Pharmacological interventions for prevention and treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in newborn infants
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2019;7:Cd011785
BACKGROUND Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is typically a mild, self-limiting condition that can affect both preterm and term neonates, although it can be severe particularly when associated with co-morbidities. Pharmacological interventions with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), H2 receptor antagonist (H2RA), antacid, bismuth and sucralfate may have effects on both the prevention and treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in infants. OBJECTIVES To assess how different pharmacological interventions (PPIs, H2RAs, antacids, sucralfate or bismuth salts) administered to preterm and term neonates for the prevention or treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding to reduce morbidity and mortality compare with placebo or no treatment, supportive care, or each other. SEARCH METHODS We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2018, Issue 6), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 12 July 2018), Embase (1980 to 12 July 2018), and CINAHL (1982 to 12 July 2018). We also searched clinical trial databases, conference proceedings, the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials, and online for Chinese literature articles. SELECTION CRITERIA We selected randomised, quasi-randomised and cluster-randomised trials involving preterm and term neonates. Trials were included if they used a proton pump inhibitor, H2 receptor antagonist, antacid, sucralfate or bismuth either for the prevention or treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed methodological quality. We conducted meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We used the GRADE approach to assess quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS Eleven studies with 818 infants met the criteria for inclusion in this review.Four trials with 329 infants assessed the use of an H2 receptor antagonist for prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in high-risk newborn infants. Meta-analysis of these four trials identified a reduction in any upper gastrointestinal bleeding when using an H2 receptor antagonist (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22 to 0.58; typical risk difference (RD) -0.20, 95% CI -0.28 to -0.11; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 5, 95% CI 4 to 9). The quality of evidence was moderate. A single trial with 53 infants assessing prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding reported no difference in mortality in infants assigned H2 receptor antagonist versus no treatment; however the quality of evidence was very low.Seven trials with 489 infants assessed an inhibitor of gastric acid (H2 receptor antagonist or proton pump inhibitor) for treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding in newborn infants. Meta-analysis of two trials (131 infants) showed no difference in mortality from use of a H2 receptor antagonist compared to no treatment. The quality of evidence was low. Meta-analysis of two trials (104 infants) showed a reduction in duration of upper gastrointestinal bleeding from use of an inhibitor of gastric acid compared to no treatment (mean difference -1.06 days, 95% CI -1.28 to -0.84). The quality of evidence was very low. Meta-analysis of six trials (451 infants) showed a reduction in continued upper gastrointestinal bleeding from use of any inhibitor of gastric acid compared to no treatment (typical RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.49; typical RD -0.26, 95% CI -0.33, -0.19; NNTB 4, 95% CI 3 to 5). The quality of evidence was low. There were no significant subgroup differences in duration of upper gastrointestinal bleeding or of continued upper gastrointestinal bleeding according to type of inhibitor of gastric acid. A single trial (38 infants) reported no difference in anaemia requiring blood transfusion from use of a H2 receptor antagonist compared to no treatment.Although no serious adverse events were reported from the use of a H2 receptor antagonist or proton pump inhibitor, some neonatal morbidities - including necrotising enterocolitis, ventilator-associated pneumonia, duration of ventilation and respiratory support, and duration of hospital stay - were not reported. Long-term outcome was not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS There is moderate-quality evidence that use of an H2 receptor antagonist reduces the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding in newborn infants at high risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. There is low-quality evidence that use of an inhibitor of gastric acid (H2 receptor antagonist or proton pump inhibitor) reduces the duration of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and the incidence of continued gastric bleeding in newborn infants with gastrointestinal bleeding. However, there is no evidence that use of an inhibitor of gastric acid in newborn infants affects mortality or the need for blood transfusion. As no study reported the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis, ventilator- or hospital-associated pneumonia, sepsis, or long-term outcome, the safety of inhibitors of gastric acid secretion is unclear.
Topical tranexamic acid as a novel treatment for bleeding peptic ulcer: a randomised controlled trial
African Journal of Paediatric Surgery : Ajps. 2016;13((1)):9-13.
BACKGROUND Peptic ulcers are among the most common causes of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in children. The standard care for GI bleeding is endoscopy for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We aimed to assess the effect of topical tranexamic acid (TXA) via endoscopic procedures in children with GI bleeding caused by bleeding ulcers. PROCEDURE In this randomised controlled trial, 120 children were evaluated by diagnostic procedures for GI bleeding, of which 63 (30 girls, 33 boys) aged 1-month to 15 years were recruited. The patients were randomly divided into case and control groups. In the case group, TXA was administered directly under endoscopic therapy. In the control group, epinephrine (1/10,000) was submucosally injected to the four quadrants of ulcer margins as the routine endoscopic therapy. In both groups, the patients received supportive medical therapy with intravenous fluids and proton pump inhibitor drugs. RESULTS The mean +/- standard deviation age of the children was 5 +/- 2.03 years. Rebleeding occurred in 15 (11.4%) and 21 (9.8%) patients in the case and control groups, respectively (P = 0.50). The frequency of blood transfusion episodes (P = 0.06) and duration of hospital stay (P = 0.07) were not statistically different between the groups. CONCLUSION Using topical TXA via endoscopic procedures may be effective in cases of GI bleedings caused by active bleeding ulcers. In order to establish this therapeutic effect, a large number of clinical studies are needed.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral human immunoglobulin for gastrointestinal dysfunction in children with autistic disorder
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2009;39((5):):796-805.
Controversy exists regarding the extent and possible causal relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and autism. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups, dose-ranging study of oral, human immunoglobulin (IGOH 140, 420, or 840 mg/day) was utilized with 125 children (ages 2-17 years) with autism and persistent GI symptoms. Endpoint analysis revealed no significant differences across treatment groups on a modified global improvement scale (validated in irritable bowel syndrome studies), number of daily bowel movements, days of constipation, or severity of problem behaviors. IGOH was well-tolerated; there were no serious adverse events. This study demonstrates the importance of conducting rigorous trials in children with autism and casts doubt on one GI mechanism presumed to exert etiological and/or symptomatic effects in this population.
Oral immunoglobulins for treatment of acute rotaviral gastroenteritis
OBJECTIVE Preliminary evidence has been reported on the antirotavirus effect of human serum immunoglobulin administered orally. The aim was to see whether such treatment might be effective in rotavirus acute gastroenteritis. METHODS A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed. Ninety-eight children admitted with acute gastroenteritis were enrolled and randomly assigned to groups A (treated) and B (control). Children in group A received a single oral dose of 300 mg/kg body weight of human serum immunoglobulin. Parameters of efficacy were clinical condition, frequency and consistency of stools, duration of diarrhea, duration of viral excretion, and length of hospital stay. Antirotaviral activity was determined in the immunoglobulin preparation by a specific neutralization assay. RESULTS Seventy-one of the 98 children enrolled had rotaviral gastroenteritis; 36 belonged to group A. Children who received immunoglobulin had significantly faster clinical improvement of clinical condition and stool pattern than control children. Mean total duration of rotaviral diarrhea was 76 hours in group A and 131 in group B (P < .01). Viral excretion lasted 114 and 180 hours, respectively (P < .01). Hospital stay was significantly reduced in children in group A. Neutralizing antibodies against rotavirus were detected in the immunoglobulin preparation. CONCLUSION Oral administration of immunoglobulin is associated with a faster recovery from acute gastroenteritis and should be given to children hospitalized with this illness.