Standard-Volume Plasma Exchange Improves Outcomes in Patients With Acute Liver Failure: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. 2022;20(4):e831-e854
BACKGROUND High volume plasma-exchange (HVPE) improves survival in patients with acute liver failure (ALF), but apprehension regarding volume overload and worsening of cerebral edema remain. METHODS In an open-label randomized controlled trial, 40 consecutive patients of ALF were randomized 1:1 to either standard medical treatment (SMT) or SMT with standard-volume plasma-exchange (SVPE). SVPE was performed using centrifugal apheresis [target volume of 1.5 to 2.0 plasma volumes per session] until desired response was achieved. Cerebral edema was assessed by brain imaging. Results were analyzed in an intention-to-treat analysis. Primary outcome was 21-day transplant-free survival. The levels of cytokines, damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and endotoxins were analyzed at baseline and day 5. RESULTS ALF patients [aged 31.5 ± 12.2 years, 60% male, 78% viral, 83% hyperacute, 70% with SIRS were included. At day 5, SVPE [mean sessions 2.15 ± 1.42, median plasma volume replaced 5.049 L] compared to SMT alone, resulted in higher lactate clearance (p = .02), amelioration of SIRS (84% vs. 26%; P = .02), reduction in ammonia levels [(221.5 ± 96.9) vs.(439 ± 385.6) μg/dl, P = .02) and SOFA scores [9.9(±3.3) vs. 14.6(±4.8); P = .001]. There were no treatment related deaths. SVPE was associated with a higher 21-day transplant free-survival [75% vs. 45%; P = .04, HR 0.30, 95%CI 0.01-0.88]. A significant decrease in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines along with a decrease in endotoxin and DAMPs was seen with SVPE. CONCLUSION In ALF patients with cerebral edema, SVPE is safe and effective and improves survival possibly by a reduction in cytokine storm and ammonia. CLINICALTRIAL gov (identifier: NCT02718079).
Patients with acute liver failure (n= 40).
Standard medical treatment with standard volume plasma exchange (SVPE), (n= 20).
Standard medical treatment (n= 20).
Compared to standard medical treatment alone, at day five SVPE resulted in higher lactate clearance, amelioration of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (84% vs. 26%), reduction in ammonia levels [(221.5 ± 96.9) vs. (439 ± 385.6) μg/dl] and sequential organ failure assessment scores [9.9(±3.3) vs. 14.6(±4.8)]. There were no treatment related deaths. SVPE was associated with a higher 21-day transplant free-survival (75% vs. 45%). A significant decrease in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines along with a decrease in endotoxin and damage-associated molecular patterns was seen with SVPE.
Comparable Triglyceride Reduction With Plasma Exchange and Insulin in Acute Pancreatitis - A Randomized Trial
Frontiers in medicine. 2022;9:870067
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Both insulin and plasma exchange (PE) are used in hypertriglyceridemic acute pancreatitis (HTG-AP). Our aim was to compare the efficacy of both treatments. METHODS A randomized, parallel group study performed in a tertiary hospital in 22 HTG-AP patients with non-severe prognosis and triglycerides between 15 and 40 mmol/L. Patients were randomized to daily PE or insulin infusion until triglycerides were <10 mmol/L. Primary outcome was % reduction in triglycerides within 24 h. Secondary outcomes were days needed to lower triglycerides <10 mmol/L, highest CRP and percentage of patients with a severe course of pancreatitis. RESULTS There was a trend toward a greater decrease in triglycerides within the first 24 h in the PE group (67 ± 17% vs. 53 ± 17%, p = 0.07), but the absolute difference was modest [mean difference of 6 mmol/L (14% of initial value)]. Triglycerides fell below 10 mmol/L in a median (IQR) of 1 (1-2) and 2 (1-2) days, respectively (p = 0.25). Secondary outcomes related to disease severity were also comparable: highest CRP 229 vs. 211 mg/L (p = 0.69) and severe course of pancreatitis in 2/11 cases in both groups (p = 1.0). Regarding treatment complications, there was one mild hypoglycemia and one allergic reaction during PE. Survival was 100% in both groups. CONCLUSION There was no significant difference, but only a trend toward a greater decrease in triglycerides with PE, and the clinical course was also comparable. These results do not support universal use of PE in patients with HTG-AP. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION [ClinicalTrials.gov], identifier [NCT02622854].
Avatrombopag ethnic sensitivity analysis in chronic liver disease and thrombocytopenia patients: individual-level pooled analysis
Therapeutic advances in gastroenterology. 2022;15:17562848221105976
INTRODUCTION Few data have been published on the ethnic sensitivity of effectiveness, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of avatrombopag for the management of thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). METHODS An ethnic sensitivity analysis was performed based on the results from two phase III studies (ADAPT-1 and ADAPT-2), with a primary endpoint of the proportion of patients without the requirement of platelet transfusion or rescue treatment for bleeding after randomization to 7 days following a scheduled procedure, and three phase I studies in healthy subjects. Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the differences in effectiveness in different ethnicities and overall population. RESULTS In total, 435 patients (placebo, n = 158; avatrombopag, n = 277) were stratified into various ethnic groups: 121 East Asians, including the subgroup of 27 Chinese, and 259 Caucasians. The proportion of patients who did not receive a platelet transfusion and those with a platelet count ⩾50 × 10(9)/L in the avatrombopag 40 and 60 mg groups were higher than that of placebo for all ethnicities and in the overall population. Statistical significance was obtained in the overall population and for all ethnicities other than Chinese patients, a group with a very small sample size. No significant difference was observed in the proportion of responders in each ethnic group compared to overall population (p > 0.05). The incidence of adverse events in East Asians was similar to that in both Caucasians and the overall population. CONCLUSION Avatrombopag was effective and safe in the management of thrombocytopenia in Chinese patients with CLD. Ethnicity does not appear to influence the efficacy, safety, PK, or PD of avatrombopag.
Rotational thromboelastometry guided blood component use in cirrhotic children undergoing invasive procedures: Randomized Controlled Trial
Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver. 2022
BACKGROUND & AIMS This randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted with the aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using ROTEM-based transfusion strategy in cirrhotic children undergoing invasive procedures. METHODS This was a open-label, RCT which included (i) children under 18 years of age with liver cirrhosis; (ii) INR between 1.5 and 2.5; and/or (iii) platelet count between 20x10(9) /L to 50x10(9) /L (for procedures other than liver biopsy) and between 40x10(9) /L to 60x10(9) /L (for liver biopsy); and (iv) listed for invasive procedures. Stratified randomization was done for children undergoing liver biopsies. Patients randomized to the ROTEM and conventional groups received blood component transfusion using predefined criteria. RESULTS A total of 423 invasive procedures were screened for inclusion of which 60 were randomized (30 in each group with comparable baseline parameters). The volume of total blood components, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelets transfused was significantly lower in ROTEM as compared to conventional group. Only 46.7% of children in ROTEM group received a blood component compared to 100% in conventional group (p<0.001). The requirement of FFP (ROTEM 43.3%, Conventional: 83.3%, p = 0.001) was significantly lower in the patients receiving ROTEM guided transfusions. There was no difference in procedure related bleed and transfusion related complications between the 2 groups. ROTEM was cost effective (p=0.002) despite the additional cost of the test. CONCLUSION ROTEM-based transfusion strategies result in lower blood component transfusion in cirrhotic children undergoing invasive procedures without an increase in risk of procedure-related bleed. ROTEM-guided transfusion strategy is cost-effective.
Children with liver cirrhosis undergoing invasive procedures (n= 60).
ROTEM-based transfusion strategy (n= 30).
Conventional coagulation tests-based transfusion strategy (n= 30).
The volume of total blood components, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelets transfused was significantly lower in ROTEM as compared to conventional group. Only 46.7% of children in ROTEM group received a blood component compared to 100% in conventional group. The requirement of FFP (ROTEM: 43.3%, conventional: 83.3%) was significantly lower in the patients receiving ROTEM guided transfusions. There was no difference in procedure related bleed and transfusion related complications between the two groups. ROTEM was cost-effective despite the additional cost of the test.
Systematic review and meta-analysis: incidence of variceal hemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis undergoing transesophageal echocardiography
Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2022
BACKGROUND The presence of esophageal varices is considered a relative contraindication to transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) by cardiology professional societies, so gastroenterologists are often consulted to perform upper endoscopy prior to TEE in patients with cirrhosis. AIM: To perform a systematic review to quantify the risk of bleeding complications in patients with cirrhosis following TEE. METHODS Two reviewers searched Ovid MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and EMBASE databases from January 1992 to May 2021 for studies reporting bleeding complications from TEE in patients with cirrhosis. We calculated the pooled incidence rate of bleeding events using the metaprop command with a random effect model. RESULTS We identified 21 studies comprising 4050 unique patients with cirrhosis; 9 studies (n = 3015) assessed the risk of intraoperative TEE during liver transplant (LT) and 12 studies (n = 1035) assessed bleeding risk in patients undergoing TEE for other indications. The pooled incidence of bleeding post-TEE was 0.37% (95% CI 0.04-0.94%) across all studies. Bleeding complications were low among patients undergoing TEE during LT as well as those undergoing TEE for other diagnostic reasons (0.97% vs. 0.004%) and among studies with mean MELD >18 compared to those with mean MELD <18 (0.43% vs. 0.08%). Few studies had a comparator arm, and data on patient-level factors impacting bleeding complications (including degree of liver dysfunction and coagulopathy) were limited across studies. CONCLUSIONS The risk of bleeding complications following TEE is low in patients with cirrhosis, suggesting TEE is safe and risk stratification with upper endoscopy may not be necessary.
Phase 2 Study of Avatrombopag in Japanese Patients with Chronic Liver Disease and Thrombocytopenia
Hepatology research : the official journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology. 2022
AIM: Avatrombopag, a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, can reduce the need for platelet transfusions or rescue interventions for bleeding in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and thrombocytopenia undergoing scheduled procedures. A model analysis indicated that the effect of avatrombopag on platelet production was reduced in East Asian versus non-East Asian patients; however, the difference was deemed not clinically significant. Furthermore, a subgroup analysis of pooled Phase 3 trials showed similar avatrombopag efficacy across racial subgroups. The aim of this Phase 2 study was to corroborate the efficacy and safety of avatrombopag in Japanese patients with thrombocytopenia due to CLD. METHODS Japanese patients with CLD and thrombocytopenia were randomized to receive placebo or avatrombopag 20, 40, or 60 mg daily for 5 days. The primary endpoint was responder rate in platelet counts at Visit 4 (10-13 days after treatment initiation), defined as the proportion of patients with platelet count ≥50×10(9) /L and ≥20×10(9) /L increase from baseline. RESULTS Thirty-nine patients were randomized and completed the study (placebo, n=11; avatrombopag 20 mg, n=7; 40 mg, n=11; 60 mg, n=10). Avatrombopag treatment was associated with significant increases in responder rate at Visit 4 in the 40 mg (63.6%; P=0.004) and 60 mg (40%; P=0.024) groups versus placebo (9.1%). Avatrombopag was well tolerated and no new safety signals were detected. CONCLUSIONS Efficacy and safety results from this study were consistent with previous studies in patients with CLD and thrombocytopenia undergoing elective procedures, supporting treatment with avatrombopag in the Japanese population. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02227693. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Novel Therapies for the Treatment of Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A Systematic Review
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2021;12:785790
Many drugs with different mechanisms of action and indications available on the market today are capable of inducing hepatotoxicity. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has been a treatment challenge nowadays as it was in the past. We searched Medline (via PubMed), CENTRAL, Science Citation Index Expanded, clinical trials registries and databases of DILI and hepatotoxicity up to 2021 for novel therapies for the management of adult patients with DILI based on the combination of three main search terms: 1) treatment, 2) novel, and 3) drug-induced liver injury. The mechanism of action of novel therapies, the potential of their benefit in clinical settings, and adverse drug reactions related to novel therapies were extracted. Cochrane Risk of bias tool and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) assessment approach was involved in the assessment of the certainty of the evidence for primary outcomes of included studies. One thousand three hundred seventy-two articles were identified. Twenty-eight articles were included in the final analysis. Eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were detected and for six the available data were sufficient for analysis. In abstract form only we found six studies which were also anaylzed. Investigated agents included: bicyclol, calmangafodipir, cytisin amidophospate, fomepizole, livina-polyherbal preparation, magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG), picroliv, plasma exchange, radix Paeoniae Rubra, and S-adenosylmethionine. The primary outcomes of included trials mainly included laboratory markers improvement. Based on the moderate-certainty evidence, more patients treated with MgIG experienced alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization compared to placebo. Low-certainty evidence suggests that bicyclol treatment leads to a reduction of ALT levels compared to phosphatidylcholine. For the remaining eight interventions, the certainty of the evidence for primary outcomes was assessed as very low and we are very uncertain in any estimate of effect. More effort should be involved to investigate the novel treatment of DILI. Well-designed RCTs with appropriate sample sizes, comparable groups and precise, not only surrogate outcomes are urgently welcome.
Treatment for bleeding oesophageal varices in people with decompensated liver cirrhosis: a network meta-analysis
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2021;4:Cd013155
BACKGROUND Approximately 40% to 95% of people with liver cirrhosis have oesophageal varices. About 15% to 20% of oesophageal varices bleed within about one to three years after diagnosis. Several different treatments are available, including, among others, endoscopic sclerotherapy, variceal band ligation, somatostatin analogues, vasopressin analogues, and balloon tamponade. However, there is uncertainty surrounding the individual and relative benefits and harms of these treatments. OBJECTIVES To compare the benefits and harms of different initial treatments for variceal bleeding from oesophageal varices in adults with decompensated liver cirrhosis, through a network meta-analysis; and to generate rankings of the different treatments for acute bleeding oesophageal varices, according to their benefits and harms. SEARCH METHODS We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and trials registers until 17 December 2019, to identify randomised clinical trials (RCTs) in people with cirrhosis and acute bleeding from oesophageal varices. SELECTION CRITERIA We included only RCTs (irrespective of language, blinding, or status) in adults with cirrhosis and acutely bleeding oesophageal varices. We excluded RCTs in which participants had bleeding only from gastric varices, those who failed previous treatment (refractory bleeding), those in whom initial haemostasis was achieved before inclusion into the trial, and those who had previously undergone liver transplantation. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We performed a network meta-analysis with OpenBUGS software, using Bayesian methods, and calculated the differences in treatments using odds ratios (OR) and rate ratios with 95% credible intervals (CrI) based on an available-case analysis, according to National Institute of Health and Care Excellence Decision Support Unit guidance. We performed also the direct comparisons from RCTs using the same codes and the same technical details. MAIN RESULTS We included a total of 52 RCTs (4580 participants) in the review. Forty-eight trials (4042 participants) were included in one or more comparisons in the review. The trials that provided the information included people with cirrhosis due to varied aetiologies and those with and without a previous history of bleeding. We included outcomes assessed up to six weeks. All trials were at high risk of bias. A total of 19 interventions were compared in the trials (sclerotherapy, somatostatin analogues, vasopressin analogues, sclerotherapy plus somatostatin analogues, variceal band ligation, balloon tamponade, somatostatin analogues plus variceal band ligation, nitrates plus vasopressin analogues, no active intervention, sclerotherapy plus variceal band ligation, balloon tamponade plus sclerotherapy, balloon tamponade plus somatostatin analogues, balloon tamponade plus vasopressin analogues, variceal band ligation plus vasopressin analogues, balloon tamponade plus nitrates plus vasopressin analogues, balloon tamponade plus variceal band ligation, portocaval shunt, sclerotherapy plus transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), and sclerotherapy plus vasopressin analogues). We have reported the effect estimates for the primary and secondary outcomes when there was evidence of differences between the interventions against the reference treatment of sclerotherapy, but reported the other results of the primary and secondary outcomes versus the reference treatment of sclerotherapy without the effect estimates when there was no evidence of differences in order to provide a concise summary of the results. Overall, 15.8% of the trial participants who received the reference treatment of sclerotherapy (chosen because this was the commonest treatment compared in the trials) died during the follow-up periods, which ranged from three days to six weeks. Based on moderate-certainty evidence, somatostatin analogues alone had higher mortality than sclerotherapy (OR 1.57, 95% CrI 1.04 to 2.41; network estimate; direct comparison: 4 trials; 353 participants) and vasopressin analogues alone had higher mortality than sclerotherapy (OR 1.70, 95% CrI 1.13 to 2.62; network estimate; direct comparison: 2 trials; 438 participants). None of the trials reported health-related quality of life. Based on low-certainty evidence, a higher proportion of people receiving balloon tamponade plus sclerotherapy had more serious adverse events than those receiving only sclerotherapy (OR 4.23, 95% CrI 1.22 to 17.80; direct estimate; 1 RCT; 60 participants). Based on moderate-certainty evidence, people receiving vasopressin analogues alone and those receiving variceal band ligation had fewer adverse events than those receiving only sclerotherapy (rate ratio 0.59, 95% CrI 0.35 to 0.96; network estimate; direct comparison: 1 RCT; 219 participants; and rate ratio 0.40, 95% CrI 0.21 to 0.74; network estimate; direct comparison: 1 RCT; 77 participants; respectively). Based on low-certainty evidence, the proportion of people who developed symptomatic rebleed was smaller in people who received sclerotherapy plus somatostatin analogues than those receiving only sclerotherapy (OR 0.21, 95% CrI 0.03 to 0.94; direct estimate; 1 RCT; 105 participants). The evidence suggests considerable uncertainty about the effect of the interventions in the remaining comparisons where sclerotherapy was the control intervention. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Based on moderate-certainty evidence, somatostatin analogues alone and vasopressin analogues alone (with supportive therapy) probably result in increased mortality, compared to endoscopic sclerotherapy. Based on moderate-certainty evidence, vasopressin analogues alone and band ligation alone probably result in fewer adverse events compared to endoscopic sclerotherapy. Based on low-certainty evidence, balloon tamponade plus sclerotherapy may result in large increases in serious adverse events compared to sclerotherapy. Based on low-certainty evidence, sclerotherapy plus somatostatin analogues may result in large decreases in symptomatic rebleed compared to sclerotherapy. In the remaining comparisons, the evidence indicates considerable uncertainty about the effects of the interventions, compared to sclerotherapy.
Primary prevention of variceal bleeding in people with oesophageal varices due to liver cirrhosis: a network meta-analysis
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2021;4:Cd013121
BACKGROUND Approximately 40% to 95% of people with cirrhosis have oesophageal varices. About 15% to 20% of oesophageal varices bleed in about one to three years. There are several different treatments to prevent bleeding, including: beta-blockers, endoscopic sclerotherapy, and variceal band ligation. However, there is uncertainty surrounding their individual and relative benefits and harms. OBJECTIVES To compare the benefits and harms of different treatments for prevention of first variceal bleeding from oesophageal varices in adults with liver cirrhosis through a network meta-analysis and to generate rankings of the different treatments for prevention of first variceal bleeding from oesophageal varices according to their safety and efficacy. SEARCH METHODS We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and trials registers to December 2019 to identify randomised clinical trials in people with cirrhosis and oesophageal varices with no history of bleeding. SELECTION CRITERIA We included only randomised clinical trials (irrespective of language, blinding, or status) in adults with cirrhosis and oesophageal varices with no history of bleeding. We excluded randomised clinical trials in which participants had previous bleeding from oesophageal varices and those who had previously undergone liver transplantation or previously received prophylactic treatment for oesophageal varices. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We performed a network meta-analysis with OpenBUGS using Bayesian methods and calculated the differences in treatments using hazard ratios (HR), odds ratios (OR), and rate ratios with 95% credible intervals (CrI) based on an available-case analysis, according to National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Decision Support Unit guidance. We performed the direct comparisons from randomised clinical trials using the same codes and the same technical details. MAIN RESULTS We included 66 randomised clinical trials (6653 participants) in the review. Sixty trials (6212 participants) provided data for one or more comparisons in the review. The trials that provided the information included people with cirrhosis due to varied aetiologies and those at high risk of bleeding from oesophageal varices. The follow-up in the trials that reported outcomes ranged from 6 months to 60 months. All but one of the trials were at high risk of bias. The interventions compared included beta-blockers, no active intervention, variceal band ligation, sclerotherapy, beta-blockers plus variceal band ligation, beta-blockers plus nitrates, nitrates, beta-blockers plus sclerotherapy, and portocaval shunt. Overall, 21.2% of participants who received non-selective beta-blockers ('beta-blockers') - the reference treatment (chosen because this was the most common treatment compared in the trials) - died during 8-month to 60-month follow-up. Based on low-certainty evidence, beta-blockers, variceal band ligation, sclerotherapy, and beta-blockers plus nitrates all had lower mortality versus no active intervention (beta-blockers: HR 0.49, 95% CrI 0.36 to 0.67; direct comparison HR: 0.59, 95% CrI 0.42 to 0.83; 10 trials, 1200 participants; variceal band ligation: HR 0.51, 95% CrI 0.35 to 0.74; direct comparison HR 0.49, 95% CrI 0.12 to 2.14; 3 trials, 355 participants; sclerotherapy: HR 0.66, 95% CrI 0.51 to 0.85; direct comparison HR 0.61, 95% CrI 0.41 to 0.90; 18 trials, 1666 participants; beta-blockers plus nitrates: HR 0.41, 95% CrI 0.20 to 0.85; no direct comparison). No trials reported health-related quality of life. Based on low-certainty evidence, variceal band ligation had a higher number of serious adverse events (number of events) than beta-blockers (rate ratio 10.49, 95% CrI 2.83 to 60.64; 1 trial, 168 participants). Based on low-certainty evidence, beta-blockers plus nitrates had a higher number of 'any adverse events (number of participants)' than beta-blockers alone (OR 3.41, 95% CrI 1.11 to 11.28; 1 trial, 57 participants). Based on low-certainty evidence, adverse events (number of events) were higher in sclerotherapy than in beta-blockers (rate ratio 2.49, 95% CrI 1.53 to 4.22; direct comparison rate ratio 2.47, 95% CrI 1.27 to 5.06; 2 trials, 90 participants), and in beta-blockers plus variceal band ligation than in beta-blockers (direct comparison rate ratio 1.72, 95% CrI 1.08 to 2.76; 1 trial, 140 participants). Based on low-certainty evidence, any variceal bleed was lower in beta-blockers plus variceal band ligation than in beta-blockers (direct comparison HR 0.21, 95% CrI 0.04 to 0.71; 1 trial, 173 participants). Based on low-certainty evidence, any variceal bleed was higher in nitrates than beta-blockers (direct comparison HR 6.40, 95% CrI 1.58 to 47.42; 1 trial, 52 participants). The evidence indicates considerable uncertainty about the effect of the interventions in the remaining comparisons. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Based on low-certainty evidence, beta-blockers, variceal band ligation, sclerotherapy, and beta-blockers plus nitrates may decrease mortality compared to no intervention in people with high-risk oesophageal varices in people with cirrhosis and no previous history of bleeding. Based on low-certainty evidence, variceal band ligation may result in a higher number of serious adverse events than beta-blockers. The evidence indicates considerable uncertainty about the effect of beta-blockers versus variceal band ligation on variceal bleeding. The evidence also indicates considerable uncertainty about the effect of the interventions in most of the remaining comparisons.
Intravenous Drip of Somatostatin Followed by Restricted Fluid Resuscitation to Treat Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 2021;2021:6548479
OBJECTIVE Liver cirrhosis is a common, often progressive, and usually fatal disorder. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a leading cause of death in patients with liver cirrhosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of somatostatin combined with restricted fluid resuscitation in the treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS From January 2018 to December 2020, 84 patients with liver cirrhosis complicated by upper gastrointestinal bleeding admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology of Ningbo Yinzhou No. 2 Hospital were selected as study participants. They were randomly assigned into the study group (n = 42) and control group (n = 42). All patients were given intravenous drip of somatostatin. The study group was supplemented with restricted fluid resuscitation therapy. The hemoglobin (Hb), platelet, fibrinogen, hematocrit, transfusion volume of red blood cells, hemostatic time, hemostatic rates in 0 h-24 h, 24 h-48 h, and >48 h, rebleeding rates, resuscitation rate, and incidence rates of complications were compared between the two groups 48 h after treatment. RESULTS It was found that the Hb, platelet, fibrinogen, and hematocrit were notably increased in the study group compared to the control group 48 h after treatment (P < 0.01). The proportion of patients with excellent response was notably higher in the study group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The overall response rate of the study group was 90.48%, which was significantly higher than 71.43% in the control group (P < 0.05). The study group had lower transfusion volume of red blood cells, shorter hemostatic time, and lower rebleeding rates than the control group (P < 0.01). The hemostatic rate of 0 h-24 h in the study group was remarkably higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The hemostatic rate of >48 h in the study group was lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The overall incidence rate of complications in the study group was 9.52%, which was significantly lower than 30.95% in the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION These data suggest that intravenous drip of somatostatin followed by restricted fluid resuscitation leads to a better clinical efficacy in treating upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis considering higher resuscitation rate and hemostatic rate and reduced incidence of complications, which is conducive to the recovery of patients and worthy of further clinical promotion.