Red Cell Exchange as Adjunctive Therapy for Babesiosis: Is it Really Effective?
Transfusion medicine reviews. 2021
Human babesiosis is a parasitic disease prevalent in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States (US). Treatment with antibiotics is the standard of care but red cell exchange (RCE) has been used as an adjunctive treatment in more severe disease. Data for the efficacy of RCE in the treatment of babesiosis has been based on case reports and case series. An English language literature search was conducted for cases of babesiosis treated with RCE since 1980 and relevant laboratory and clinical outcome data were extracted. Similar data were obtained on severe cases of babesiosis referred for RCE in our hospitals in the time period 2000 to 2020. Fifty reports including forty-one individual case reports and nine case series were retrieved. There were 108 patients that underwent RCE with an overall mortality rate of 20%. Some patients had more than one RCE. The patients varied in the level of anemia and evidence of compromise of renal or pulmonary function. The pre-RCE level of parasitemia varied between 1.7% to 85% with the vast majority >10%. The post-RCE level of parasitemia varied between 1% to 10%. Since 2000, 32 patients were referred for RCE in our hospitals and RCE was performed on 23 of 32. There were more patients treated with RCE in the second decade as compared to the first decade, 19 versus 4 respectively. The overall mortality was 22% similar to the national data. Comparing the cohort treated with RCE to the 9 patients who were treated only with antibiotics, there were similar levels of parasitemia and laboratory parameters. The overall number of days needed to achieve a parasite count <1% was similar between the two cohorts and mortality for the antibiotics only cohort was 0%. More than 40 years after the first reported case of RCE in severe babesiosis it cannot be concluded that this adjunctive therapy favorably influences the clinical outcome. Since there is largely equipoise, a registry of severe patients treated with or without RCE could identify a benefit or otherwise.
Convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin for people with COVID-19 : a living systematic review.
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.. 2020;10:CD013600
BACKGROUND Convalescent plasma and hyperimmune immunoglobulin may reduce mortality in patients with viral respiratory diseases, and are currently being investigated in trials as potential therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A thorough understanding of the current body of evidence regarding the benefits and risks is required. OBJECTIVES To continually assess, as more evidence becomes available, whether convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin transfusion is effective and safe in treatment of people with COVID-19. SEARCH METHODS We searched the World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 Global Research Database, MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Research Article Database and trial registries to identify completed and ongoing studies on 19 August 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA We followed standard Cochrane methodology. We included studies evaluating convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin for people with COVID-19, irrespective of study design, disease severity, age, gender or ethnicity. We excluded studies including populations with other coronavirus diseases (severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)) and studies evaluating standard immunoglobulin. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We followed standard Cochrane methodology. To assess bias in included studies, we used the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' 2.0 tool for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), the Risk of Bias in Non-randomised Studies - of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool for controlled non-randomised studies of interventions (NRSIs), and the assessment criteria for observational studies, provided by Cochrane Childhood Cancer for non-controlled NRSIs. We rated the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach for the following outcomes: all-cause mortality at hospital discharge, mortality (time to event), improvement of clinical symptoms (7, 15, and 30 days after transfusion), grade 3 and 4 adverse events (AEs), and serious adverse events (SAEs). MAIN RESULTS This is the second living update of our review. We included 19 studies (2 RCTs, 8 controlled NRSIs, 9 non-controlled NRSIs) with 38,160 participants, of whom 36,081 received convalescent plasma. Two completed RCTs are awaiting assessment (published after 19 August 2020). We identified a further 138 ongoing studies evaluating convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin, of which 73 are randomised (3 reported in a study registry as already being completed, but without results). We did not identify any completed studies evaluating hyperimmune immunoglobulin. We did not include data from controlled NRSIs in data synthesis because of critical risk of bias. The overall certainty of evidence was low to very low, due to study limitations and results including both potential benefits and harms. Effectiveness of convalescent plasma for people with COVID-19 We included results from two RCTs (both stopped early) with 189 participants, of whom 95 received convalescent plasma. Control groups received standard care at time of treatment without convalescent plasma. We are uncertain whether convalescent plasma decreases all-cause mortality at hospital discharge (risk ratio (RR) 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22 to 1.34; 1 RCT, 86 participants; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain whether convalescent plasma decreases mortality (time to event) (hazard ratio (HR) 0.64, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.25; 2 RCTs, 189 participants; low-certainty evidence). Convalescent plasma may result in little to no difference in improvement of clinical symptoms (i.e. need for respiratory support) at seven days (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.30 to 3.19; 1 RCT, 103 participants; low-certainty evidence). Convalescent plasma may increase improvement of clinical symptoms at up to 15 days (RR 1.34, 95% CI 0.85 to 2.11; 2 RCTs, 189 participants; low-certainty evidence), and at up to 30 days (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.43; 2 studies, 188 participants; low-certainty evidence). No studies repo ted on quality of life. Safety of convalescent plasma for people with COVID-19 We included results from two RCTs, eight controlled NRSIs and nine non-controlled NRSIs assessing safety of convalescent plasma. Reporting of safety data and duration of follow-up was variable. The controlled studies reported on AEs and SAEs only in participants receiving convalescent plasma. Some, but not all, studies included death as a SAE. The studies did not report the grade of AEs. Fourteen studies (566 participants) reported on AEs of possible grade 3 or 4 severity. The majority of these AEs were allergic or respiratory events. We are very uncertain whether convalescent plasma therapy affects the risk of moderate to severe AEs (very low-certainty evidence). 17 studies (35,944 participants) assessed SAEs for 20,622 of its participants. The majority of participants were from one non-controlled NRSI (20,000 participants), which reported on SAEs within the first four hours and within an additional seven days after transfusion. There were 63 deaths, 12 were possibly and one was probably related to transfusion. There were 146 SAEs within four hours and 1136 SAEs within seven days post-transfusion. These were predominantly allergic or respiratory, thrombotic or thromboembolic and cardiac events. We are uncertain whether convalescent plasma therapy results in a clinically relevant increased risk of SAEs (low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS We are uncertain whether convalescent plasma is beneficial for people admitted to hospital with COVID-19. There was limited information regarding grade 3 and 4 AEs to determine the effect of convalescent plasma therapy on clinically relevant SAEs. In the absence of a control group, we are unable to assess the relative safety of convalescent plasma therapy. While major efforts to conduct research on COVID-19 are being made, recruiting the anticipated number of participants into these studies is problematic. The early termination of the first two RCTs investigating convalescent plasma, and the lack of data from 20 studies that have completed or were due to complete at the time of this update illustrate these challenges. Well-designed studies should be prioritised. Moreover, studies should report outcomes in the same way, and should consider the importance of maintaining comparability in terms of co-interventions administered in all study arms. There are 138 ongoing studies evaluating convalescent plasma and hyperimmune immunoglobulin, of which 73 are RCTs (three already completed). This is the second living update of the review, and we will continue to update this review periodically. Future updates may show different results to those reported here.
Efficacy of convalescent plasma for the treatment of severe influenza
Crit Care. 2020;24(1):469
BACKGROUND Convalescent plasma administration may be of clinical benefit in patients with severe influenza, but reports on the efficacy of this therapy vary. METHODS We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis assessing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving the administration of convalescent plasma to treat severe influenza. Healthcare databases were searched in February 2020. All records were screened against eligibility criteria, and the risks of bias were assessed. The primary outcome was the fatality rate. RESULTS A total of 2861 studies were retrieved and screened. Five eligible RCTs were identified. Pooled analyses yielded no evidence that using convalescent plasma to treat severe influenza resulted in significant reductions in mortality (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.51-2·23; P = 0.87; I(2) = 35%), number of days in the intensive care unit, or number of days on mechanical ventilation. This treatment may have the possible benefits of increasing hemagglutination inhibition titers and reducing influenza B viral loads and cytokine levels. No serious adverse events were reported. The included studies were generally of high quality with a low risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS The administration of convalescent plasma appears safe but may not reduce the mortality, number of days in the intensive care unit, or number of days on mechanical ventilation in patients with severe influenza.
Patients hospitalized with severe influenza (5 studies, n= 598).
Convalescent plasma or hyperimmune intravenous immunoglobulin (H-IVIG).
Various comparators (normal intravenous immunoglobulin, standard care, low-titre anti-influenza, placebo).
Pooled analyses yielded no evidence that using convalescent plasma to treat severe influenza resulted in significant reductions in mortality, number of days in the intensive care unit, or number of days on mechanical ventilation.
Effectiveness and safety of autologous platelet-rich plasma therapy with total contact casting versus total contact casting alone in treatment of trophic ulcer in leprosy: An observer-blind, randomized controlled trial
Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology. 2020
Background: Trophic ulcers secondary to leprosy pose a great stigma to patients and remain a challenge to the treating dermatologists. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) introduces growth factors directly into the wound and aids in rapid healing. The role of PRP in the treatment of trophic ulcers in leprosy patients has not yet been established by randomized controlled trials. Aims: To study the effectiveness and safety of autologous PRP therapy with total contact casting versus total contact casting alone in the treatment of trophic ulcers in leprosy. Methods: In an observer-blind, randomized (1:1) controlled study, 118 patients were enrolled. PRP was prepared by the manual double-spin method (1600 rpm for 10 min followed by 4000 rpm for 10 min). After wound bed preparation, activated PRP was injected intra- and perilesionally, and platelet-poor plasma gel was applied over the ulcer bed. Occlusive dressings and total contact casting were then applied in Group A, and only total contact casting was applied in Group B. The same procedure was repeated every 2 weeks for 8 weeks. Results: In all, 56 patients were analyzable in Group A and 52 in Group B. The surface area of the ulcer decreased significantly from first follow-up onward in both the groups (P < 0.001 in both the groups). Intergroup comparison showed that the reduction in the surface area of the ulcer was significantly more in Group A than in Group B from the first follow-up onward (P = 0.038) and the difference was maintained till the fifth follow-up (P < 0.001). At the end of the study, 91.10 +/- 9.65% ulcer surface area reduction had occurred in Group A, whereas it was 79.77 +/- 17.91% in Group B (P < 0.001). Trophic ulcers healed completely more often in paucibacillary leprosy patients (P < 0.001) and in those with a lower initial surface area of the ulcer (P < 0.001). Limitation: Short duration of treatment (8 weeks). Conclusion: PRP combined with total contact casting accelerates the healing of trophic ulcers of leprosy and is more effective than total contact casting alone. Complete remission is more likely to occur when the duration and surface area of ulcer are less and in the paucibacillary spectrum.
Anti-influenza immune plasma for the treatment of patients with severe influenza A: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial
The Lancet. Respiratory medicine. 2019
BACKGROUND Infection with influenza virus causes substantial morbidity and mortality globally, although antiviral treatments are available. Previous studies have suggested that anti-influenza immune plasma could be beneficial as treatment, but they were not designed as randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled trials. Therefore, we aimed to prospectively evaluate the clinical efficacy of high-titre immune plasma compared with standard low-titre plasma to improve outcomes in patients with severe influenza A infection. METHODS We did this randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial at 41 US medical centres to assess the efficacy of high-titre anti-influenza plasma (haemagglutination inhibition antibody titre ≥1:80) compared with low-titre plasma (≤1:10). Children and adults with PCR-confirmed influenza A infection, a National Early Warning score of 3 or greater, and onset of illness within 6 days before randomisation were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) using an interactive web response system to receive either two units (or paediatric equivalent) of high-titre plasma (high-titre group) or low-titre plasma (low-titre group), and were followed up for 28 days from randomisation. High-titre and low-titre plasma had the same appearance. Randomisation was stratified by severity (in intensive care unit, not in intensive care but requiring supplemental oxygen, or not in intensive care and not requiring supplemental oxygen) and age (<18 years and ≥18 years). All participants, site staff, and the study team were masked to treatment allocation until after the final database lock. The primary endpoint was clinical status assessed by a six-point ordinal scale on day 7 (death, in intensive care, hospitalised but requiring supplemental oxygen, hospitalised not requiring supplemental oxygen, discharged but unable to resume normal activities, and discharged with full resumption of normal activities) analysed in a proportional odds model (an odds ratio [OR] >1 indicates improvement in clinical status across all categories for the high-titre vs the low-titre group). The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population, excluding two participants who did not receive plasma. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02572817. FINDINGS Participants were recruited between Jan 26, 2016, and April 19, 2018. Of 200 participants enrolled (177 adults and 23 children), 140 met the criteria for randomisation and were assigned to the high-titre group (n=92) or to the control low-titre group (n=48). One participant from each group did not receive plasma. At baseline, 60 (43%) of 138 participants were in intensive care and 55 (71%) of 78 participants who were not in intensive care required oxygen. 93% of planned plasma infusions were completed. The study was terminated in July, 2018, when independent efficacy analysis showed low conditional power to detect an effect of high-titre plasma even if full accrual (150 participants) was achieved. The proportional OR for improved clinical status on day 7 was 1.22 (95% CI 0.65-2.29, p=0.54). 47 (34%) of 138 participants experienced 88 serious adverse events: 32 (35%) with 60 events in the high-titre group and 15 (32%) with 28 events in the low-titre group. The most common serious adverse events were acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; four [4%] vs two [4%]), allergic transfusion reactions (two [2%] vs two [4%]), and respiratory distress (three [3%] vs none). 65 (47%) participants experienced 183 adverse events: 42 (46%) with 126 events in the high-titre group and 23 (49%) with 57 events in the low-titre group. The most common adverse events were anaemia (four [3%] vs two [4%]) and ARDS (four [3%] vs three [5%]). Ten patients died during the study (six [7%] in the high-titre group vs four [9%] in the low-titre group, p=0.73). The most common cause of death was worsening of acute respiratory distress syndrome (two [2%] vs two [4%] patients). INTERPRETATION High-titre anti-influenza plasma conferred no significant benefit over non-immune plasma. Although our study did not have the precision to rule out a small, clinically relevant effect, the benefit is insufficient to justify the use of immune plasma for treating patients with severe influenza A. FUNDING National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, MD, USA).
WBC alloimmunization: effects on the laboratory and clinical endpoints of therapeutic granulocyte transfusions
BACKGROUND Although the subject of many previous studies, the importance of white blood cell (WBC) alloimmunization in granulocyte transfusion therapy has not been settled. In this study, we report the results of the effects of WBC antibodies in the RING (Resolving Infection in Neutropenia with Granulocytes) study, a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of daily granulocyte transfusion therapy plus antimicrobials versus antimicrobials alone; the primary outcome results have been published previously. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS One hundred fourteen subjects were enrolled in the study. Serum samples for WBC antibody determination were obtained from each subject at baseline and at 2 and 6 weeks. One hundred subjects had at least one antibody test result. Samples were tested for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Class I and Class II antibodies as well as for granulocyte-specific antibodies using granulocyte agglutination and immunofluorescence techniques. All testing was performed at a central laboratory. RESULTS Baseline WBC alloimmunization was modest, depending somewhat on the assay. Seroconversion during the study was slightly higher in the granulocyte transfusion arm, but the differences were not statistically significant. There was no demonstrable effect of the presence of alloimmunization on the primary outcome (survival and microbial response at 42 days), the occurrence of transfusion reactions (either overall or pulmonary), or posttransfusion neutrophil increments. CONCLUSION The presence or development of WBC antibodies had no demonstrable effect on any clinical aspect of granulocyte transfusion therapy. It appears that, at least in the patient population studied, there is no evidence suggesting need for concern about recipient WBC alloimmunization when prescribing granulocyte transfusions.
Prophylactic platelet transfusion plus supportive care versus supportive care alone in adults with dengue and thrombocytopenia: a multicentre, open-label, randomised, superiority trial
Lancet (London, England). 2017;389((10079):):1611-1618. 1611
BACKGROUND Dengue is the commonest vector-borne infection worldwide. It is often associated with thrombocytopenia, and prophylactic platelet transfusion is widely used despite the dearth of robust evidence. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of prophylactic platelet transfusion in the prevention of bleeding in adults with dengue and thrombocytopenia. METHODS We did an open-label, randomised, superiority trial in five hospitals in Singapore and Malaysia. We recruited patients aged at least 21 years who had laboratory-confirmed dengue (confirmed or probable) and thrombocytopenia (≤20 000 platelets per muL), without persistent mild bleeding or any severe bleeding. Patients were assigned (1:1), with randomly permuted block sizes of four or six and stratified by centre, to receive prophylactic platelet transfusion in addition to supportive care (transfusion group) or supportive care alone (control group). In the transfusion group, 4 units of pooled platelets were given each day when platelet count was 20 000 per muL or lower; supportive care consisted of bed rest, fluid therapy, and fever and pain medications. The primary endpoint was clinical bleeding (excluding petechiae) by study day 7 or hospital discharge (whichever was earlier), analysed by intention to treat. Safety outcomes were analysed according to the actual treatment received. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01030211, and is completed. FINDINGS Between April 29, 2010, and Dec 9, 2014, we randomly assigned 372 patients to the transfusion group (n=188) or the control group (n=184). The intention-to-treat analysis included 187 patients in the transfusion group (one patient was withdrawn immediately) and 182 in the control group (one was withdrawn immediately and one did not have confirmed or probable dengue). Clinical bleeding by day 7 or hospital discharge occurred in 40 (21%) patients in the transfusion group and 48 (26%) patients in the control group (risk difference -4.98% [95% CI -15.08 to 5.34]; relative risk 0.81 [95% CI 0.56 to 1.17]; p=0.16). 13 adverse events occurred in the transfusion group and two occurred in the control group (5.81% [-4.42 to 16.01]; 6.26 [1.43 to 27.34]; p=0.0064). Adverse events that were possibly, probably, or definitely related to transfusion included three cases of urticaria, one maculopapular rash, one pruritus, and one chest pain, as well as one case each of anaphylaxis, transfusion-related acute lung injury, and fluid overload that resulted in serious adverse events. No death was reported. INTERPRETATION In adult patients with dengue and thrombocytopenia, prophylactic platelet transfusion was not superior to supportive care in preventing bleeding, and might be associated with adverse events. FUNDING National Medical Research Council, Singapore.
Dengue haemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome in children
Clinical Evidence. 2015;4:917.
INTRODUCTION Dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome are major causes of hospital admission and mortality in children. METHODS AND OUTCOMES We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of supportive treatments for dengue haemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome in children? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). RESULTS We found nine studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. CONCLUSIONS In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: adding blood component transfusion to standard intravenous fluids; adding corticosteroids or intravenous immunoglobulin to standard intravenous fluids; and crystalloids versus colloids.
The effectiveness of convalescent plasma and hyperimmune immunoglobulin for the treatment of severe acute respiratory infections of viral etiology: a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis
Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2015;211((1):):80-90.
BACKGROUND Administration of convalescent plasma, serum, or hyperimmune immunoglobulin may be of clinical benefit for treatment of severe acute respiratory infections (SARIs) of viral etiology. We conducted a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis to assess the overall evidence. METHODS Healthcare databases and sources of grey literature were searched in July 2013. All records were screened against the protocol eligibility criteria, using a 3-stage process. Data extraction and risk of bias assessments were undertaken. RESULTS We identified 32 studies of SARS coronavirus infection and severe influenza. Narrative analyses revealed consistent evidence for a reduction in mortality, especially when convalescent plasma is administered early after symptom onset. Exploratory post hoc meta-analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in the pooled odds of mortality following treatment, compared with placebo or no therapy (odds ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval, .14-.45; I(2) = 0%). Studies were commonly of low or very low quality, lacked control groups, and at moderate or high risk of bias. Sources of clinical and methodological heterogeneity were identified. CONCLUSIONS Convalescent plasma may reduce mortality and appears safe. This therapy should be studied within the context of a well-designed clinical trial or other formal evaluation, including for treatment of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus CoV infection. The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
The effect of blood storage age on treatment of lactic acidosis by transfusion in children with severe malarial anaemia: a pilot, randomized, controlled trial
Malaria Journal. 2013;12:55
BACKGROUND Severe malarial anaemia requiring blood transfusion is a life-threatening condition affecting millions of children in sub-Saharan Africa. Up to 40% of children with severe malarial anaemia have associated lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis in these children is strongly associated with fatal outcomes and is corrected by blood transfusion. However, it is not known whether the storage age of blood for transfusion affects resolution of lactic acidosis. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of blood storage age on resolution of lactic acidosis in children with severe malarial anaemia and demonstrate feasibility of conducting a large trial. METHODS Children aged six to 59 months admitted to Acute Care Unit of Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda) with severe malarial anaemia (haemoglobin<=5g/dL) and lactic acidosis (blood lactate >=5mmol/L), were randomly assigned to receive either blood of short storage age (one to 10 days) or long storage age (21-35days) by gravity infusion. Seventy-four patients were enrolled and randomized to two equal-sized study arms. Physiological measurements, including blood lactate, oxygen saturation, haemoglobin, and vital signs, were taken at baseline, during and after transfusion. The primary outcome variable was the proportion of children whose lactic acidosis resolved by four hours after transfusion. RESULTS Thirty-four of 37 (92%) of the children in the short storage treatment arm compared to 30/37 (81%) in the long storage arm achieved a blood lactate <5mmol/L by four hours post transfusion (p value=0.308). The mean time to lactic acidosis resolution was 2.65hours (95% CI; 2.25-3.05) in the short storage arm, compared to 3.35hours (95% CI; 2.60-4.10) in the long storage arm (p value=0.264). CONCLUSION Pilot data suggest that among children with severe malarial anaemia and lactic acidosis transfused with packed red blood cells, the storage age of blood does not affect resolution of lactic acidosis. The results support a larger and well-powered study which is under way. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov NCT01580111.