Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose versus oral ferrous sulfate replacement in elderly patients after acute non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding (FIERCE): protocol of a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial
BMJ open. 2023;13(3):e063554
INTRODUCTION Acute gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is a life-threatening emergency with a critical economic burden. As a result of bleeding, anaemia often requires intravenous or oral iron supplementation. Elderly patients are even more prone to untoward outcomes after hospital discharge if iron supplementation is inefficient. There is a gap in current guidelines on which supplementation route clinicians should choose. We aim to investigate the effect of one dose of intravenous iron therapy versus 3-month oral iron administration on anaemia in an elderly population. METHODS AND ANALYSIS The FIERCE study is an open-label, randomised controlled, two-armed trial. At least 48 hours after the acute non-variceal GIB treatment, patients will be recruited in participating centres. A random sequence generator will allocate the participants to group A (intravenous ferric carboxymaltose, 1000 mg) or group B (oral ferrous sulfate (FS), ca. 200 mg every day) with an allocation ratio of 1:1 on the day of the planned discharge from the hospital. Randomisation will be stratified for participating centres and the need for transfusion within the same hospitalisation before recruitment to the trial. Quality of life assessment, functional measurement and laboratory tests will be performed at baseline, 1 and 3 months±7 days after enrolment to the trial. The primary endpoint is a composite endpoint, including all-cause mortality, anaemia-associated unplanned emergency visit and anaemia-associated unplanned hospital admission within 3 months of enrolment in the trial. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION The study has been approved by the relevant organisation, the Scientific and Research Ethics Committee of the Hungarian Medical Research Council (46395-5/2021/EÜIG). We will disseminate our results to the medical community and will publish our results in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION The trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT05060731).
Informative cluster size in cluster-randomised trials: A case study from the TRIGGER trial
Clinical trials (London, England). 2023;:17407745231186094
BACKGROUND Recent work has shown that cluster-randomised trials can estimate two distinct estimands: the participant-average and cluster-average treatment effects. These can differ when participant outcomes or the treatment effect depends on the cluster size (termed informative cluster size). In this case, estimators that target one estimand (such as the analysis of unweighted cluster-level summaries, which targets the cluster-average effect) may be biased for the other. Furthermore, commonly used estimators such as mixed-effects models or generalised estimating equations with an exchangeable correlation structure can be biased for both estimands. However, there has been little empirical research into whether informative cluster size is likely to occur in practice. METHOD We re-analysed a cluster-randomised trial comparing two different thresholds for red blood cell transfusion in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding to explore whether estimates for the participant- and cluster-average effects differed, to provide empirical evidence for whether informative cluster size may be present. For each outcome, we first estimated a participant-average effect using independence estimating equations, which are unbiased under informative cluster size. We then compared this to two further methods: (1) a cluster-average effect estimated using either weighted independence estimating equations or unweighted cluster-level summaries, and (2) estimates from a mixed-effects model or generalised estimating equations with an exchangeable correlation structure. We then performed a small simulation study to evaluate whether observed differences between cluster- and participant-average estimates were likely to occur even if no informative cluster size was present. RESULTS For most outcomes, treatment effect estimates from different methods were similar. However, differences of >10% occurred between participant- and cluster-average estimates for 5 of 17 outcomes (29%). We also observed several notable differences between estimates from mixed-effects models or generalised estimating equations with an exchangeable correlation structure and those based on independence estimating equations. For example, for the EQ-5D VAS score, the independence estimating equation estimate of the participant-average difference was 4.15 (95% confidence interval: -3.37 to 11.66), compared with 2.84 (95% confidence interval: -7.37 to 13.04) for the cluster-average independence estimating equation estimate, and 3.23 (95% confidence interval: -6.70 to 13.16) from a mixed-effects model. Similarly, for thromboembolic/ischaemic events, the independence estimating equation estimate for the participant-average odds ratio was 0.43 (95% confidence interval: 0.07 to 2.48), compared with 0.33 (95% confidence interval: 0.06 to 1.77) from the cluster-average estimator. CONCLUSION In this re-analysis, we found that estimates from the various approaches could differ, which may be due to the presence of informative cluster size. Careful consideration of the estimand and the plausibility of assumptions underpinning each estimator can help ensure an appropriate analysis methods are used. Independence estimating equations and the analysis of cluster-level summaries (with appropriate weighting for each to correspond to either the participant-average or cluster-average treatment effect) are a desirable choice when informative cluster size is deemed possible, due to their unbiasedness in this setting.
Tranexamic acid for gastrointestinal bleeding: can a reduction in the risk of death be discounted? A systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data from 64 724 bleeding patients
BMJ open. 2023;13(2):e059982
OBJECTIVES HALT-IT was an international, randomised trial which assessed the effects of tranexamic acid (TXA) in 12 009 patients with gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The results found no evidence that TXA reduces death. It is widely accepted that results of trials should be interpreted in the context of other relevant evidence. We conducted a systematic review and individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis to assess if the results of HALT-IT are compatible with evidence for TXA in other bleeding conditions. DESIGN Systematic review and IPD meta-analysis of randomised trials involving ≥5000 patients assessing TXA for bleeding. We searched our Antifibrinolytics Trials Register on 1 November 2022. Two authors extracted data and assessed risk of bias. DATA SYNTHESIS We used a one-stage model to analyse IPD in a regression model stratified by trial. We assessed heterogeneity of the effect of TXA on death within 24 hours and vascular occlusive events (VOEs). RESULTS We included IPD for 64 724 patients from four trials involving patients with traumatic, obstetric and GI bleeding. Risk of bias was low. There was no evidence for heterogeneity between trials for the effect of TXA on death or for the effect of TXA on VOEs. TXA reduced the odds of death by 16% (OR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.78 to 0.91, p<0.0001; p-heterogeneity=0.40). In patients treated within 3 hours of bleeding onset, TXA reduced the odds of death by 20% (0.80, 0.73 to 0.88, p<0.0001; p-heterogeneity=0.16). TXA did not increase the odds of VOEs (0.94, 0.81 to 1.08, p for effect=0.36; p-heterogeneity=0.27). CONCLUSIONS There is no evidence for statistical heterogeneity between trials assessing the effect of TXA on death or VOEs in different bleeding conditions. When the HALT-IT results are considered in the context of other evidence, a reduction in the risk of death cannot be discounted. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER PROSPERO CRD42019128260.Cite Now.
Role of Oral Iron Supplementation for Anemia Secondary to Acute Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2023
BACKGROUND AND AIM Although acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) can lead to anemia, evidence regarding the effects of oral iron supplementation on UGIB-induced anemia following discharge remains lacking. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral iron supplementation on hemoglobin response and iron storage in patients with anemia secondary to nonvariceal UGIB. METHODS This randomized controlled trial included 151 patients with nonvariceal UGIB who had anemia at discharge. Patients were assigned to a 1:1 block in which they were either administered 6 weeks of 600 mg/d oral ferrous fumarate (treatment group, n=77) or treated without iron supplementation (control group, n=74). The primary outcome was composite hemoglobin response (hemoglobin elevation greater than 2 g/dL or no anemia at the end of treatment [EOT]). RESULTS The proportion of patients achieving composite hemoglobin response was greater in the treatment group than in the control group (72.7% vs. 45.9%; adjusted risk ratio [RR], 2.980; p=0.004). At EOT, the percentage change in the hemoglobin level (34.2 ± 24.8 % vs. 19.4 ± 19.9 %; adjusted coefficient, 11.543; p<0.001) was significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group; however, the proportions of patients with a serum ferritin level <30 μg/L and a transferrin saturation <16% were lower in the treatment group (all p<0.05). No significant differences in treatment-associated adverse effects and adherence rates were observed between the groups. CONCLUSIONS Oral iron supplementation exerts beneficial effects on anemia and iron storage following nonvariceal UGIB without significantly impacting rates of adverse effects or adherence. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION TCTR20190225002.
Patients with anaemia secondary to nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (n= 151).
Six weeks of 600 mg/d oral ferrous fumarate (treatment group, n= 77).
No iron supplementation (control group, n= 74).
The proportion of patients achieving composite haemoglobin response was greater in the treatment group than in the control group (72.7% vs. 45.9%; adjusted risk ratio [RR], 2.980). At end of treatment, the percentage change in the haemoglobin level (34.2 ± 24.8 % vs. 19.4 ± 19.9 %; adjusted coefficient, 11.543) was significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group; however, the proportions of patients with a serum ferritin level <30 μg/L and a transferrin saturation <16% were lower in the treatment group. No significant differences in treatment-associated adverse effects and adherence rates were observed between the groups.
Treatment Options for Gastrointestinal Bleeding Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome: a systematic review
Digestive endoscopy : official journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society. 2023
INTRODUCTION Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare challenging cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. We performed a systematic review of case reports and case series on BRBNS to gather information on the treatment options currently available. METHOD All studies reporting a case of BRBNS in humans were evaluated. Papers were ruled out whether CARE criteria and explanations on patient's selection, ascertainment, causality, and reporting were not respected or identified. PROSPERO 2021 CRD 42021286982. RESULTS BRNBS was treated in 106 cases from 76 reports. 57.5% of the population was under 18â€‰years old, and up to 50% of the cases reported a previous treatment. Clinical success was achieved in 98 patients (92.4%). Three main types of interventions were identified: systemic drug therapy, endoscopy and surgery. After BRBNS recurrence or previous therapy failure, systemic drug therapy emerged as a preferred second-line treatment over endoscopy (p=0.01), but with a higher rate of reported adverse events when compared with surgery and endoscopy (p <â€‰0.001). Endoscopic treatment was associated with a higher number of required sessions to achieve complete eradication when compared with surgery (p <â€‰0.001). No differences between the three main areas were found in the overall follow-up time (p=0.19) and in the recurrence rate (p=0.45). CONCLUSION Endoscopy, surgery and systemic drug therapy are feasible treatment options for BRBNS. Systemic drug therapy was the favourite second-line treatment after endoscopic failure or recurrence of BRBNS, but adverse events were more frequently reported.
Erythromycin prior to endoscopy for acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2023;2(2):Cd013176
BACKGROUND Upper endoscopy is the definitive treatment for upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (UGIH). However, up to 13% of people who undergo upper endoscopy will have incomplete visualisation of the gastric mucosa at presentation. Erythromycin acts as a motilin receptor agonist in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract and increases gastric emptying, which may lead to better quality of visualisation and improved treatment effectiveness. However, there is uncertainty about the benefits and harms of erythromycin in UGIH. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the benefits and harms of erythromycin before endoscopy in adults with acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage, compared with any other treatment or no treatment/placebo. SEARCH METHODS We used standard, extensive Cochrane search methods. The latest search date was 15 October 2021. SELECTION CRITERIA We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated erythromycin before endoscopy compared to any other treatment or no treatment/placebo before endoscopy in adults with acute UGIH. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We used standard Cochrane methods. Our primary outcomes were 1. UGIH-related mortality and 2. serious adverse events. Our secondary outcomes were 1. all-cause mortality, 2. visualisation of gastric mucosa, 3. non-serious adverse events, 4. rebleeding, 5. blood transfusion, and 5. rescue invasive intervention. We used GRADE criteria to assess the certainty of the evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS We included 11 RCTs with 878 participants. The mean age ranged from 53.13 years to 64.5 years, and most participants were men (72.3%). One RCT included only non-variceal haemorrhage, one included only variceal haemorrhage, and eight included both aetiologies. We defined short-term outcomes as those occurring within one week of initial endoscopy. Erythromycin versus placebo Three RCTs (255 participants) compared erythromycin with placebo. There were no UGIH-related deaths. The evidence is very uncertain about the short-term effects of erythromycin compared with placebo on serious adverse events (risk difference (RD) -0.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.04 to 0.02; 3 studies, 255 participants; very low certainty), all-cause mortality (RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.03; 3 studies, 255 participants; very low certainty), non-serious adverse events (RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.05; 3 studies, 255 participants; very low certainty), and rebleeding (risk ratio (RR) 0.63, 95% CI 0.13 to 2.90; 2 studies, 195 participants; very low certainty). Erythromycin may improve gastric mucosa visualisation (mean difference (MD) 3.63 points on 16-point ordinal scale, 95% CI 2.20 to 5.05; higher MD means better visualisation; 2 studies, 195 participants; low certainty). Erythromycin may also result in a slight reduction in blood transfusion (MD -0.44 standard units of blood, 95% CI -0.86 to -0.01; 3 studies, 255 participants; low certainty). Erythromycin plus nasogastric tube lavage versus no intervention/placebo plus nasogastric tube lavage Six RCTs (408 participants) compared erythromycin plus nasogastric tube lavage with no intervention/placebo plus nasogastric tube lavage. There were no UGIH-related deaths and no serious adverse events. The evidence is very uncertain about the short-term effects of erythromycin plus nasogastric tube lavage compared with no intervention/placebo plus nasogastric tube lavage on all-cause mortality (RD -0.02, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.03; 3 studies, 238 participants; very low certainty), visualisation of the gastric mucosa (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.48 points on 10-point ordinal scale, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.85; higher SMD means better visualisation; 3 studies, 170 participants; very low certainty), non-serious adverse events (RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.05; 6 studies, 408 participants; very low certainty), rebleeding (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.63 to 2.02; 1 study, 169 participants; very low certainty), and blood transfusion (MD -1.85 standard units of blood, 95% CI -4.34 to 0.64; 3 studies, 180 participants; very low certainty). Erythromycin versus nasogastric tube lavage Four RCTs (287 participants) compared erythromycin with nasogastric tube lavage. There were no UGIH-related deaths and no serious adverse events. The evidence is very uncertain about the short-term effects of erythromycin compared with nasogastric tube lavage on all-cause mortality (RD 0.02, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.08; 3 studies, 213 participants; very low certainty), visualisation of the gastric mucosa (RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.79; 2 studies, 198 participants; very low certainty), non-serious adverse events (RD -0.10, 95% CI -0.34 to 0.13; 3 studies, 213 participants; very low certainty), rebleeding (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.49; 1 study, 169 participants; very low certainty), and blood transfusion (median 2 standard units of blood, interquartile range 0 to 4 in both groups; 1 study, 169 participants; very low certainty). Erythromycin plus nasogastric tube lavage versus metoclopramide plus nasogastric tube lavage One RCT (30 participants) compared erythromycin plus nasogastric tube lavage with metoclopramide plus nasogastric tube lavage. The evidence is very uncertain about the effects of erythromycin plus nasogastric tube lavage on all the reported outcomes (serious adverse events, visualisation of gastric mucosa, non-serious adverse events, and blood transfusion). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS We are unsure if erythromycin before endoscopy in people with UGIH has any clinical benefits or harms. However, erythromycin compared with placebo may improve gastric mucosa visualisation and result in a slight reduction in blood transfusion.
Hypophosphataemia following ferric derisomaltose and ferric carboxymaltose in patients with iron deficiency anaemia due to inflammatory bowel disease (PHOSPHARE-IBD): a randomised clinical trial
OBJECTIVE Intravenous iron-a common treatment for anaemia and iron deficiency due to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-can cause hypophosphataemia. This trial compared the incidence of hypophosphataemia after treatment with ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) or ferric derisomaltose (FDI). DESIGN This randomised, double-blind, clinical trial was conducted at 20 outpatient hospital clinics in Europe (Austria, Denmark, Germany, Sweden, UK). Adults with IBD and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) were randomised 1:1 to receive FCM or FDI at baseline and at Day 35 using identical haemoglobin- and weight-based dosing regimens. The primary outcome was the incidence of hypophosphataemia (serum phosphate <2.0 mg/dL) at any time from baseline to Day 35 in the safety analysis set (all patients who received ≥1 dose of study drug). Markers of mineral and bone homeostasis, and patient-reported fatigue scores, were measured. RESULTS A total of 156 patients were screened; 97 (49 FDI, 48 FCM) were included and treated. Incident hypophosphataemia occurred in 8.3% (4/48) FDI-treated patients and in 51.0% (25/49) FCM-treated patients (adjusted risk difference: -42.8% (95% CI -57.1% to -24.6%) p<0.0001). Both iron formulations corrected IDA. Patient-reported fatigue scores improved in both groups, but more slowly and to a lesser extent with FCM than FDI; slower improvement in fatigue was associated with greater decrease in phosphate concentration. CONCLUSION Despite comparably effective treatment of IDA, FCM caused a significantly higher rate of hypophosphataemia than FDI. Further studies are needed to address the longer-term clinical consequences of hypophosphataemia and to investigate mechanisms underpinning the differential effects of FCM and FDI on patient-reported fatigue.
Adults with inflammatory bowel disease and iron deficiency anaemia enrolled in the PHOSPHARE-IBD trial in five European countries (n= 97).
Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), (n= 48).
Ferric derisomaltose (FDI), (n= 49).
Incident hypophosphataemia occurred in 8.3% FDI-treated patients and in 51% FCM-treated patients (adjusted risk difference: -42.8% (95% CI -57.1% to -24.6%)). Both iron formulations corrected iron deficiency anaemia. Patient-reported fatigue scores improved in both groups, but more slowly and to a lesser extent with FCM than FDI; slower improvement in fatigue was associated with greater decrease in phosphate concentration.
An extended 36-week oral esomeprazole improved long-term recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding in patients at high risk of rebleeding
BMC gastroenterology. 2022;22(1):439
BACKGROUND Patients with Rockall scores ≥6 have an increased risk of long-term peptic ulcer rebleeding. This study was aimed toward investigating whether an extended course of oral esomeprazole up to 1 year decreased ulcer rebleeding in such patients. METHODS We prospectively enrolled 120 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding and Rockall scores ≥6. After an initial 16-week oral proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment, patients were randomized to receive a 36-week course of oral twice-daily esomeprazole 20 mg (Group D, n = 60) or once-daily (Group S, n = 60). Thereafter, they were divided into the PPI-on-demand (n = 32) and PPI-discontinued (n = 77) subgroups. Our previous cohort with Rockall scores ≥6 served as the controls (Group C, n = 135); they received only an initial 8- to 16-week oral PPI. The primary and secondary outcomes were peptic ulcer rebleeding during the first year and the second year-and-thereafter, respectively. RESULTS For the primary outcome, groups D and S comprised a higher proportion of rebleeding-free than Group C (P = 0.008 and 0.03, log-rank test). The competing-risks regression analysis confirmed that extended PPI use and American Society of Anesthesiologists classification were independent factors contributing to the primary outcome. For the secondary outcome, PPI-on-demand had a borderline higher proportion of rebleeding-free than Group C (P = 0.07, log-rank test); however, only the Rockall score was the independent factor. CONCLUSIONS An extended 36-week course of oral esomeprazole 20 mg, twice- or once-daily for patients with Rockall scores ≥6 reduced ulcer rebleeding during the first year, but the effect needed to be further validated when PPIs were shifted to on-demand or discontinued thereafter (NCT02456012, 28/05/2015).
Effects of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma on Healing of Peptic Ulcers: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Gastroenterology research and practice. 2022;2022:7944849
PURPOSE Peptic ulcer is a multifactorial and complex disease and affects a wide range of people worldwide. We provided a novel therapeutic approach for peptic ulcer and observed its effect. METHODS Peptic ulcer patients were enrolled from 2016 to 2017 in Chongqing and randomly assigned to two groups: a control group that used only rabeprazole and a platelet-rich plasma (PRP) group that received a combination therapy of autologous PRP (aPRP) and rabeprazole. The therapeutic effect was assessed via the ulcer size and symptom score. RESULTS A total of 27 patients were included (12 patients in the control group and 15 patients in the PRP group) in this study. Our results showed that all participants have healed in 30 days, and there was no significant difference in healing time between the PRP group and the control group in different independent variables. However, regression analysis revealed that the healing time was 6.99 days shorter in the PRP group than that in the control group, and patients with higher symptom scores in the initial examination need more time to heal during treatment. Endoscopic results showed that the repaired ulcer in the PRP group was more similar to the normal gastric mucosa tissue than that the control group. CONCLUSION This study showed an encouraging preliminary result that aPRP has a positive result in patients with peptic ulcer and seems to be a better choice for refractory peptic ulcer treatment. Although further follow-up studies are needed to determine the duration of efficacy of aPRP, the approach will be helpful in improving the clinical treatment of peptic ulcer.
Clinical efficacy of norepinephrine combined with cimetidine in treatment of neonatal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and its adverse reactions
Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2022;38(8):2215-2219
OBJECTIVES To investigate the clinical efficacy of norepinephrine combined with cimetidine in the treatment of neonatal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and its adverse reactions. METHODS A total of 68 cases of neonatal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in Huangshi Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital from please mention dates October 2018 to February 2020 were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group by coin tossing, with 34 infants in each group. The control group received conventional therapy, and the treatment group was additionally treated with norepinephrine combined with cimetidine. The efficacy and safety were compared between the two groups. RESULTS The time when the bleeding stops, the time of fecal occult blood turning negative and hospital stay of the treatment group were shorter than those of the control group (P < 0.05). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) level increased while malondialdehyde (MDA) level decreased in both groups after treatment compared with those before treatment (P < 0.05). After treatment, the SOD level was higher while the MDA level was lower in the treatment group than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The effective rate of the treatment group was higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05). However, no significance was found in adverse reactions between the two groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION Norepinephrine combined with cimetidine in the treatment of neonatal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage can shorten the recovery time of symptoms, improve efficacy and reduce stress reaction. It is safe, effective and worthy of use in clinical practice.