Clinical Efficacy of Early Administration of Human Immunoglobulin on Children with Severe Hand-foot-mouth Disease
Wu H, Li L
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP. 2023;33(2):234-236
The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical effect of early administration of human immunoglobulin in children with severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and its influence on serum c-reactive protein (CRP), creatine kinase (CK), and creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB). One hundred and forty children with severe HFMD were randomly divided into Group A (n=70) and Group B (n=70) according to the random number table method. Group A was treated with routine treatment. Group B was treated with routine treatment, and an early intravenous injection of human immunoglobulin. Serum CRP, CK, and CK-MB in Group B were lower than those in Group A after treatment (all p <0.001). The total clinical effective rate of Group B was 92.9%, which was higher than that of Group A (80.0%, p=0.026). Early administration of human immunoglobulin may reduce the levels of serum markers CRP, CK, and CK-MB in children with severe HFMD. Key Words: Human immunoglobulin, Children, HFMD (Hand, foot and mouth disease).
Children with severe hand, foot and mouth disease (n= 140).
Routine treatment + early intravenous injection of human immunoglobulin (n= 70).
Routine treatment (n= 70).
Serum c-reactive protein, creatine kinase, and creatine kinase isoenzyme in children who received routine treatment were lower than those who received the routine treatment + human immunoglobulin after treatment. The total clinical effective rate of routine treatment + human immunoglobulin was 92.9%, which was higher than that of routine treatment (80.0%).
Effect of oseltamivir phosphate versus placebo on platelet recovery and plasma leakage in adults with dengue and thrombocytopenia; a phase 2, multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial
Tunjungputri RN, Riswari SF, Pramudo SG, Kuntjoro L, Alisjahbana B, Nugraha HG, van der Ven A, Gasem MH, de Mast Q
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2022;16(1):e0010051
BACKGROUND Thrombocytopenia, bleeding and plasma leakage are major complications of dengue. Activation of endogenous sialidases with desialylation of platelets and endothelial cells may underlie these complications. We aimed to assess the effects of the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir on platelet recovery and plasma leakage in dengue. METHODS We performed a phase 2, double-blind, multicenter, randomized trial in adult dengue patients with thrombocytopenia (<70,000/μl) and a duration of illness ≤ 6 days. Oseltamivir phosphate 75mg BID or placebo were given for a maximum of five days. Primary outcomes were the time to platelet recovery (≥ 100,000/μl) or discharge from hospital and the course of measures of plasma leakage. RESULTS A total of 70 patients were enrolled; the primary outcome could be assessed in 64 patients (31 oseltamivir; 33 placebo). Time to platelet count ≥100,000/μl (n = 55) or discharge (n = 9) were similar in the oseltamivir and placebo group (3.0 days [95% confidence interval, 2.7 to 3.3] vs. 2.9 days [2.5 to 3.3], P = 0.055). The kinetics of platelet count and parameters of plasma leakage (gall bladder thickness, hematocrit, plasma albumin, syndecan-1) were also similar between the groups. DISCUSSION In this trial, adjunctive therapy with oseltamivir phosphate had no effect on platelet recovery or plasma leakage parameters. TRIAL REGISTRATION ISRCTN35227717.
Erythropoietin in children with hemolytic uremic syndrome: a pilot randomized controlled trial
Balestracci A, Capone MA, Meni Battaglia L, Toledo I, Martin SM, Beaudoin L, Balbaryski J, Gómez L
Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany). 2022
BACKGROUND The efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) in sparing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in children with hemolytic uremic syndrome related to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC-HUS) is uncertain. METHODS We conducted a pilot randomized controlled open trial between December 2018 and January 2021. Children were randomized to the intervention (subcutaneous rHuEPO 50 U/kg three times weekly until discharge + RBC transfusion if hemoglobin ≤ 7 g/dL and/or hemodynamic instability) or to the control arm (RBC transfusion if hemoglobin ≤ 7 g/dL and/or hemodynamic instability). Primary outcome was the number of RBC transfusions received during hospitalization. Secondary outcomes were to explore whether baseline EPO levels were adequate to the degree of anemia, to correlate selected acute phase parameters with the number of RBC transfusions, and to assess possible adverse events. RESULTS Twelve patients per arm were included; they were comparable at recruitment and throughout the disease course. Median number of RBC transfusions was similar between groups (1.5, p = 0.76). Most patients had baseline EPO levels adequate to the degree of anemia, which did not correlate with the number of transfusions (r = 0.19, p = 0.44). Conversely, baseline (r = 0.73, p = 0.032) and maximum lactic dehydrogenase levels (r = 0.78, p = 0.003), creatinine peak (r = 0.71, p = 0.03) and dialysis duration (r = 0.7, p = 0.04) correlated significantly with RBC requirements. No side effects were recorded. CONCLUSION In children with STEC-HUS, the administration of rHuEPO did not reduce the number of RBC transfusions. Larger studies addressing higher doses and similar severity of kidney failure at rHuEPO initiation (e.g. at start of dialysis) are warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03776851. A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.
Efficacy of rupatadine in reducing the incidence of dengue haemorrhagic fever in patients with acute dengue: A randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial
Malavige GN, Jeewandara C, Wijewickrama A, Gunasinghe D, Mahapatuna SD, Gangani C, Vimalachandran V, Jayaratne G, Perera Y, Wanigatunga C, et al
PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2022;16(6):e0010123
BACKGROUND Rupatadine was previously shown to reduce endothelial dysfunction in vitro, reduced vascular leak in dengue mouse models and to reduce the extent of pleural effusions and thrombocytopenia in patients with acute dengue. Therefore, we sought to determine the efficacy of rupatadine in reducing the incidence of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) in patients with acute dengue. METHODS AND FINDINGS A phase 2, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial was carried out in patients with acute dengue in Sri Lanka in an outpatient setting. Patients with ≤3 days since the onset of illness were either recruited to the treatment arm of oral rupatadine 40mg for 5 days (n = 123) or the placebo arm (n = 126). Clinical and laboratory features were measured daily to assess development of DHF and other complications. 12 (9.7%) patients developed DHF in the treatment arm compared to 22 (17.5%) who were on the placebo although this was not significant (p = 0.09, relative risk 0.68, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.08). Rupatadine also significantly reduced (p = 0.01) the proportion of patients with platelet counts <50,000 cells/mm3 and significantly reduced (p = 0.04) persisting vomiting, headache and hepatic tenderness (p<0.0001) in patients. However, there was no difference in the duration of illness and in the proportion of individuals who required hospital admission in both treatment arms. Only 2 patients on rupatadine and 3 patients on the placebo developed shock, while bleeding manifestations were seen in 6 patients on rupatadine and 7 patients on the placebo. CONCLUSIONS Rupatadine appeared to be safe and well tolerated and showed a trend towards a reducing proportion of patients with acute dengue who developed DHF. It usefulness when used in combination with other treatment modalities should be explored. TRIAL REGISTRATION International Clinical Trials Registration Platform: SLCTR/2017/024.
Efficacy of Gamma Globulin Combined with Azithromycin Sequential Therapy in the Treatment of RMPP and Its Effect on Th1/Th2 Cytokine Levels
Qi, J., Jia, F., Tian, H., Yang, S.
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine. 2022;2022:5162768
OBJECTIVE To investigate the efficacy of gamma globulin combined with azithromycin sequential therapy in the treatment of children with refractory mycoplasma pneumonia and its effect on Th1/Th2 cytokine levels. METHOD From January 2021 to January 2022, 100 children diagnosed with refractory mycoplasma pneumonia were randomly divided into 2 groups (50 cases in each one), the control group was treated with azithromycin plus comprehensive basic treatment, and the treatment group was treated with combined treatment on the basis of the control group, gamma globulin therapy; the treatment effect and cytokine levels of the two groups were compared. RESULTS Th1, Th2, and Th1/Th2 before treatment were not significantly different between the two groups. Th1, Th2, and Th1/Th2 in the treatment group were significantly downregulated compared with those in the control group after treatment. The levels of IgG, IgA, and IgM in the treatment group were not significantly different from those in the control group before treatment but were significantly upregulated after treatment. IL-10, IL-6, and IL-2 levels were also significantly increased in the treatment group. The disappearance time of clinical symptoms such as fever, cough, and pulmonary rales in the treatment group was significantly shorter than that in the control group, and the cure rate in the treatment group was significantly better than that in the control group. CONCLUSION The clinical effect of gamma globulin combined with azithromycin sequential therapy in the treatment of children with refractory mycoplasma pneumonia is remarkable, which can reduce inflammatory factors, improve patients' immunity, and promote disease recovery.
The number of cases, mortality and treatments of viral hemorrhagic fevers: A systematic review
Belhadi D, El Baied M, Mulier G, Malvy D, Mentré F, Laouénan C
PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2022;16(10):e0010889
BACKGROUND Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of diseases, which can be endemo-epidemic in some areas of the world. Most of them are characterized by outbreaks, which, occur irregularly and are hard to predict. Innovative medical countermeasures are to be evaluated but due to the field specificities of emerging VHF, challenges arise when implementing clinical studies. To assess the state of the art around VHFs, we conducted a systematic review for all reports and clinical studies that included specific results on number of cases, mortality and treatment of VHFs. METHODS The search was conducted in January 2020 based on PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO CRD42020167306). We searched reports on the WHO and CDC websites, and publications in three international databases (MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL). Following the study selection process, qualitative and quantitative data were extracted from each included study. A narrative synthesis approach by each VHF was used. Descriptive statistics were conducted including world maps of cases number and case fatality rates (CFR); summary tables by VHF, country, time period and treatment studies. RESULTS We identified 141 WHO/CDC reports and 126 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Most of the studies were published after 2010 (n = 97 for WHO/CDC reports and n = 93 for publications) and reported number of cases and/or CFRs (n = 141 WHO/CDC reports and n = 88 publications). Results varied greatly depending on the outbreak or cluster and across countries within each VHF. A total of 90 studies focused on Ebola virus disease (EVD). EVD outbreaks were reported in Africa, where Sierra Leone (14,124 cases; CFR = 28%) and Liberia (10,678 cases; CFR = 45%) reported the highest cases numbers, mainly due to the 2014-2016 western Africa outbreak. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) outbreaks were reported from 31 studies in Africa, Asia and Europe, where Turkey reported the highest cases number (6,538 cases; CFR = 5%) and Afghanistan the last outbreak in 2016/18 (293 cases; CFR = 43%). Regarding the 38 studies reporting results on treatments, most of them were non-randomized studies (mainly retrospective or non-randomized comparative studies), and only 10 studies were randomized controlled trials. For several VHFs, no specific investigational therapeutic option with strong proof of effectiveness on mortality was identified. CONCLUSION We observed that number of cases and CFR varied greatly across VHFs as well as across countries within each VHF. The number of studies on VHF treatments was very limited with very few randomized trials and no strong proof of effectiveness of treatment against most of the VHFs. Therefore, there is a high need of methodologically strong clinical trials conducted in the context of VHF.
Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections: Benefit of Clindamycin, Intravenous Immunoglobulins and Secondary Prophylaxis
Laho D, Blumental S, Botteaux A, Smeesters PR
Frontiers in pediatrics. 2021;9:697938
Introduction: Mortality associated with invasive group A streptococcal infections (iGAS) remains high among adults, with lower mortality in children. The added value of both clindamycin and immunoglobulins in such treatment is still controversial, as is the need for antibiotic secondary prophylaxis. It is unlikely that conclusive randomized clinical studies will ever definitively end these controversies. Materials and Methods: A clinical and experimental literature review was conducted in Pubmed, Cochrane, and lay literature to determine the benefit of adding clindamycin and immunoglobulins to β-lactams in the management of iGAS, as well as the need for secondary prophylaxis measures in close contacts. Results: This review includes two meta-analyses, two randomized controlled trials, four prospective studies, five retrospective studies, and microbiological studies. To reduce mortality and morbidity, it appears useful to add clindamycin to β-lactams in severe clinical presentations, including necrotizing fasciitis or streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, and immunoglobulins for the latter two presentations. The high risk of secondary infection in household contacts justifies the need of taking preventive measures. Conclusions: Both clinical studies and available experimental evidence suggest that adding clindamycin and immunoglobulins as adjunctive therapies in the management of invasive group A streptococcal infections may reduce mortality. Household contacts should be warned about the increased risk of secondary infection, and chemoprophylaxis may be considered in certain situations.
Clinical Features and Therapeutic Effects of Anti-leucine-rich Glioma Inactivated 1 Encephalitis: A Systematic Review
Teng Y, Li T, Yang Z, Su M, Ni J, Wei M, Shi J, Tian J
Frontiers in neurology. 2021;12:791014
Background: Clinical presentations and treatment programs about anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) encephalitis still remain incompletely understood. Objective: This study analyzed the clinical features and therapeutic effects of anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify published English and Chinese articles until April 2021. Data were extracted, analyzed, and recorded in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Results: A total of 80 publications detailing 485 subjects matched our inclusion criteria. Short-term memory loss (75.22%), faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS) (52.53%), other seizures excluding FBDS (68.48%), psychiatric symptoms (57.67%), and sleep disturbances (34.30%) were the most frequently described symptoms in anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Hyponatremia (54.90%) was the most common hematologic examination change. The risk of incidence rate of malignant tumors was higher than in healthy people. The positive rate of anti-LGI1 in serum (99.79%) was higher than CSF (77.38%). Steroids (93.02%), IVIG (87.50%), and combined use (96.67%) all had a high remission rate in the initial visit. A total of 35 of 215 cases relapsed, of which 6/35 (17.14%) did not use first-line treatment, and 21 (60.00%) did not maintain long-term treatment. Plasma exchange (PE) could be combined in severe patients, immunosuppressant could be used for refractory patients or for recurrence and using an anti-epileptic drug to control seizures may benefit cognition. Conclusions: Short-term memory loss, FBDS, psychiatric symptoms, and hyponatremia were key features in identifying anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Serum and CSF antibody tests should be considered in diagnosis criteria. Steroids with IVIG should be recommended, PE was combined for use in severe patients, immunosuppressant therapy might improve outcomes if recurrence or progression occurred, and control seizures might benefit cognition. The useful ways to reduce relapse rate were early identification, clear diagnosis, rapid treatment, and maintaining long-term treatment. The follow-up advice was suggested according to the research of paraneoplastic syndrome, and concern about tumors was vital as well.
Adherence to community versus facility-based delivery of monthly malaria chemoprevention with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the post-discharge management of severe anemia in Malawian children: A cluster randomized trial
Nkosi-Gondwe T, Robberstad B, Mukaka M, Idro R, Opoka RO, Banda S, Kühl MJ, O Ter Kuile F, Blomberg B, Phiri KS
PloS one. 2021;16(9):e0255769
BACKGROUND The provision of post-discharge malaria chemoprevention (PMC) in children recently admitted with severe anemia reduces the risk of death and re-admissions in malaria endemic countries. The main objective of this trial was to identify the most effective method of delivering dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine to children recovering from severe anemia. METHODS This was a 5-arm, cluster-randomized trial among under-5 children hospitalized with severe anemia at Zomba Central Hospital in Southern Malawi. Children were randomized to receive three day treatment doses of dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine monthly either; 1) in the community without a short text reminder; 2) in the community with a short message reminder; 3) in the community with a community health worker reminder; 4) at the facility without a short text reminder; or 5) at the facility with a short message reminder. The primary outcome measure was adherence to all treatment doses of dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine and this was assessed by pill-counts done by field workers during home visits. Poisson regression was utilized for analysis. RESULTS Between March 2016 and October 2018, 1460 clusters were randomized. A total of 667 children were screened and 375 from 329 clusters were eligible and enrolled from the hospital. Adherence was higher in all three community-based compared to the two facility-based delivery (156/221 [70·6%] vs. 78/150 [52·0%], IRR = 1·24,95%CI 1·06-1·44, p = 0·006). This was observed in both the SMS group (IRR = 1·41,1·21-1·64, p<0·001) and in the non-SMS group (IRR = 1·37,1·18-1·61, p<0·001). Although adherence was higher among SMS recipients (98/148 66·2%] vs. non-SMS 82/144 (56·9%), there was no statistical evidence that SMS reminders resulted in greater adherence ([IRR = 1·03,0·88-1·21, p = 0·68). When compared to the facility-based non-SMS arm (control arm), community-based delivery utilizing CHWs resulted in higher adherence [39/76 (51·3%) vs. 54/79 (68·4%), IRR = 1·32, 1·14-1·54, p<0·001]. INTERPRETATION Community-based delivery of dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine for post-discharge malaria chemoprevention in children recovering from severe anemia resulted in higher adherence compared to facility-based methods. TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT02721420; ClinicalTrials.gov.
Red Cell Exchange as Adjunctive Therapy for Babesiosis: Is it Really Effective?
Tannous T, Cheves TA, Sweeney JD
Transfusion medicine reviews. 2021
Human babesiosis is a parasitic disease prevalent in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States (US). Treatment with antibiotics is the standard of care but red cell exchange (RCE) has been used as an adjunctive treatment in more severe disease. Data for the efficacy of RCE in the treatment of babesiosis has been based on case reports and case series. An English language literature search was conducted for cases of babesiosis treated with RCE since 1980 and relevant laboratory and clinical outcome data were extracted. Similar data were obtained on severe cases of babesiosis referred for RCE in our hospitals in the time period 2000 to 2020. Fifty reports including forty-one individual case reports and nine case series were retrieved. There were 108 patients that underwent RCE with an overall mortality rate of 20%. Some patients had more than one RCE. The patients varied in the level of anemia and evidence of compromise of renal or pulmonary function. The pre-RCE level of parasitemia varied between 1.7% to 85% with the vast majority >10%. The post-RCE level of parasitemia varied between 1% to 10%. Since 2000, 32 patients were referred for RCE in our hospitals and RCE was performed on 23 of 32. There were more patients treated with RCE in the second decade as compared to the first decade, 19 versus 4 respectively. The overall mortality was 22% similar to the national data. Comparing the cohort treated with RCE to the 9 patients who were treated only with antibiotics, there were similar levels of parasitemia and laboratory parameters. The overall number of days needed to achieve a parasite count <1% was similar between the two cohorts and mortality for the antibiotics only cohort was 0%. More than 40 years after the first reported case of RCE in severe babesiosis it cannot be concluded that this adjunctive therapy favorably influences the clinical outcome. Since there is largely equipoise, a registry of severe patients treated with or without RCE could identify a benefit or otherwise.