Standard-Volume Plasma Exchange Improves Outcomes in Patients With Acute Liver Failure: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. 2022;20(4):e831-e854
BACKGROUND High volume plasma-exchange (HVPE) improves survival in patients with acute liver failure (ALF), but apprehension regarding volume overload and worsening of cerebral edema remain. METHODS In an open-label randomized controlled trial, 40 consecutive patients of ALF were randomized 1:1 to either standard medical treatment (SMT) or SMT with standard-volume plasma-exchange (SVPE). SVPE was performed using centrifugal apheresis [target volume of 1.5 to 2.0 plasma volumes per session] until desired response was achieved. Cerebral edema was assessed by brain imaging. Results were analyzed in an intention-to-treat analysis. Primary outcome was 21-day transplant-free survival. The levels of cytokines, damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and endotoxins were analyzed at baseline and day 5. RESULTS ALF patients [aged 31.5 ± 12.2 years, 60% male, 78% viral, 83% hyperacute, 70% with SIRS were included. At day 5, SVPE [mean sessions 2.15 ± 1.42, median plasma volume replaced 5.049 L] compared to SMT alone, resulted in higher lactate clearance (p = .02), amelioration of SIRS (84% vs. 26%; P = .02), reduction in ammonia levels [(221.5 ± 96.9) vs.(439 ± 385.6) μg/dl, P = .02) and SOFA scores [9.9(±3.3) vs. 14.6(±4.8); P = .001]. There were no treatment related deaths. SVPE was associated with a higher 21-day transplant free-survival [75% vs. 45%; P = .04, HR 0.30, 95%CI 0.01-0.88]. A significant decrease in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines along with a decrease in endotoxin and DAMPs was seen with SVPE. CONCLUSION In ALF patients with cerebral edema, SVPE is safe and effective and improves survival possibly by a reduction in cytokine storm and ammonia. CLINICALTRIAL gov (identifier: NCT02718079).
Patients with acute liver failure (n= 40).
Standard medical treatment with standard volume plasma exchange (SVPE), (n= 20).
Standard medical treatment (n= 20).
Compared to standard medical treatment alone, at day five SVPE resulted in higher lactate clearance, amelioration of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (84% vs. 26%), reduction in ammonia levels [(221.5 ± 96.9) vs. (439 ± 385.6) μg/dl] and sequential organ failure assessment scores [9.9(±3.3) vs. 14.6(±4.8)]. There were no treatment related deaths. SVPE was associated with a higher 21-day transplant free-survival (75% vs. 45%). A significant decrease in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines along with a decrease in endotoxin and damage-associated molecular patterns was seen with SVPE.
Phase 2 Study of Avatrombopag in Japanese Patients with Chronic Liver Disease and Thrombocytopenia
Hepatology research : the official journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology. 2022
AIM: Avatrombopag, a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, can reduce the need for platelet transfusions or rescue interventions for bleeding in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and thrombocytopenia undergoing scheduled procedures. A model analysis indicated that the effect of avatrombopag on platelet production was reduced in East Asian versus non-East Asian patients; however, the difference was deemed not clinically significant. Furthermore, a subgroup analysis of pooled Phase 3 trials showed similar avatrombopag efficacy across racial subgroups. The aim of this Phase 2 study was to corroborate the efficacy and safety of avatrombopag in Japanese patients with thrombocytopenia due to CLD. METHODS Japanese patients with CLD and thrombocytopenia were randomized to receive placebo or avatrombopag 20, 40, or 60 mg daily for 5 days. The primary endpoint was responder rate in platelet counts at Visit 4 (10-13 days after treatment initiation), defined as the proportion of patients with platelet count ≥50×10(9) /L and ≥20×10(9) /L increase from baseline. RESULTS Thirty-nine patients were randomized and completed the study (placebo, n=11; avatrombopag 20 mg, n=7; 40 mg, n=11; 60 mg, n=10). Avatrombopag treatment was associated with significant increases in responder rate at Visit 4 in the 40 mg (63.6%; P=0.004) and 60 mg (40%; P=0.024) groups versus placebo (9.1%). Avatrombopag was well tolerated and no new safety signals were detected. CONCLUSIONS Efficacy and safety results from this study were consistent with previous studies in patients with CLD and thrombocytopenia undergoing elective procedures, supporting treatment with avatrombopag in the Japanese population. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02227693. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Systematic review and meta-analysis: incidence of variceal hemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis undergoing transesophageal echocardiography
Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2022
BACKGROUND The presence of esophageal varices is considered a relative contraindication to transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) by cardiology professional societies, so gastroenterologists are often consulted to perform upper endoscopy prior to TEE in patients with cirrhosis. AIM: To perform a systematic review to quantify the risk of bleeding complications in patients with cirrhosis following TEE. METHODS Two reviewers searched Ovid MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and EMBASE databases from January 1992 to May 2021 for studies reporting bleeding complications from TEE in patients with cirrhosis. We calculated the pooled incidence rate of bleeding events using the metaprop command with a random effect model. RESULTS We identified 21 studies comprising 4050 unique patients with cirrhosis; 9 studies (n = 3015) assessed the risk of intraoperative TEE during liver transplant (LT) and 12 studies (n = 1035) assessed bleeding risk in patients undergoing TEE for other indications. The pooled incidence of bleeding post-TEE was 0.37% (95% CI 0.04-0.94%) across all studies. Bleeding complications were low among patients undergoing TEE during LT as well as those undergoing TEE for other diagnostic reasons (0.97% vs. 0.004%) and among studies with mean MELD >18 compared to those with mean MELD <18 (0.43% vs. 0.08%). Few studies had a comparator arm, and data on patient-level factors impacting bleeding complications (including degree of liver dysfunction and coagulopathy) were limited across studies. CONCLUSIONS The risk of bleeding complications following TEE is low in patients with cirrhosis, suggesting TEE is safe and risk stratification with upper endoscopy may not be necessary.
The efficacy and safety of thrombopoietin receptor agonists in patients with chronic liver disease undergoing elective procedures: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) can mitigate preprocedural thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) however their effects on procedural outcomes is unclear. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to better define the efficacy, thrombotic risk and bleeding mitigation associated with the use of preoperative TPO-RAs in patients with CLD. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials to assess the use of preprocedural TPO-RAs in patients with CLD, searching MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane library database. Six publications comprising eight randomized trials (1229 patients; 717 received TPO-RAs, 512 received placebo) and three unique TPO-RAs were retrieved. The majority of the included procedures were endoscopic. TPO-RAs were significantly more likely to result in a preoperative platelet count greater than 50 x 10(9)/L (72.1% vs 15.6%, RR 4.8, 95% CI 3.6-6.4 p < .00001. NNT 1.8) and reduced the incidence of platelet transfusions (22.5% vs 67.8%, RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.3-0.4 p < .00001. NNT 2.2). Total periprocedural bleeding was decreased in patients who received TPO-RAs (11.6% vs 15.6%, RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.5-0.9 p = .01. NNT 24.7) and there was no increase in the rate of thrombosis (2.2% vs 1.8% RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.6-2.9 p = .60. NNH 211.1). In patients with CLD the use of preprocedural TPO-RAs resulted in significant increased platelet counts, and decreased the incidence of platelet transfusions as compared to placebo. TPO use likewise decreased the incidence of total periprocedural bleeding without increasing the rate of thrombosis.
Novel Therapies for the Treatment of Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A Systematic Review
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2021;12:785790
Many drugs with different mechanisms of action and indications available on the market today are capable of inducing hepatotoxicity. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has been a treatment challenge nowadays as it was in the past. We searched Medline (via PubMed), CENTRAL, Science Citation Index Expanded, clinical trials registries and databases of DILI and hepatotoxicity up to 2021 for novel therapies for the management of adult patients with DILI based on the combination of three main search terms: 1) treatment, 2) novel, and 3) drug-induced liver injury. The mechanism of action of novel therapies, the potential of their benefit in clinical settings, and adverse drug reactions related to novel therapies were extracted. Cochrane Risk of bias tool and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) assessment approach was involved in the assessment of the certainty of the evidence for primary outcomes of included studies. One thousand three hundred seventy-two articles were identified. Twenty-eight articles were included in the final analysis. Eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were detected and for six the available data were sufficient for analysis. In abstract form only we found six studies which were also anaylzed. Investigated agents included: bicyclol, calmangafodipir, cytisin amidophospate, fomepizole, livina-polyherbal preparation, magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG), picroliv, plasma exchange, radix Paeoniae Rubra, and S-adenosylmethionine. The primary outcomes of included trials mainly included laboratory markers improvement. Based on the moderate-certainty evidence, more patients treated with MgIG experienced alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization compared to placebo. Low-certainty evidence suggests that bicyclol treatment leads to a reduction of ALT levels compared to phosphatidylcholine. For the remaining eight interventions, the certainty of the evidence for primary outcomes was assessed as very low and we are very uncertain in any estimate of effect. More effort should be involved to investigate the novel treatment of DILI. Well-designed RCTs with appropriate sample sizes, comparable groups and precise, not only surrogate outcomes are urgently welcome.
Efficacy and safety of albumin infusion for overt hepatic encephalopathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver. 2021
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The efficacy and safety of albumin infusion for treatment and prevention of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) among cirrhosis patients remained controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the benefit of albumin infusion for the treatment and prevention of OHE. METHODS We performed a systematic search of 4 electronic databases up to 31st January 2021. The primary outcome was the resolution of OHE. Secondary outcomes were inpatient mortality and albumin-associated adverse events. We assessed the pooled odds' risk, pooled mean differences, 95% confidence interval and heterogeneity using Review Manager Version 5.3. RESULTS A total of 12 studies (2,087 subjects) were identified. Among cirrhosis patients with OHE, albumin infusion was associated with a lower pooled risk of OHE (OR=0.43, 95%CI: 0.27, 0.68; I(2)=0%). Among patients without baseline OHE, albumin infusion was associated with a lower pooled risk of developing OHE (OR=0.53, 95%CI: 0.32, 0.86; I(2)=62%). Albumin infusion was associated with a lower pooled risk of inpatient mortality (OR=0.36, 95%CI: 0.21, 0.60; I(2)=0%). CONCLUSION Well-powered randomized trials are required to confirm the benefits of albumin infusion for the prevention and treatment of overt hepatic encephalopathy among decompensated cirrhosis patients.
Intravenous Drip of Somatostatin Followed by Restricted Fluid Resuscitation to Treat Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 2021;2021:6548479
OBJECTIVE Liver cirrhosis is a common, often progressive, and usually fatal disorder. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a leading cause of death in patients with liver cirrhosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of somatostatin combined with restricted fluid resuscitation in the treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS From January 2018 to December 2020, 84 patients with liver cirrhosis complicated by upper gastrointestinal bleeding admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology of Ningbo Yinzhou No. 2 Hospital were selected as study participants. They were randomly assigned into the study group (n = 42) and control group (n = 42). All patients were given intravenous drip of somatostatin. The study group was supplemented with restricted fluid resuscitation therapy. The hemoglobin (Hb), platelet, fibrinogen, hematocrit, transfusion volume of red blood cells, hemostatic time, hemostatic rates in 0 h-24 h, 24 h-48 h, and >48 h, rebleeding rates, resuscitation rate, and incidence rates of complications were compared between the two groups 48 h after treatment. RESULTS It was found that the Hb, platelet, fibrinogen, and hematocrit were notably increased in the study group compared to the control group 48 h after treatment (P < 0.01). The proportion of patients with excellent response was notably higher in the study group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The overall response rate of the study group was 90.48%, which was significantly higher than 71.43% in the control group (P < 0.05). The study group had lower transfusion volume of red blood cells, shorter hemostatic time, and lower rebleeding rates than the control group (P < 0.01). The hemostatic rate of 0 h-24 h in the study group was remarkably higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The hemostatic rate of >48 h in the study group was lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The overall incidence rate of complications in the study group was 9.52%, which was significantly lower than 30.95% in the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION These data suggest that intravenous drip of somatostatin followed by restricted fluid resuscitation leads to a better clinical efficacy in treating upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis considering higher resuscitation rate and hemostatic rate and reduced incidence of complications, which is conducive to the recovery of patients and worthy of further clinical promotion.
Endoscopic Cyanoacrylate Injection vs BRTO for Prevention of Gastric Variceal Bleeding: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). 2021
The optimal treatment for gastric varices (GVs) has not yet been fully determined. This study compared the efficacy and safety of endoscopic cyanoacrylate injection and balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) to prevent rebleeding in patients with cirrhosis and GVs after primary hemostasis. Patients with cirrhosis and history of bleeding from gastroesophageal varices type 2 or isolated gastric varices type 1 were randomized to cyanoacrylate injection (n = 32) or BRTO treatment (n = 32). The primary outcomes were gastric variceal rebleeding or all-cause rebleeding. The patient characteristics were well-balanced between two groups. The mean follow-up time was 27.1 ± 12 months in a cyanoacrylate injection group and 27.6 ± 14.3 months in a BRTO group. The probability of gastric variceal rebleeding was higher in the cyanoacrylate injection group than in the BRTO group (p = 0.024). The probability of remaining free of all-cause rebleeding at 1 and 2 years for cyanoacrylate injection vs BRTO was 77% vs 96.3% and 65.2% vs 92.6% (p = 0.004). The survival rates, frequency of complications, and worsening of EVs were similar in both groups. BRTO resulted in fewer hospitalizations, inpatient stays, and lower medical costs. CONCLUSIONS BRTO is more effective than cyanoacrylate injection in preventing rebleeding from GVs, with similar frequencies of complications and mortalities.
Plasma trial: Pilot randomized clinical trial to determine safety and efficacy of plasma transfusions
BACKGROUND Plasma is frequently administered to patients with prolonged INR prior to invasive procedures. However, there is limited evidence evaluating efficacy and safety. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a pilot trial in hospitalized patients with INR between 1.5 and 2.5 undergoing procedures conducted outside the operating room. We excluded patients undergoing procedures proximal to the central nervous system, platelet counts <40,000/μl, or congenital or acquired coagulation disorders unresponsive to plasma. We randomly allocated patients stratified by hospital and history of cirrhosis to receive plasma transfusion (10-15 cc/kg) or no transfusion. The primary outcome was change in hemoglobin concentration within 2 days of procedure. RESULTS We enrolled 57 patients, mean age 56.0, 34 (59.6%) with cirrhosis, and mean INR 1.92 (SD = 0.27). In the intention to treat analysis, there were 10 of 27 (38.5%) participants in the plasma arm with a post procedure INR <1.5 and one of 30 (3.6%) in the no treatment arm (p < .01). The mean INR after receiving plasma transfusion was -0.24 (SD 0.26) lower than baseline. The change from pre-procedure hemoglobin level to lowest level within 2 days was -0.6 (SD = 1.0) in the plasma transfusion arm and -0.4 (SD = 0.6) in the no transfusion arm (p = .29). Adverse outcomes were uncommon. DISCUSSION We found no differences in change in hemoglobin concentration in those treated with plasma compared to no treatment. The change in INR was small and corrected to less than 1.5 in minority of patients. Large trials are required to establish if plasma is safe and efficacious.
Patients with cirrhosis (n= 57).
Plasma transfusion (n= 27).
No transfusion (n= 30).
In the intention to treat analysis, there were 10 of 27 (38.5%) participants in the plasma arm with a post procedure INR <1.5 and one of 30 (3.6%) in the no treatment arm. The mean INR after receiving plasma transfusion was -0.24 (SD 0.26) lower than baseline. The change from pre-procedure haemoglobin level to lowest level within 2 days was -0.6 (SD = 1.0) in the plasma transfusion arm and -0.4 (SD = 0.6) in the no transfusion arm. Adverse outcomes were uncommon.
A prognostic score for patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure treated with plasma exchange-centered artificial liver support system
Scientific reports. 2021;11(1):1469
Artificial liver support system (ALSS) therapy is widely used in patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF). We aimed to develop a predictive score to identify the subgroups who may benefit from plasma exchange (PE)-centered ALSS therapy. A total of 601 patients were retrospectively enrolled and randomly divided into a derivation cohort of 303 patients and a validation cohort of 298 patients for logistic regression analysis, respectively. Five baseline variables, including liver cirrhosis, total bilirubin, international normalized ratio of prothrombin time, infection and hepatic encephalopathy, were found independently associated with 3-month mortality. A predictive PALS model and the simplified PALS score were developed. The predicative value of PALS score (AUROC = 0.818) to 3-month prognosis was as capable as PALS model (AUROC = 0.839), R score (AUROC = 0.824) and Yue-Meng' score (AUROC = 0.810) (all p > 0.05), and superior to CART model (AUROC = 0.760) and MELD score (AUROC = 0.765) (all p < 0.05). The PALS score had significant linear correlation with 3-month mortality (R(2) = 0.970, p = 0.000). PALS score of 0-2 had both sensitivity and negative predictive value of > 90% for 3-month mortality, while PALS score of 6-9 had both specificity and positive predictive value of > 90%. Patients with PALS score of 3-5 who received 3-5 sessions of ALSS therapy had much lower 3-month mortality than those who received 1-2 sessions (32.8% vs. 59.2%, p < 0.05). The more severe patients with PALS score of 6-9 could still benefit from ≥ 6 sessions of ALSS therapy compared to ≤ 2 sessions (63.6% vs. 97.0%, p < 0.05). The PALS score could predict prognosis reliably and conveniently. It could identify the subgroups who could benefit from PE-centered ALSS therapy, and suggest the reasonable sessions.Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR2000032055. Registered 19th April 2020, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=52471 .