Comparison of a Hemostatic Powder and Standard Treatment in the Control of Active Bleeding From Upper Nonvariceal Lesions : A Multicenter, Noninferiority, Randomized Trial
Annals of internal medicine. 2021
BACKGROUND The effectiveness of the hemostatic powder TC-325 as a single endoscopic treatment for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To compare TC-325 with standard endoscopic hemostatic treatments in the control of active bleeding from nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal causes. DESIGN One-sided, noninferiority, randomized, controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02534571). SETTING University teaching hospitals in the Asia-Pacific region. PATIENTS 224 adult patients with acute bleeding from a nonvariceal cause on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. INTERVENTION TC-325 (n = 111) or standard hemostatic treatment (n = 113). MEASUREMENTS The primary outcome was control of bleeding within 30 days. Other outcomes included failure to control bleeding during index endoscopy, recurrent bleeding after initial hemostasis, further interventions, blood transfusion, hospitalization, and death. RESULTS 224 patients were enrolled (136 with gastroduodenal ulcers [60.7%], 33 with tumors [14.7%], and 55 with other causes of bleeding [24.6%]). Bleeding was controlled within 30 days in 100 of 111 patients (90.1%) in the TC-325 group and 92 of 113 (81.4%) in the standard treatment group (risk difference, 8.7 percentage points [1-sided 95% CI, 0.95 percentage point]). There were fewer failures of hemostasis during index endoscopy with TC-325 (3 [2.7%] vs. 11 [9.7%]; odds ratio, 0.26 [CI, 0.07 to 0.95]). Recurrent bleeding within 30 days did not differ between groups (9 [8.1%] vs. 10 [8.8%]). The need for further interventions also did not differ between groups (further endoscopic treatment: 8 [7.2%] vs. 10 [8.8%]; angiography: 2 [1.8%] vs. 4 [3.5%]; surgery: 1 [0.9%] vs. 0). There were 14 deaths in each group (12.6% vs. 12.4%). LIMITATION Clinicians were not blinded to treatment. CONCLUSION TC-325 is not inferior to standard treatment in the endoscopic control of bleeding from nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal causes. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE General Research Fund to the University Grants Committee, Hong Kong SAR Government.
The role of refined nursing combined with targeted nursing in patients with digestive tract hemorrhages complicated by liver cirrhosis
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(5):5336-5342
OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of refined nursing combined with targeted nursing on patients with gastrointestinal bleeding complicated by liver cirrhosis. METHODS 128 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding and liver cirrhosis admitted to our hospital from April 2018 to April 2019 were recruited as the study cohort and were randomly divided into a control group and an experimental group with 64 patients in each group. The patients in the control group underwent conventional nursing, and the experimental group underwent refined nursing combined with targeted nursing. The two groups' clinical efficacy, complication rates, psychological states, prognoses, quality of life, and nursing satisfaction were statistically analyzed. RESULTS The clinical curative effect, prognosis complication rate, psychological state scores, quality of life scores, and nursing satisfaction in the experimental group were significantly better than they were in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION Refined nursing combined with targeted nursing has a more significant clinical effect than the conventional nursing mode due to its strengths in improving patients' prognoses, psychological states, and quality of life, and reducing the incidence of complications, improving the patients' nursing satisfaction, and establishing good doctor-patient relationships.
Comparison in the diagnostic yield between "Pillcam SB3" capsule endoscopy and "OMOM Smart Capsule 2" in small bowel bleeding. A randomized head-to-head study
Digestive diseases (Basel, Switzerland). 2020
Introduction Capsule endoscopy is the first-line tool for diagnosis of small bowel bleeding. There are some studies that have compared different types of capsule endoscopy. OMOM capsule endoscopy is one of the newest in the market, and has not been compared to other types of capsule endoscopy. The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic yield of the Pillcam SB3 and OMOM capsule endoscopy in small bowel bleeding. Material and methods This is a prospective, comparative, randomized and blinded study. Patients with suspected small bowel bleeding were included. All the patients were given both types of capsules endoscopy in random order. Diagnostic yield and functionality between the two types of capsule endoscopy were analyzed. Results We included 44 patients, 54.5% female with a median of 63.5 years old. Battery time was significantly longer with SB3 (816.5 vs. 700.5 minutes, p<0.001) and the download time was shorter with the OMOM (33 vs. 132 minutes, p<0.001). Both capsule endoscopies presented one failure. The cause of the bleeding was identified in 39 SB3 (88.6%) and in 34 OMOM CE (77.3%) (p=0.256). P2 lesions were observed in 32 SB3 (72.7%) and in 29 OMOM (65.9%) (p=0.784). The agreement between both capsule endoscopies for P2 lesions was moderate (κ=0.628). Conclusions Pillcam SB3 and OMOM devices are safe procedures and have a similar diagnostic yield. Significant differences were observed in the battery life and download time with both capsule endoscopies.
Prevention of recurrent idiopathic gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding: a double-blind, randomised trial
OBJECTIVE Patients with a history of Helicobacter pylori-negative idiopathic bleeding ulcers have a considerable risk of recurrent ulcer complications. We hypothesised that a proton pump inhibitor (lansoprazole) is superior to a histamine 2 receptor antagonist (famotidine) for the prevention of recurrent ulcer bleeding in such patients. DESIGN In this industry-independent, double-blind, randomised trial, we recruited patients with a history of idiopathic bleeding ulcers. After ulcer healing, we randomly assigned (1:1) patients to receive oral lansoprazole 30 mg or famotidine 40 mg daily for 24 months. The primary endpoint was recurrent upper GI bleeding within 24 months, analysed in the intention-to-treat population as determined by an independent adjudication committee. RESULTS Between 2010 and 2018, we enrolled 228 patients (114 patients in each study group). Recurrent upper GI bleeding occurred in one patient receiving lansoprazole (duodenal ulcer) and three receiving famotidine (two gastric ulcers and one duodenal ulcer). The cumulative incidence of recurrent upper GI bleeding in 24 months was 0.88% (95% CI 0.08% to 4.37%) in the lansoprazole arm and 2.63% (95% CI 0.71% to 6.91%) in the famotidine arm (p=0.313; crude HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.03 to 3.16, p=0.336). None of the patients who rebled used aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or other antithrombotic drugs. CONCLUSION This 2-year, double-blind randomised trial showed that among patients with a history of H. pylori-negative idiopathic ulcer bleeding, recurrent bleeding rates were comparable between users of lansoprazole and famotidine, although a small difference in efficacy cannot be excluded. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER NCT01180179; Results.
Addition of Carvedilol to Gastric Variceal Obturation Does Not Decrease Recurrence of Gastric Variceal Bleeding in Patients With Cirrhosis
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. 2019
BACKGROUND & AIMS Gastric variceal bleeding (GVB) frequently recurs after hemostasis by gastric variceal obturation (GVO). We performed a multicenter, randomized controlled trial to determine the efficacy of carvedilol plus GVO in secondary prophylaxis of GVB. METHODS We performed a prospective study of 121 patients with cirrhosis (ages 20-80 years) with GVB proven by endoscopy within 24 hours of bleeding and stable hemodynamics for at least 3 days after initial GVO. Patients were randomly assigned into a group that underwent repeated GVO (n = 61) or a group received repeated GVO plus carvedilol (n = 60). Recurrent GVB, upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), adverse events, and survival were compared between the groups. RESULTS GVB recurred in 21 patients (34%) in the group that received repeated GVO and 14 patients (23%) in the group that received repeated GVO plus carvedilol (P = .18). Ascites (relative risk [RR], 2.69; 95% CI, 1.33-5.48; P = .006) and hepatoma (RR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.03-4.28; P = .04) were associated with recurrent GVB. Twenty-nine patients (48%) in the group that received repeated GVO and 17 patients (28%) in the group that received repeated GVO plus carvedilol had recurrent UGIB (P = .03). Carvedilol (RR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.24-0.80; P = .007) was associated with reduced risk of UGIB recurrence. Ascites (RR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.59-5.73; P = .001) and hepatoma (RR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.10-3.88; P = .02) were associated with recurrent UGIB. A higher proportion of patients in the group that received repeated GVO plus carvedilol (53%) had adverse events than the group that received repeated GVO (15%) (P < .001). Mean survival times were 21 +/- 18 months in the group that received repeated GVO vs 25 +/- 20 months in the group that received repeated GVO plus carvedilol (P = .30). CONCLUSION In a randomized controlled trial, we found that addition of carvedilol to GVO did not decrease recurrence of GVB in patients with cirrhosis but was associated with decreased recurrence of UGIB. However, carvedilol plus GVO produced significantly more adverse events. Mean survival times did not differ significantly between groups. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT02504723.
Novel Leucocyte/Thrombocyte Apheresis for Induction of Steroid-Free Remission in Ulcerative Colitis: A Controlled Randomized Pilot Study
Journal of Crohn's & colitis. 2019
BACKGROUND AND AIMS In active ulcerative colitis [UC] refractory to mesalazine, escalation to either steroids or immunosuppression is common practice. The efficacy and safety of alternative escalation therapy with a novel leukocyte apheresis device were studied. METHODS This was a prospective, randomized, controlled multicentre pilot study comparing leukocyte apheresis with prednisolone in refractory UC (disease activity index [DAI] ≥ 4 and ≤8). Group A received weekly apheresis over five consecutive weeks. Group P received oral prednisolone 40 mg/day tapered to 0 mg at week 6. The primary end point was steroid-free clinical remission [DAI ≤ 2] at week 12. Clinical response was also analysed. RESULTS Twenty-four patients were enrolled, 13 of whom were randomized into group A and 11 into group P. Clinical remission off steroids at week 12 was achieved in 3/12 patients [25.0%] with apheresis and 2/10 [20.0%] with prednisolone [p = 1.0]. The response rate after 12 weeks was 75.0% in group A and 50.0% in group P. Mean DAI scores improved in both treatment groups [p = 0.008]. C-reactive protein decreased from 6.0 +/- 5.3 to 3.8 +/- 3.7 mg/L at 12 weeks in group A and increased from 5.2 +/- 6.0 to 6.3 +/- 7.9 mg/mL in group P. Both treatments were well tolerated. No unexpected serious adverse events were seen in group A. In group P one symptomatic infection with Clostridium difficile occurred. CONCLUSIONS In patients with active UC refractory to mesalazine a novel leukocyte apheresis showed promising results. A comparison with prednisolone revealed similar therapeutic effectivity and excellent safety, providing the chance to escalate without systemic steroids. CIV-12-01-003581.
Use of a Transparent Cap Increases the Diagnostic Yield in Antegrade Single-Balloon Enteroscopy for Obscure GI Bleed
Digestive diseases and sciences. 2019
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) is utilized in the evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, but 40-50% of these patients experience continued GI blood loss, in part due to missed lesions. The utilization of a transparent cap attached to the end of the endoscope can improve mucosal visualization in other endoscopic applications, but has not yet been evaluated in SBE. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a cap on the diagnostic yield of SBE. METHODS Consecutive adult patients scheduled for anterograde SBE for the evaluation of obscure GI bleeding were screened for inclusion from 2014 to 2017. Patients were randomized to SBE with or without a transparent cap. The primary outcome was the proportion of enteroscopies in which a P2 lesion (high potential for bleeding) was identified. RESULTS A total of 90 patients (65.7 +/- 12.7 years old, 47.7% female) were analyzed. There were significantly more P2 arteriovenous malformations identified in the cap group (14.8% vs. 0%, p = 0.02). Additionally, the use of a cap was associated with a significantly greater depth of small bowel insertion (191.9 cm vs. 156.2 cm, p = 0.01). There was one perforation in the group without a cap, successfully treated with clip placement, and no adverse events in the cap group. CONCLUSIONS The use of a transparent cap during SBE performed for the evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding may be an important, safe augmentation to standard SBE techniques.
Effects of Burdock tea on recurrence of colonic diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding: An open-labelled randomized clinical trial
Scientific reports. 2019;9(1):6793
Colonic diverticular bleeding (CDB) and acute colonic diverticulitis (ACD) show high recurrence rates. The establishment of optimal strategies that prevent the recurrence of CDB and ACD is a major concern among gastroenterologists. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of burdock tea for preventing CDB and ACD recurrences. Newly diagnosed patients with CDB (n = 91) or ACD (n = 70) were randomly assigned into two groups. The experimental group received 1.5 g of burdock tea three times a day, whereas the control group did not receive any treatment. The median (interquartile range) of observation for recurrence of CDB or ACD was 22.0 (14.1) months and 30.3 (18.6), respectively. The burdock tea treatment showed significant preventive effects on recurrence of ACD. A lower ACD recurrence rate (5/47 [10.6%] vs. 14/44 [31.8%]) and longer recurrence-free duration was observed in the burdock tea group (59.3 months [95% CI: 54.0-64.7] vs. 45.1 months [95% CI: 37.1-53.0] by the Kaplan-Meier analysis; p = 0.012 by log rank test) than in the control group, although there was no significant preventive effects on the CDB recurrence. This randomized clinical trial demonstrated that daily intake of burdock tea could be an effective strategy for prevention of ACD recurrence, but not for CDB recurrence.
Randomised clinical trial: intravenous vs oral iron for the treatment of anaemia after acute gastrointestinal bleeding
Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2019
BACKGROUND Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is prevalent condition and iron deficiency anaemia is a common comorbidity, yet anaemia treatment guidelines for affected patients are lacking. AIM: To compare efficacy and safety of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) and oral ferrous sulphate (FeSulf) in patients with anaemia secondary to non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding METHODS A prospective 42-day study randomised 61 patients with haemoglobin <10 g/dL upon discharge (Day 0) to receive FCM (n = 29; Day 0: 1000 mg, Day 7: 500 or 1000 mg; per label) or FeSulf (n = 32; 325 mg/12 hours for 6 weeks). Outcome measures were assessed on Days 0 (baseline), 7, 21 and 42. The primary outcome was complete response (haemoglobin ≥12 g/dL [women], ≥13 g/dL [men]) after 6 weeks. RESULTS A higher proportion of complete response was observed in the FCM vs the FeSulf group at Days 21 (85.7% vs 45.2%; P = 0.001) and 42 (100% vs 61.3%; P < 0.001). Additionally, the percentage of patients with partial response (haemoglobin increment ≥2 g/dL from baseline) was significantly higher in the FCM vs the FeSulf group (Day 21:100% vs 67.7%; P = 0.001, Day 42:100% vs 74.2%; P = 0.003). At Day 42, normalisation of transferrin saturation to 25% or greater was observed in 76.9% of FCM vs 24.1% of FeSulf-treated patients (P < 0.001). No patient in the FCM group reported any adverse event vs 10 patients in the FeSulf group. CONCLUSION FCM provided greater and faster Hb increase and iron repletion, and was better tolerated than FeSulf in patients with iron deficiency anaemia secondary to non-variceal acute gastrointestinal bleeding.
Tranexamic acid for acute gastrointestinal bleeding (the HALT-IT trial): statistical analysis plan for an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
BACKGROUND Acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is an important cause of mortality worldwide. Bleeding can occur from the upper or lower GI tract, with upper GI bleeding accounting for most cases. The main causes include peptic ulcer/erosive mucosal disease, oesophageal varices and malignancy. The case fatality rate is around 10% for upper GI bleeding and 3% for lower GI bleeding. Rebleeding affects 5-40% of patients and is associated with a four-fold increased risk of death. Tranexamic acid (TXA) decreases bleeding and the need for blood transfusion in surgery and reduces death due to bleeding in patients with trauma and postpartum haemorrhage. It reduces bleeding by inhibiting the breakdown of fibrin clots by plasmin. Due to the methodological weaknesses and small size of the existing trials, the effectiveness and safety of TXA in GI bleeding is uncertain. The Haemorrhage ALleviation with Tranexamic acid - Intestinal system (HALT-IT) trial aims to provide reliable evidence about the effects of TXA in acute upper and lower GI bleeding. METHODS The HALT-IT trial is an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tranexamic acid in 12,000 adults (increased from 8000) with acute upper or lower GI bleeding. Eligible patients are randomly allocated to receive TXA (1-g loading dose followed by 3-g maintenance dose over 24 h) or matching placebo. The main analysis will compare those randomised to TXA with those randomised to placebo on an intention-to-treat basis, presenting the results as effect estimates (relative risks) and confidence intervals. The primary outcome is death due to bleeding within 5 days of randomisation and secondary outcomes are: rebleeding; all-cause and cause-specific mortality; thromboembolic events; complications; endoscopic, radiological and surgical interventions; blood transfusion requirements; disability (defined by a measure of patient's self-care capacity); and number of days spent in intensive care or high-dependency units. Subgroup analyses for the primary outcome will consider time to treatment, location of bleeding, cause of bleed and clinical Rockall score. DISCUSSION We present the statistical analysis of the HALT-IT trial. This plan was published before the treatment allocation was unblinded. TRIAL REGISTRATION Current Controlled Trials, ID: ISRCTN11225767. Registered on 3 July 2012; Clinicaltrials.gov, ID: NCT01658124. Registered on 26 July 2012.