A review of severe thrombocytopenia in Zika patients - Pathophysiology, treatment and outcome
Travel medicine and infectious disease. 2021;45:102231
BACKGROUND During the 2015 Zika virus infection (ZVI) epidemic swiping through the Americas, few cases of ZVI with severe, potentially life-threatening thrombocytopenia were reported. Platelet transfusion, corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) were in most cases applied as therapeutic options, predominantly with success. We present a comprehensive overview concerning the pathophysiology, treatment strategies and outcomes of patients with ZVI and severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count <50 × 10(9)/L). METHOD A literature search was performed. RESULTS Eleven case reports and case series with a total of 28 patients met the inclusion criteria; including five cases with lethal outcome. Therapeutic strategies, including platelet transfusion, administration of steroids and/or IVIG were described in 24 cases. CONCLUSIONS Severe thrombocytopenia is a rare, but potentially life-threatening complication of ZVI. The principal pathophysiological mechanism appears to immune-induced thrombocytopenia. Due to a paucity of cases, the optimal treatment strategy remains to be elucidated.
Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections: Benefit of Clindamycin, Intravenous Immunoglobulins and Secondary Prophylaxis
Frontiers in pediatrics. 2021;9:697938
Introduction: Mortality associated with invasive group A streptococcal infections (iGAS) remains high among adults, with lower mortality in children. The added value of both clindamycin and immunoglobulins in such treatment is still controversial, as is the need for antibiotic secondary prophylaxis. It is unlikely that conclusive randomized clinical studies will ever definitively end these controversies. Materials and Methods: A clinical and experimental literature review was conducted in Pubmed, Cochrane, and lay literature to determine the benefit of adding clindamycin and immunoglobulins to β-lactams in the management of iGAS, as well as the need for secondary prophylaxis measures in close contacts. Results: This review includes two meta-analyses, two randomized controlled trials, four prospective studies, five retrospective studies, and microbiological studies. To reduce mortality and morbidity, it appears useful to add clindamycin to β-lactams in severe clinical presentations, including necrotizing fasciitis or streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, and immunoglobulins for the latter two presentations. The high risk of secondary infection in household contacts justifies the need of taking preventive measures. Conclusions: Both clinical studies and available experimental evidence suggest that adding clindamycin and immunoglobulins as adjunctive therapies in the management of invasive group A streptococcal infections may reduce mortality. Household contacts should be warned about the increased risk of secondary infection, and chemoprophylaxis may be considered in certain situations.
Characteristics and therapy of enteroviral encephalitis: case report and systematic literature review
International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases. 2021
OBJECTIVES Enterovirus (EV) is a frequent cause of encephalitis. The optimal therapeutic approach remains a matter of debate. We present the case of an immunosuppressed patient with EV encephalitis successfully treated with IVIG and conduct a systematic review on the characteristics of EV encephalitis as well as the safety and efficacy of IVIG-therapy. METHODS We conducted a systematic review assessing PubMed, Cochrane Database, Biosis Previews and the ClinicalTrials.gov website to identify all reports on patients with EV encephalitis as of December 31, 2020. Main outcomes assessed were efficacy and safety of the respective therapeutic approach. RESULTS We included a total of 73 papers: one prospective trial, one retro- and prospective case series, one purely retrospective case series, and 70 case reports. The case reports cover a total of 101 patients. The immunosuppressed were at higher risk of contracting EV encephalitis and experiencing lethal courses. Hypogammaglobulinaemia particularly predisposes for EV disease, even with moderate reduction of serum IgG levels. IVIG therapy in the immunosuppressed may confer a survival advantage. CONCLUSIONS IVIG therapy is rarely associated with severe adverse events and may be considered in immunosuppressed patients with EV encephalitis. Future trials should investigate optimal IVIG dosing and route of application, the benefit of antibody-enriched IVIG preparations and the serum immunoglobulin level that should trigger prophylactic replacement.
Efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulins for the treatment of viral encephalitis: a systematic literature review
Journal of neurology. 2021
BACKGROUND For most viral encephalitides, therapy is merely supportive. Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) have been used as a prophylactic and therapeutic approach. We conduct a systematic review on the safety and efficacy of IVIG in viral encephalitis. METHODS We conducted a systematic review assessing PubMed, Cochrane Database, Biosis Previews and the ClinicalTrials.gov website to identify all reports on patients with viral encephalitis treated with IVIG as of May 31, 2019. The main outcomes assessed were therapeutic efficacy and safety. For an increased homogeneity of the population, atypical viral infections were excluded, as were reports on prophylactic IVIG use, intrathecal application of immunoglobulins, or use of antibody-enriched IVIG-preparations. Data were extracted from published studies. Descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS We included a total of 44 studies (39 case reports). The case reports cover a total of 53 patients. Our search retrieved two prospective and three retrospective studies. These show heterogeneous results as to the efficacy of IVIG therapy. Only one study reports a significant association between IVIG-use and death (odds ratio 0.032; 95% confidence interval 0.0033-0.3024; p = 0.0027). None of the studies report significant differences in the number of serious adverse events. CONCLUSION Data on the efficacy of IVIG-therapy is heterogeneous. While it seems generally safe, evident superiority compared to supportive treatment has not been demonstrated so far. Future trials should also investigate the optimal dosing and timing of IVIG and their benefit in the immunosuppressed.
Red Cell Exchange as Adjunctive Therapy for Babesiosis: Is it Really Effective?
Transfusion medicine reviews. 2021
Human babesiosis is a parasitic disease prevalent in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States (US). Treatment with antibiotics is the standard of care but red cell exchange (RCE) has been used as an adjunctive treatment in more severe disease. Data for the efficacy of RCE in the treatment of babesiosis has been based on case reports and case series. An English language literature search was conducted for cases of babesiosis treated with RCE since 1980 and relevant laboratory and clinical outcome data were extracted. Similar data were obtained on severe cases of babesiosis referred for RCE in our hospitals in the time period 2000 to 2020. Fifty reports including forty-one individual case reports and nine case series were retrieved. There were 108 patients that underwent RCE with an overall mortality rate of 20%. Some patients had more than one RCE. The patients varied in the level of anemia and evidence of compromise of renal or pulmonary function. The pre-RCE level of parasitemia varied between 1.7% to 85% with the vast majority >10%. The post-RCE level of parasitemia varied between 1% to 10%. Since 2000, 32 patients were referred for RCE in our hospitals and RCE was performed on 23 of 32. There were more patients treated with RCE in the second decade as compared to the first decade, 19 versus 4 respectively. The overall mortality was 22% similar to the national data. Comparing the cohort treated with RCE to the 9 patients who were treated only with antibiotics, there were similar levels of parasitemia and laboratory parameters. The overall number of days needed to achieve a parasite count <1% was similar between the two cohorts and mortality for the antibiotics only cohort was 0%. More than 40 years after the first reported case of RCE in severe babesiosis it cannot be concluded that this adjunctive therapy favorably influences the clinical outcome. Since there is largely equipoise, a registry of severe patients treated with or without RCE could identify a benefit or otherwise.
Convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin for people with COVID-19 : a living systematic review.
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.. 2020;10:CD013600
BACKGROUND Convalescent plasma and hyperimmune immunoglobulin may reduce mortality in patients with viral respiratory diseases, and are currently being investigated in trials as potential therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A thorough understanding of the current body of evidence regarding the benefits and risks is required. OBJECTIVES To continually assess, as more evidence becomes available, whether convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin transfusion is effective and safe in treatment of people with COVID-19. SEARCH METHODS We searched the World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 Global Research Database, MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Research Article Database and trial registries to identify completed and ongoing studies on 19 August 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA We followed standard Cochrane methodology. We included studies evaluating convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin for people with COVID-19, irrespective of study design, disease severity, age, gender or ethnicity. We excluded studies including populations with other coronavirus diseases (severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)) and studies evaluating standard immunoglobulin. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We followed standard Cochrane methodology. To assess bias in included studies, we used the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' 2.0 tool for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), the Risk of Bias in Non-randomised Studies - of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool for controlled non-randomised studies of interventions (NRSIs), and the assessment criteria for observational studies, provided by Cochrane Childhood Cancer for non-controlled NRSIs. We rated the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach for the following outcomes: all-cause mortality at hospital discharge, mortality (time to event), improvement of clinical symptoms (7, 15, and 30 days after transfusion), grade 3 and 4 adverse events (AEs), and serious adverse events (SAEs). MAIN RESULTS This is the second living update of our review. We included 19 studies (2 RCTs, 8 controlled NRSIs, 9 non-controlled NRSIs) with 38,160 participants, of whom 36,081 received convalescent plasma. Two completed RCTs are awaiting assessment (published after 19 August 2020). We identified a further 138 ongoing studies evaluating convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin, of which 73 are randomised (3 reported in a study registry as already being completed, but without results). We did not identify any completed studies evaluating hyperimmune immunoglobulin. We did not include data from controlled NRSIs in data synthesis because of critical risk of bias. The overall certainty of evidence was low to very low, due to study limitations and results including both potential benefits and harms. Effectiveness of convalescent plasma for people with COVID-19 We included results from two RCTs (both stopped early) with 189 participants, of whom 95 received convalescent plasma. Control groups received standard care at time of treatment without convalescent plasma. We are uncertain whether convalescent plasma decreases all-cause mortality at hospital discharge (risk ratio (RR) 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22 to 1.34; 1 RCT, 86 participants; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain whether convalescent plasma decreases mortality (time to event) (hazard ratio (HR) 0.64, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.25; 2 RCTs, 189 participants; low-certainty evidence). Convalescent plasma may result in little to no difference in improvement of clinical symptoms (i.e. need for respiratory support) at seven days (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.30 to 3.19; 1 RCT, 103 participants; low-certainty evidence). Convalescent plasma may increase improvement of clinical symptoms at up to 15 days (RR 1.34, 95% CI 0.85 to 2.11; 2 RCTs, 189 participants; low-certainty evidence), and at up to 30 days (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.43; 2 studies, 188 participants; low-certainty evidence). No studies repo ted on quality of life. Safety of convalescent plasma for people with COVID-19 We included results from two RCTs, eight controlled NRSIs and nine non-controlled NRSIs assessing safety of convalescent plasma. Reporting of safety data and duration of follow-up was variable. The controlled studies reported on AEs and SAEs only in participants receiving convalescent plasma. Some, but not all, studies included death as a SAE. The studies did not report the grade of AEs. Fourteen studies (566 participants) reported on AEs of possible grade 3 or 4 severity. The majority of these AEs were allergic or respiratory events. We are very uncertain whether convalescent plasma therapy affects the risk of moderate to severe AEs (very low-certainty evidence). 17 studies (35,944 participants) assessed SAEs for 20,622 of its participants. The majority of participants were from one non-controlled NRSI (20,000 participants), which reported on SAEs within the first four hours and within an additional seven days after transfusion. There were 63 deaths, 12 were possibly and one was probably related to transfusion. There were 146 SAEs within four hours and 1136 SAEs within seven days post-transfusion. These were predominantly allergic or respiratory, thrombotic or thromboembolic and cardiac events. We are uncertain whether convalescent plasma therapy results in a clinically relevant increased risk of SAEs (low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS We are uncertain whether convalescent plasma is beneficial for people admitted to hospital with COVID-19. There was limited information regarding grade 3 and 4 AEs to determine the effect of convalescent plasma therapy on clinically relevant SAEs. In the absence of a control group, we are unable to assess the relative safety of convalescent plasma therapy. While major efforts to conduct research on COVID-19 are being made, recruiting the anticipated number of participants into these studies is problematic. The early termination of the first two RCTs investigating convalescent plasma, and the lack of data from 20 studies that have completed or were due to complete at the time of this update illustrate these challenges. Well-designed studies should be prioritised. Moreover, studies should report outcomes in the same way, and should consider the importance of maintaining comparability in terms of co-interventions administered in all study arms. There are 138 ongoing studies evaluating convalescent plasma and hyperimmune immunoglobulin, of which 73 are RCTs (three already completed). This is the second living update of the review, and we will continue to update this review periodically. Future updates may show different results to those reported here.
Efficacy of convalescent plasma for the treatment of severe influenza
Crit Care. 2020;24(1):469
BACKGROUND Convalescent plasma administration may be of clinical benefit in patients with severe influenza, but reports on the efficacy of this therapy vary. METHODS We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis assessing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving the administration of convalescent plasma to treat severe influenza. Healthcare databases were searched in February 2020. All records were screened against eligibility criteria, and the risks of bias were assessed. The primary outcome was the fatality rate. RESULTS A total of 2861 studies were retrieved and screened. Five eligible RCTs were identified. Pooled analyses yielded no evidence that using convalescent plasma to treat severe influenza resulted in significant reductions in mortality (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.51-2·23; P = 0.87; I(2) = 35%), number of days in the intensive care unit, or number of days on mechanical ventilation. This treatment may have the possible benefits of increasing hemagglutination inhibition titers and reducing influenza B viral loads and cytokine levels. No serious adverse events were reported. The included studies were generally of high quality with a low risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS The administration of convalescent plasma appears safe but may not reduce the mortality, number of days in the intensive care unit, or number of days on mechanical ventilation in patients with severe influenza.
Patients hospitalized with severe influenza (5 studies, n= 598).
Convalescent plasma or hyperimmune intravenous immunoglobulin (H-IVIG).
Various comparators (normal intravenous immunoglobulin, standard care, low-titre anti-influenza, placebo).
Pooled analyses yielded no evidence that using convalescent plasma to treat severe influenza resulted in significant reductions in mortality, number of days in the intensive care unit, or number of days on mechanical ventilation.
Transfusion transmitted babesiosis: A systematic review of reported cases
Transfus Apher Sci. 2020;:102843
BACKGROUND Transfusion transmitted babesiosis (TTB) has a high mortality rate but may go unrecognized, particularly in non-endemic areas. We therefore conducted a systematic review to better characterize clinical aspects of TTB. METHODS A literature search was conducted in PubMed and CINAHL databases, from which 25 eligible articles describing 60 TTB patients met criteria for data extraction. RESULTS Symptom evaluation was provided for 25 implicated donors: 18/25 (72%) were asymptomatic while 7/25 (28%) had mild flu-like symptoms but were asymptomatic at time of donation. It was common for a single donor or donation to infect multiple patients. Where reported, species included B. microti - 54/60 (90%), B. duncani - 3/60 (5%), and B. divergens-like MO-1 - 1/60 (2%). Most TTB patients (44/60, 73%) resided in endemic states, while most TTB deaths 6/9 (67%) occurred in non-endemic states. Severity of hemolysis was proportional to degree of parasitemia. Mortality in our series was 9/60 (15%); most deaths occurred at extremes of the age spectrum: 6/9 non-survivors were aged >55 years, 2/9 were <1 year, only 1/9 was 2-54 years. Number of comorbidities was higher among non-survivors (median = 4) compared to survivors (median = 1). CONCLUSIONS All implicated donors (for which symptoms data were reported) resulting in TTB infections were asymptomatic at the time of donation, and it was common for a single donor or donation to infect multiple patients. Mortality of TTB appeared highest among those with more comorbidities and in non-endemic states. Heightened awareness of this diagnosis is key in its recognition.
Pharmacologic Treatments and Supportive Care for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome
Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(6)
Available animal and cell line models have suggested that specific therapeutics might be effective in treating Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). We conducted a systematic review of evidence for treatment with pharmacologic and supportive therapies. We developed a protocol and searched 5 databases for studies describing treatment of MERS and deaths in MERS patients. Risk of bias (RoB) was assessed by using ROBINS-I tool. We retrieved 3,660 unique citations; 20 observational studies met eligibility, and we studied 13 therapies. Most studies were at serious or critical RoB; no studies were at low RoB. One study, at moderate RoB, showed reduced mortality rates in severe MERS patients with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; no other studies showed a significant lifesaving benefit to any treatment. The existing literature on treatments for MERS is observational and at moderate to critical RoB. Clinical trials are needed to guide treatment decisions.
The Effectiveness of Different Doses of Intravenous Immunoglobulin on Severe Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: A Meta-Analysis
Medical principles and practice : international journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre. 2019
OBJECTIVE To conduct a meta-analysis of evidence from randomized controlled trails (RCTs) of different doses of Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) in children with severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) to provide the scientific basis for clinical practice. METHODS A search of PubMed-Medline, CNKI, Wanfang, and VIP database (until 30 June 2017) was performed and Software RevMan5.3 was used to evaluate the effect of different doses of IVIG on HFMD in RCTs, We used random effects models (or fixed effects models) and generic inverse variance methods to process quantitative data, followed by a leave-one-out method for sensitivity analysis. RESULTS From a total of 420 entries identified via searches, 8 RCTs involving 1450 patients were included in the final analysis. The results of the meta-analysis showed that compared with conventional therapy alone, conventional therapy combined with IVIG had shorter fever clearance time, shorter rash regression time and shorter clinical cure time. Subgroup analyses showed that the high-dose group (1g/kg per day) had shorter fever clearance time (p < 0.05), shorter rash regression (p < 0.05), shorter remission time of neurological symptoms (p < 0.05), but longer clinical cure time (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION The high-dose group has a better prognosis, however, the advantages and disadvantages should be carefully considered when deciding the doses in the treatment of severe HFMD.