Intravenous immunoglobulins in patients with COVID-19-associated moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ICAR): multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial
The Lancet. Respiratory medicine. 2021
BACKGROUND Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major complication of COVID-19 and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. We aimed to assess whether intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) could improve outcomes by reducing inflammation-mediated lung injury. METHODS In this multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, done at 43 centres in France, we randomly assigned patients (1:1) receiving invasive mechanical ventilation for up to 72 h with PCR confirmed COVID-19 and associated moderate-to-severe ARDS to receive either IVIG (2 g/kg over 4 days) or placebo. Random assignment was done with a web-based system and was stratified according to the participating centre and the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation before inclusion in the trial (<12 h, 12-24 h, and >24-72 h), and treatment was administered within the first 96 h of invasive mechanical ventilation. To minimise the risk of adverse events, the IVIG administration was divided into four perfusions of 0·5 g/kg each administered over at least 8 hours. Patients in the placebo group received an equivalent volume of sodium chloride 0·9% (10 mL/kg) over the same period. The primary outcome was the number of ventilation-free days by day 28, assessed according to the intention-to-treat principle. This trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04350580. FINDINGS Between April 3, and October 20, 2020, 146 patients (43 [29%] women) were eligible for inclusion and randomly assigned: 69 (47%) patients to the IVIG group and 77 (53%) to the placebo group. The intention-to-treat analysis showed no statistical difference in the median number of ventilation-free days at day 28 between the IVIG group (0·0 [IQR 0·0-8·0]) and the placebo group (0·0 [0·0-6·0]; difference estimate 0·0 [0·0-0·0]; p=0·21). Serious adverse events were more frequent in the IVIG group (78 events in 22 [32%] patients) than in the placebo group (47 events in 15 [20%] patients; p=0·089). INTERPRETATION In patients with COVID-19 who received invasive mechanical ventilation for moderate-to-severe ARDS, IVIG did not improve clinical outcomes at day 28 and tended to be associated with an increased frequency of serious adverse events, although not significant. The effect of IVIGs on earlier disease stages of COVID-19 should be assessed in future trials. FUNDING Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique.
Adherence to community versus facility-based delivery of monthly malaria chemoprevention with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the post-discharge management of severe anemia in Malawian children: A cluster randomized trial
PloS one. 2021;16(9):e0255769
BACKGROUND The provision of post-discharge malaria chemoprevention (PMC) in children recently admitted with severe anemia reduces the risk of death and re-admissions in malaria endemic countries. The main objective of this trial was to identify the most effective method of delivering dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine to children recovering from severe anemia. METHODS This was a 5-arm, cluster-randomized trial among under-5 children hospitalized with severe anemia at Zomba Central Hospital in Southern Malawi. Children were randomized to receive three day treatment doses of dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine monthly either; 1) in the community without a short text reminder; 2) in the community with a short message reminder; 3) in the community with a community health worker reminder; 4) at the facility without a short text reminder; or 5) at the facility with a short message reminder. The primary outcome measure was adherence to all treatment doses of dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine and this was assessed by pill-counts done by field workers during home visits. Poisson regression was utilized for analysis. RESULTS Between March 2016 and October 2018, 1460 clusters were randomized. A total of 667 children were screened and 375 from 329 clusters were eligible and enrolled from the hospital. Adherence was higher in all three community-based compared to the two facility-based delivery (156/221 [70·6%] vs. 78/150 [52·0%], IRR = 1·24,95%CI 1·06-1·44, p = 0·006). This was observed in both the SMS group (IRR = 1·41,1·21-1·64, p<0·001) and in the non-SMS group (IRR = 1·37,1·18-1·61, p<0·001). Although adherence was higher among SMS recipients (98/148 66·2%] vs. non-SMS 82/144 (56·9%), there was no statistical evidence that SMS reminders resulted in greater adherence ([IRR = 1·03,0·88-1·21, p = 0·68). When compared to the facility-based non-SMS arm (control arm), community-based delivery utilizing CHWs resulted in higher adherence [39/76 (51·3%) vs. 54/79 (68·4%), IRR = 1·32, 1·14-1·54, p<0·001]. INTERPRETATION Community-based delivery of dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine for post-discharge malaria chemoprevention in children recovering from severe anemia resulted in higher adherence compared to facility-based methods. TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT02721420; ClinicalTrials.gov.
Effectiveness and safety of autologous platelet-rich plasma therapy with total contact casting versus total contact casting alone in treatment of trophic ulcer in leprosy: An observer-blind, randomized controlled trial
Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology. 2020
Background: Trophic ulcers secondary to leprosy pose a great stigma to patients and remain a challenge to the treating dermatologists. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) introduces growth factors directly into the wound and aids in rapid healing. The role of PRP in the treatment of trophic ulcers in leprosy patients has not yet been established by randomized controlled trials. Aims: To study the effectiveness and safety of autologous PRP therapy with total contact casting versus total contact casting alone in the treatment of trophic ulcers in leprosy. Methods: In an observer-blind, randomized (1:1) controlled study, 118 patients were enrolled. PRP was prepared by the manual double-spin method (1600 rpm for 10 min followed by 4000 rpm for 10 min). After wound bed preparation, activated PRP was injected intra- and perilesionally, and platelet-poor plasma gel was applied over the ulcer bed. Occlusive dressings and total contact casting were then applied in Group A, and only total contact casting was applied in Group B. The same procedure was repeated every 2 weeks for 8 weeks. Results: In all, 56 patients were analyzable in Group A and 52 in Group B. The surface area of the ulcer decreased significantly from first follow-up onward in both the groups (P < 0.001 in both the groups). Intergroup comparison showed that the reduction in the surface area of the ulcer was significantly more in Group A than in Group B from the first follow-up onward (P = 0.038) and the difference was maintained till the fifth follow-up (P < 0.001). At the end of the study, 91.10 +/- 9.65% ulcer surface area reduction had occurred in Group A, whereas it was 79.77 +/- 17.91% in Group B (P < 0.001). Trophic ulcers healed completely more often in paucibacillary leprosy patients (P < 0.001) and in those with a lower initial surface area of the ulcer (P < 0.001). Limitation: Short duration of treatment (8 weeks). Conclusion: PRP combined with total contact casting accelerates the healing of trophic ulcers of leprosy and is more effective than total contact casting alone. Complete remission is more likely to occur when the duration and surface area of ulcer are less and in the paucibacillary spectrum.
Comparison of an ordinal endpoint to time-to-event, longitudinal, and binary endpoints for use in evaluating treatments for severe influenza requiring hospitalization
Contemporary clinical trials communications. 2019;15:100401
Background/aims: The Food and Drug Administration recommends research into developing well-defined and reliable endpoints to evaluate treatments for severe influenza requiring hospitalization. A novel 6-category ordinal endpoint of patient health status after 7 days that ranges from death to hospital discharge with resumption of normal activities is being used in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for severe influenza (FLU-IVIG). We compare the power of the ordinal endpoint under a proportional odds model to other types of endpoints as a function of various trial parameters. Methods: We used closed-form analysis and empirical simulation to compare the power of the ordinal endpoint to time-to-event, longitudinal, and binary endpoints. In the simulation setting, we varied the treatment effect and the distribution of the placebo group across the follow-up period with consideration of adjustment for baseline health status. Results: In the analytic setting, ordinal endpoints of high granularity provided greater power than time-to-event endpoints when most patients in the placebo group had either naturally progressed to the category of hospital discharge by day 7 or were far from hospital discharge on day 7. In the simulation setting, adjustment for baseline health status universally raised power for the proportional odds model. Across different placebo group distributions of the ordinal endpoint regardless of adjustment for baseline health status, only time-to-event endpoints yielded higher power than the ordinal endpoint for certain treatment effects. Conclusions: In this case study, the FLU-IVIG ordinal endpoint provided greater power than time-to-event, binary, and longitudinal endpoints for most scenarios of the treatment effect and placebo group distribution, including the target population studied for FLU-IVIG. The ordinal endpoint was only surpassed by the time-to-event endpoint when many patients in the placebo group were on the cusp of hospital discharge on day 7 and the follow-up period for the time-to-event endpoint was extended to allow for additional events. Our general approach for evaluating the power of several potential endpoints for an influenza trial can be used for designing other influenza trials with different target populations and for other trials in other disease areas.
Lack of Efficacy of High-Titered Immunoglobulin in Patients with West Nile Virus Central Nervous System Disease
Emerging infectious diseases. 2019;25(11):2064-2073
West Nile Virus (WNV) can result in clinically severe neurologic disease. There is no treatment for WNV infection, but administration of anti-WNV polyclonal human antibody has demonstrated efficacy in animal models. We compared Omr-IgG-am, an immunoglobulin product with high titers of anti-WNV antibody, with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and normal saline to assess safety and efficacy in patients with WNV neuroinvasive disease as part of a phase I/II, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study in North America. During 2003-2006, a total of 62 hospitalized patients were randomized to receive Omr-IgG-am, standard IVIG, or normal saline (3:1:1). The primary endpoint was medication safety. Secondary endpoints were morbidity and mortality, measured using 4 standardized assessments of cognitive and functional status. The death rate in the study population was 12.9%. No significant differences were found between groups receiving Omr-IgG-am compared with IVIG or saline for either the safety or efficacy endpoints.
Anti-influenza hyperimmune intravenous immunoglobulin for adults with influenza A or B infection (FLU-IVIG): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial
The Lancet. Respiratory medicine. 2019
BACKGROUND Since the 1918 influenza pandemic, non-randomised studies and small clinical trials have suggested that convalescent plasma or anti-influenza hyperimmune intravenous immunoglobulin (hIVIG) might have clinical benefit for patients with influenza infection, but definitive data do not exist. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of hIVIG in a randomised controlled trial. METHODS This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was planned for 45 hospitals in Argentina, Australia, Denmark, Greece, Mexico, Spain, Thailand, UK, and the USA over five influenza seasons from 2013-14 to 2017-18. Adults (≥18 years of age) were admitted for hospital treatment with laboratory-confirmed influenza A or B infection and were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive standard care plus either a single 500-mL infusion of high-titre hIVIG (0.25 g/kg bodyweight, 24.75 g maximum; hIVIG group) or saline placebo (placebo group). Eligible patients had a National Early Warning score of 2 points or greater at the time of screening and their symptoms began no more than 7 days before randomisation. Pregnant and breastfeeding women were excluded, as well as any patients for whom the treatment would present a health risk. Separate randomisation schedules were generated for each participating clinical site using permuted block randomisation. Treatment assignments were obtained using a web-based application by the site pharmacist who then masked the solution for infusion. Patients and investigators were masked to study treatment. The primary endpoint was a six-category ordinal outcome of clinical status at day 7, ranging in severity from death to resumption of normal activities after discharge. The choice of day 7 was based on haemagglutination inhibition titres from a pilot study. It was analysed with a proportional odds model, using all six categories to estimate a common odds ratio (OR). An OR greater than 1 indicated that, for a given category, patients in the hIVIG group were more likely to be in a better category than those in the placebo group. Prespecified primary analyses for safety and efficacy were based on patients who received an infusion and for whom eligibility could be confirmed. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02287467. FINDINGS 313 patients were enrolled in 34 sites between Dec 11, 2014, and May 28, 2018. We also used data from 16 patients enrolled at seven of the 34 sites during the pilot study between Jan 15, 2014, and April 10, 2014. 168 patients were randomly assigned to the hIVIG group and 161 to the placebo group. 21 patients were excluded (12 from the hIVIG group and 9 from the placebo group) because they did not receive an infusion or their eligibility could not be confirmed. Thus, 308 were included in the primary analysis. hIVIG treatment produced a robust rise in haemagglutination inhibition titres against influenza A and smaller rises in influenza B titres. Based on the proportional odds model, the OR on day 7 was 1.25 (95% CI 0.79-1.97; p=0.33). In subgroup analyses for the primary outcome, the OR in patients with influenza A was 0.94 (0.55-1.59) and was 3.19 (1.21-8.42) for those with influenza B (interaction p=0.023). Through 28 days of follow-up, 47 (30%) of 156 patients in the hIVIG group and in 45 (30%) of 152 patients in the placebo group had the composite safety outcome of death, a serious adverse event, or a grade 3 or 4 adverse event (hazard ratio [HR] 1.06, 95% CI 0.70-1.60; p=0.79). Six (4%) patients in the hIVIG group and five (3%) in the placebo group died, but these deaths were not necessarily related to treatment. INTERPRETATION When administered alongside standard care (most commonly oseltamivir), hIVIG was not superior to placebo for adults hospitalised with influenza infection. By contrast with our prespecified subgroup hypothesis that hIVIG would result in more favourable responses in patients with influenza A than B, we found the opposite effect. The clinical benefit of hIVIG for patients with influenza B is supported by antibody affinity analyses, but confirmation is warranted. FUNDING NIAID and NIH. Partial support was provided by the Medical Research Council (MRC_UU_12023/23) and the Danish National Research Foundation.
Hospitalised adults with laboratory-confirmed influenza A or B infection (n= 308).
Single 500-mL infusion of high-titre hIVIG (0.25 g/kg bodyweight, 24.75 g maximum (hIVIG group, n=156).
Saline placebo (placebo group, n=152).
hIVIG treatment produced a robust rise in haemagglutination inhibition titres against influenza A and smaller rises in influenza B titres. Based on the proportional odds model, the OR on day 7 was 1.25). In subgroup analyses for the primary outcome, the OR in patients with influenza A was 0.94 and was 3.19 for those with influenza B. Through 28 days of follow-up, 47 (30%) of 156 patients in the hIVIG group and in 45 (30%) of 152 patients in the placebo group had the composite safety outcome of death, a serious adverse event, or a grade 3 or 4 adverse event (hazard ratio [HR] 1.06). Six (4%) patients in the hIVIG group and five (3%) in the placebo group died, but these deaths were not necessarily related to treatment.
Lower-extremity dynamometry as a novel outcome measure in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, feasibility trial of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for HIV-associated myelopathy
Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience. 2018;15((1-2):):28-32.
Objective: Open-label data suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) might improve lower-extremity strength in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated myelopathy (HIVM), a rare but debilitating neurologic complication of HIV. We sought to determine the feasibility of testing the efficacy of IVIG for HIVM more rigorously. Design: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled feasibility trial of IVIG for HIVM, using dynamometry as an outcome measure (Clinical Trial No. NCT01561755). Setting: The study took place in an academic medical center in New York, New York Participants: Only 12 participants were enrolled in four years; critical impediments to the study were the rarity of patients with new HIVM diagnoses and prior exposure to IVIG in patients with an established diagnosis. Measurements: Dynamometry of hip flexion, knee flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion were measured; the HIV Dementia Motor Score (HDMS); and the two-minute timed walk test were utilized. Results: Recruitment was the major feasibility issue. Dynamometry was generally well-tolerated, had good test-retest reliability (r=0.71-0.86, p<0.02 for all muscle groups), and good inter-item reliability as judged by the correlations between the muscle groups (r=0.76-0.81, p=0.001-0.005). Dynamometry was valid and clinically meaningful based on its correlations with the HDMS and the two-minute timed walk test. Conclusion: We conclude that an adequately powered clinical trial of IVIG for HIVM would likely require a prolonged recruitment period and multiple participating sites. Lower limb dynamometry is a useful outcome measure for HIVM, which might also be useful in other HIV-related gait disorders.
The impact of immunoglobulin in acute HIV infection on the HIV reservoir: a randomized controlled trial
Hiv Medicine. 2017;18((10):):777-781
OBJECTIVES Antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute HIV infection (AHI) restricts the HIV reservoir, but additional interventions are necessary to induce a cure. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is not HIV-specific but is safe and temporarily reduces the HIV reservoir in chronic HIV infection. We present a randomized controlled trial to investigate whether IVIG plus ART in AHI reduces the HIV reservoir and immune activation compared with ART alone. METHODS Ten men with AHI (Fiebig II-IV) initiated ART (tenofovir, entricitabine, ritonavir boosted darunavir and raltegravir) at HIV-1 diagnosis and were randomized to ART alone or ART plus 5 days of IVIG, once virally suppressed (week 19). Blood samples were evaluated for viral reservoir, immune activation, immune exhaustion and microbial translocation. Flexible sigmoidoscopy was performed at weeks 19, 24 and 48, and gut proviral DNA and cell numbers determined. RESULTS IVIG was well tolerated and no viral blips (> 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) occurred during IVIG therapy. From baseline to week 48, total HIV DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (cases: -3.7 log10 copies/106 CD4 cells; controls: -3.87 log10 copies/106 CD4 cells) declined with no differences observed between the groups (P = 0.49). Declines were observed in both groups from week 19 to week 48 in total HIV DNA in PBMCs (P = 0.38), serum low copy RNA (P = 0.57) and gut total HIV DNA (P = 0.55), but again there were no significant differences between arms. Biomarkers of immune activation, immune exhaustion and microbial translocation and the CD4:CD8 ratio were similar between arms for all comparisons. CONCLUSIONS Although safe, IVIG in AHI did not impact total HIV DNA, immune function or microbial translocation in peripheral blood or gut tissue.
Safety and efficacy of a single dose of anti-D (WinRho(R)) in severe thrombocytopenia secondary to dengue virus infection
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine : Peer-Reviewed, Official Publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine. 2017;21((2)):80-84.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of a single intravenous (IV) dose of anti-D in severe thrombocytopenia (<20,000) due to dengue virus (DEV) infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS An open label, investigator-initiated, randomized interventional study was conducted that included thirty dengue patients (all positive for IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) with severe thrombocytopenia (<20,000/mm3). Patients were randomized to receive anti-D (50 mug/kg single IV dose) plus supportive therapy or supportive therapy alone. RESULTS The rate of rise in platelet count was significantly high in the intervention group at 24, 36, and 48 h. At the end of 48 h, 60% patients in the intervention group achieved a platelet count of ≥50,000/mm3 as compared to 6.7% in the control group (P = 0.0019). The requirement of the platelet concentrate infusion in the control group was significantly higher, i.e. 342 ml (+/-193) as compared to the intervention group requiring only 187 ml (+/-79). The intervention group showed a significant improvement in bleeding manifestations in all the patients by 24 h in Grade 2 bleed (P = 0.032) and by 48 h in Grade 1 bleed (P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS Severe thrombocytopenia (≤20,000/mm3) secondary to DEV infection was rapidly and safely reversed by administration of a single dose of 50 mug/kg (250 IU/kg) anti-D IV.
Immune plasma for the treatment of severe influenza: an open-label, multicentre, phase 2 randomised study
The Lancet. Respiratory Medicine. 2017;5((6):):500-511. 500
BACKGROUND Influenza causes substantial morbidity and mortality despite available treatments. Anecdotal reports suggest that plasma with high antibody titres to influenza might be of benefit in the treatment of severe influenza. METHODS In this randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial, 29 academic medical centres in the USA assessed the safety and efficacy of anti-influenza plasma with haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres of 1:80 or more to the infecting strain. Hospitalised children and adults (including pregnant women) with severe influenza A or B (defined as the presence of hypoxia or tachypnoea) were randomly assigned to receive either two units (or paediatric equivalent) of anti-influenza plasma plus standard care, versus standard care alone, and were followed up for 28 days. The primary endpoint was time to normalisation of patients' respiratory status (respiratory rate of ≤20 breaths per min for adults or age-defined thresholds of 20-38 breaths per min for children) and a room air oxygen saturation of 93% or more. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01052480. FINDINGS Between Jan 13, 2011, and March 2, 2015, 113 participants were screened for eligibility and 98 were randomly assigned from 20 out of 29 participating sites. Of the participants with confirmed influenza (by PCR), 28 (67%) of 42 in the plasma plus standard care group normalised their respiratory status by day 28 compared with 24 (53%) of 45 participants on standard care alone (p=0.069). The hazard ratio (HR) comparing plasma plus standard care with standard care alone was 1.71 (95% CI 0.96-3.06). Six participants died, one (2%) from the plasma plus standard care group and five (10%) from the standard care group (HR 0.19 [95% CI 0.02-1.65], p=0.093). Participants in the plasma plus standard care group had non-significant reductions in days in hospital (median 6 days [IQR 4-16] vs 11 days [5-25], p=0.13) and days on mechanical ventilation (median 0 days [IQR 0-6] vs 3 days [0-14], p=0.14). Fewer plasma plus standard care participants had serious adverse events compared with standard care alone recipients (nine [20%] of 46 vs 20 [38%] of 52, p=0.041), the most frequent of which were acute respiratory distress syndrome (one [2%] vs two [4%] patients) and stroke (one [2%] vs two [4%] patients). INTERPRETATION Although there was no significant effect of plasma treatment on the primary endpoint, the treatment seemed safe and well tolerated. A phase 3 randomised trial is now underway to further assess this intervention. FUNDING National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, US National Institutes of Health.