Clinical Efficacy of Early Administration of Human Immunoglobulin on Children with Severe Hand-foot-mouth Disease
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP. 2023;33(2):234-236
The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical effect of early administration of human immunoglobulin in children with severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and its influence on serum c-reactive protein (CRP), creatine kinase (CK), and creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB). One hundred and forty children with severe HFMD were randomly divided into Group A (n=70) and Group B (n=70) according to the random number table method. Group A was treated with routine treatment. Group B was treated with routine treatment, and an early intravenous injection of human immunoglobulin. Serum CRP, CK, and CK-MB in Group B were lower than those in Group A after treatment (all p <0.001). The total clinical effective rate of Group B was 92.9%, which was higher than that of Group A (80.0%, p=0.026). Early administration of human immunoglobulin may reduce the levels of serum markers CRP, CK, and CK-MB in children with severe HFMD. Key Words: Human immunoglobulin, Children, HFMD (Hand, foot and mouth disease).
Children with severe hand, foot and mouth disease (n= 140).
Routine treatment + early intravenous injection of human immunoglobulin (n= 70).
Routine treatment (n= 70).
Serum c-reactive protein, creatine kinase, and creatine kinase isoenzyme in children who received routine treatment were lower than those who received the routine treatment + human immunoglobulin after treatment. The total clinical effective rate of routine treatment + human immunoglobulin was 92.9%, which was higher than that of routine treatment (80.0%).
Gamma globulin combined with acyclovir for children with infectious mononucleosis and their effect on immune function
American journal of translational research. 2023;15(6):4399-4407
BACKGROUND Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is characterized by pharyngitis, cervical lymphadenopathy, fatigue and fever. IM is most commonly seen in primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, with higher occurrence in children. OBJECTIVE To explore the value of gamma globulin combined with acyclovir for IM children and their impact on immune function. METHODS This prospective randomized controlled study recruited 111 children under 14 years old with IM from Anhui Provincial Children's Hospital during March 2019 and March 2022. Among them, 11 children dropped out, and 100 eligible children were randomized 1:1 into a control group and a study group. The control group received acyclovir, and the study group received additional gamma globulin. The baseline data, clinical efficacy, immune function, and adverse reactions were collected and compared. RESULTS The study group had a shorter antipyretic time, lymph node reduction time, pharyngitis improvement time, and hospital stay compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The study group yielded lower levels of total white blood cell count, alanine aminotransferase, and creatine kinase-MB than the control group (P < 0.05). After treatment, the levels of CD3+ and CD8+ were lower, and the levels of CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, IgA, and IgG were higher in the study group than those in the control group (all P < 0.05). The incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups was comparable (14.00% vs. 24.00%). The positive rates of EBV-specific antibody and nuclear antigen in the study group were lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION The combined treatment of gamma globulin and acyclovir is a promising alternative for patients with IM compared to acyclovir alone. This combined regimen shortens the duration of clinical manifestations in children, promotes the recovery of laboratory indices, improves clinical efficacy, and enhances immune function. Furthermore, its safety profile is acceptable, warranting its further promotion.
Efficacy of Gamma Globulin Combined with Azithromycin Sequential Therapy in the Treatment of RMPP and Its Effect on Th1/Th2 Cytokine Levels
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine. 2022;2022:5162768
OBJECTIVE To investigate the efficacy of gamma globulin combined with azithromycin sequential therapy in the treatment of children with refractory mycoplasma pneumonia and its effect on Th1/Th2 cytokine levels. METHOD From January 2021 to January 2022, 100 children diagnosed with refractory mycoplasma pneumonia were randomly divided into 2 groups (50 cases in each one), the control group was treated with azithromycin plus comprehensive basic treatment, and the treatment group was treated with combined treatment on the basis of the control group, gamma globulin therapy; the treatment effect and cytokine levels of the two groups were compared. RESULTS Th1, Th2, and Th1/Th2 before treatment were not significantly different between the two groups. Th1, Th2, and Th1/Th2 in the treatment group were significantly downregulated compared with those in the control group after treatment. The levels of IgG, IgA, and IgM in the treatment group were not significantly different from those in the control group before treatment but were significantly upregulated after treatment. IL-10, IL-6, and IL-2 levels were also significantly increased in the treatment group. The disappearance time of clinical symptoms such as fever, cough, and pulmonary rales in the treatment group was significantly shorter than that in the control group, and the cure rate in the treatment group was significantly better than that in the control group. CONCLUSION The clinical effect of gamma globulin combined with azithromycin sequential therapy in the treatment of children with refractory mycoplasma pneumonia is remarkable, which can reduce inflammatory factors, improve patients' immunity, and promote disease recovery.
Efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulins for the treatment of viral encephalitis: a systematic literature review
Journal of neurology. 2021
BACKGROUND For most viral encephalitides, therapy is merely supportive. Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) have been used as a prophylactic and therapeutic approach. We conduct a systematic review on the safety and efficacy of IVIG in viral encephalitis. METHODS We conducted a systematic review assessing PubMed, Cochrane Database, Biosis Previews and the ClinicalTrials.gov website to identify all reports on patients with viral encephalitis treated with IVIG as of May 31, 2019. The main outcomes assessed were therapeutic efficacy and safety. For an increased homogeneity of the population, atypical viral infections were excluded, as were reports on prophylactic IVIG use, intrathecal application of immunoglobulins, or use of antibody-enriched IVIG-preparations. Data were extracted from published studies. Descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS We included a total of 44 studies (39 case reports). The case reports cover a total of 53 patients. Our search retrieved two prospective and three retrospective studies. These show heterogeneous results as to the efficacy of IVIG therapy. Only one study reports a significant association between IVIG-use and death (odds ratio 0.032; 95% confidence interval 0.0033-0.3024; p = 0.0027). None of the studies report significant differences in the number of serious adverse events. CONCLUSION Data on the efficacy of IVIG-therapy is heterogeneous. While it seems generally safe, evident superiority compared to supportive treatment has not been demonstrated so far. Future trials should also investigate the optimal dosing and timing of IVIG and their benefit in the immunosuppressed.
Characteristics and therapy of enteroviral encephalitis: case report and systematic literature review
International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases. 2021
OBJECTIVES Enterovirus (EV) is a frequent cause of encephalitis. The optimal therapeutic approach remains a matter of debate. We present the case of an immunosuppressed patient with EV encephalitis successfully treated with IVIG and conduct a systematic review on the characteristics of EV encephalitis as well as the safety and efficacy of IVIG-therapy. METHODS We conducted a systematic review assessing PubMed, Cochrane Database, Biosis Previews and the ClinicalTrials.gov website to identify all reports on patients with EV encephalitis as of December 31, 2020. Main outcomes assessed were efficacy and safety of the respective therapeutic approach. RESULTS We included a total of 73 papers: one prospective trial, one retro- and prospective case series, one purely retrospective case series, and 70 case reports. The case reports cover a total of 101 patients. The immunosuppressed were at higher risk of contracting EV encephalitis and experiencing lethal courses. Hypogammaglobulinaemia particularly predisposes for EV disease, even with moderate reduction of serum IgG levels. IVIG therapy in the immunosuppressed may confer a survival advantage. CONCLUSIONS IVIG therapy is rarely associated with severe adverse events and may be considered in immunosuppressed patients with EV encephalitis. Future trials should investigate optimal IVIG dosing and route of application, the benefit of antibody-enriched IVIG preparations and the serum immunoglobulin level that should trigger prophylactic replacement.
Clinical Features and Therapeutic Effects of Anti-leucine-rich Glioma Inactivated 1 Encephalitis: A Systematic Review
Frontiers in neurology. 2021;12:791014
Background: Clinical presentations and treatment programs about anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) encephalitis still remain incompletely understood. Objective: This study analyzed the clinical features and therapeutic effects of anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify published English and Chinese articles until April 2021. Data were extracted, analyzed, and recorded in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Results: A total of 80 publications detailing 485 subjects matched our inclusion criteria. Short-term memory loss (75.22%), faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS) (52.53%), other seizures excluding FBDS (68.48%), psychiatric symptoms (57.67%), and sleep disturbances (34.30%) were the most frequently described symptoms in anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Hyponatremia (54.90%) was the most common hematologic examination change. The risk of incidence rate of malignant tumors was higher than in healthy people. The positive rate of anti-LGI1 in serum (99.79%) was higher than CSF (77.38%). Steroids (93.02%), IVIG (87.50%), and combined use (96.67%) all had a high remission rate in the initial visit. A total of 35 of 215 cases relapsed, of which 6/35 (17.14%) did not use first-line treatment, and 21 (60.00%) did not maintain long-term treatment. Plasma exchange (PE) could be combined in severe patients, immunosuppressant could be used for refractory patients or for recurrence and using an anti-epileptic drug to control seizures may benefit cognition. Conclusions: Short-term memory loss, FBDS, psychiatric symptoms, and hyponatremia were key features in identifying anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Serum and CSF antibody tests should be considered in diagnosis criteria. Steroids with IVIG should be recommended, PE was combined for use in severe patients, immunosuppressant therapy might improve outcomes if recurrence or progression occurred, and control seizures might benefit cognition. The useful ways to reduce relapse rate were early identification, clear diagnosis, rapid treatment, and maintaining long-term treatment. The follow-up advice was suggested according to the research of paraneoplastic syndrome, and concern about tumors was vital as well.
A Trial of Hyperimmune Globulin to Prevent Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection
The New England journal of medicine. 2021;385(5):436-444
BACKGROUND Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy carries a risk of congenital infection and possible severe sequelae. There is no established intervention for preventing congenital CMV infection. METHODS In this multicenter, double-blind trial, pregnant women with primary CMV infection diagnosed before 24 weeks' gestation were randomly assigned to receive a monthly infusion of CMV hyperimmune globulin (at a dose of 100 mg per kilogram of body weight) or matching placebo until delivery. The primary outcome was a composite of congenital CMV infection or fetal or neonatal death if CMV testing of the fetus or neonate was not performed. RESULTS From 2012 to 2018, a total of 206,082 pregnant women were screened for primary CMV infection before 23 weeks of gestation; of the 712 participants (0.35%) who tested positive, 399 (56%) underwent randomization. The trial was stopped early for futility. Data on the primary outcome were available for 394 participants; a primary outcome event occurred in the fetus or neonate of 46 of 203 women (22.7%) in the group that received hyperimmune globulin and of 37 of 191 women (19.4%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80 to 1.72; P = 0.42). Death occurred in 4.9% of fetuses or neonates in the hyperimmune globulin group and in 2.6% in the placebo group (relative risk, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.66 to 5.41), preterm birth occurred in 12.2% and 8.3%, respectively (relative risk, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.81 to 2.67), and birth weight below the 5th percentile occurred in 10.3% and 5.4% (relative risk, 1.92; 95% CI, 0.92 to 3.99). One participant in the hyperimmune globulin group had a severe allergic reaction to the first infusion. Participants who received hyperimmune globulin had a higher incidence of headaches and shaking chills while receiving infusions than participants who received placebo. CONCLUSIONS Among pregnant women, administration of CMV hyperimmune globulin starting before 24 weeks' gestation did not result in a lower incidence of a composite of congenital CMV infection or perinatal death than placebo. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01376778.).
A review of severe thrombocytopenia in Zika patients - Pathophysiology, treatment and outcome
Travel medicine and infectious disease. 2021;45:102231
BACKGROUND During the 2015 Zika virus infection (ZVI) epidemic swiping through the Americas, few cases of ZVI with severe, potentially life-threatening thrombocytopenia were reported. Platelet transfusion, corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) were in most cases applied as therapeutic options, predominantly with success. We present a comprehensive overview concerning the pathophysiology, treatment strategies and outcomes of patients with ZVI and severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count <50 × 10(9)/L). METHOD A literature search was performed. RESULTS Eleven case reports and case series with a total of 28 patients met the inclusion criteria; including five cases with lethal outcome. Therapeutic strategies, including platelet transfusion, administration of steroids and/or IVIG were described in 24 cases. CONCLUSIONS Severe thrombocytopenia is a rare, but potentially life-threatening complication of ZVI. The principal pathophysiological mechanism appears to immune-induced thrombocytopenia. Due to a paucity of cases, the optimal treatment strategy remains to be elucidated.
Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections: Benefit of Clindamycin, Intravenous Immunoglobulins and Secondary Prophylaxis
Frontiers in pediatrics. 2021;9:697938
Introduction: Mortality associated with invasive group A streptococcal infections (iGAS) remains high among adults, with lower mortality in children. The added value of both clindamycin and immunoglobulins in such treatment is still controversial, as is the need for antibiotic secondary prophylaxis. It is unlikely that conclusive randomized clinical studies will ever definitively end these controversies. Materials and Methods: A clinical and experimental literature review was conducted in Pubmed, Cochrane, and lay literature to determine the benefit of adding clindamycin and immunoglobulins to β-lactams in the management of iGAS, as well as the need for secondary prophylaxis measures in close contacts. Results: This review includes two meta-analyses, two randomized controlled trials, four prospective studies, five retrospective studies, and microbiological studies. To reduce mortality and morbidity, it appears useful to add clindamycin to β-lactams in severe clinical presentations, including necrotizing fasciitis or streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, and immunoglobulins for the latter two presentations. The high risk of secondary infection in household contacts justifies the need of taking preventive measures. Conclusions: Both clinical studies and available experimental evidence suggest that adding clindamycin and immunoglobulins as adjunctive therapies in the management of invasive group A streptococcal infections may reduce mortality. Household contacts should be warned about the increased risk of secondary infection, and chemoprophylaxis may be considered in certain situations.
Pharmacologic Treatments and Supportive Care for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome
Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26(6)
Available animal and cell line models have suggested that specific therapeutics might be effective in treating Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). We conducted a systematic review of evidence for treatment with pharmacologic and supportive therapies. We developed a protocol and searched 5 databases for studies describing treatment of MERS and deaths in MERS patients. Risk of bias (RoB) was assessed by using ROBINS-I tool. We retrieved 3,660 unique citations; 20 observational studies met eligibility, and we studied 13 therapies. Most studies were at serious or critical RoB; no studies were at low RoB. One study, at moderate RoB, showed reduced mortality rates in severe MERS patients with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; no other studies showed a significant lifesaving benefit to any treatment. The existing literature on treatments for MERS is observational and at moderate to critical RoB. Clinical trials are needed to guide treatment decisions.