials.gov. The search was performed in June 2019 to obtain all peer-reviewed articles published in English that describe the application of PRP to periorbital pathologies. A meta-analysis of patient satisfaction was performed for randomized controlled trials. Nineteen studies treating 455 patients (95% female, age range 28-60) were included. Studies were categorized based on reported outcomes: wrinkles (11 studies), POH (7 studies), and photoaging (6 studies). Patients were treated a mean of 3 times (range 1-8) in mean intervals of 23 days (range 14-56 days). Follow-up averaged 3 months (range 1-6 months). Meta-analysis of 3 randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) shows that patients treated with PRP have increased satisfaction above controls of saline, platelet-poor plasma, mesotherapy, and as an adjunct to laser therapy (overall effect p = 0.001, heterogeneity I(2) = 64%). PRP treatment of periorbital area pathologies results in histologic improvements of photoaging, subjective satisfaction score increases, and blind evaluator assessments of rejuvenated skin appearance. Future studies are needed to address limitations of the current literature and should include long-term follow-up, delineation of the POH etiology that is treated, RCTs with low risk of bias, and be absent conflicts of interest or industry sponsors.Trial registration: Prospero Systematic Review Registration ID: CRD42019135968.
Platelet-Rich Plasma in Facial Rejuvenation: A Systematic Appraisal of the Available Clinical Evidence
Xiao H, Xu D, Mao R, Xiao M, Fang Y, Liu Y
Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dermatology. 2021;14:1697-1724
PURPOSE Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a promising noninvasive technique for facial rejuvenation. This systematic literature review aims to appraise the nature and quality of published evidence evaluating the effectiveness and safety of PRP in facial rejuvenation. PATIENTS AND METHODS A systematic literature review was conducted with the search string "Platelet-rich plasma AND Facial rejuvenation" in PubMed and Embase. Clinical studies evaluating the outcomes after PRP-based facial rejuvenation either as monotherapy or in combination with other treatment modalities were included. Studies evaluating wound-healing properties of PRP were excluded. The outcomes included both patient-reported and physician-assessed outcomes. Nonstatistical synthesis of evidence was performed by qualitative assessment. The results are reported by the Synthesis Without Meta-analysis (SWiM) reporting standard. RESULTS A total of 36 studies that included a total of 3172 patients were considered for the evidence synthesis. The number of patients in the included studies ranging from 11 to 2005 with a median of 27.5 patients that reflects the challenges in clinically assessing the aesthetic outcomes after PRP-based facial rejuvenation. Among the 36 studies, 17 were observational studies and 18 were interventional studies with 1 being case report PRP was evaluated either alone or in combination with hyaluronic acid, lipofilling, micro-needling technique, and laser-based interventions. Among the studies, 1 study reported the enhanced platelet concentrate in a fibrin matrix to be relatively safe and effective with a maximum benefit observed at 12 weeks suggesting the platelet-rich fibrin matrix may provide desired aesthetic outcomes and it requires further studies to substantiate. CONCLUSION The results suggest very limited clinical evidence, and further clinical studies are warranted to establish the effectiveness of PRP in facial rejuvenation. Furthermore, a consensus for end points used for establishing clinical utility in patients requiring facial rejuvenation is warranted.