Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections: Benefit of Clindamycin, Intravenous Immunoglobulins and Secondary Prophylaxis
Frontiers in pediatrics. 2021;9:697938
Introduction: Mortality associated with invasive group A streptococcal infections (iGAS) remains high among adults, with lower mortality in children. The added value of both clindamycin and immunoglobulins in such treatment is still controversial, as is the need for antibiotic secondary prophylaxis. It is unlikely that conclusive randomized clinical studies will ever definitively end these controversies. Materials and Methods: A clinical and experimental literature review was conducted in Pubmed, Cochrane, and lay literature to determine the benefit of adding clindamycin and immunoglobulins to β-lactams in the management of iGAS, as well as the need for secondary prophylaxis measures in close contacts. Results: This review includes two meta-analyses, two randomized controlled trials, four prospective studies, five retrospective studies, and microbiological studies. To reduce mortality and morbidity, it appears useful to add clindamycin to β-lactams in severe clinical presentations, including necrotizing fasciitis or streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, and immunoglobulins for the latter two presentations. The high risk of secondary infection in household contacts justifies the need of taking preventive measures. Conclusions: Both clinical studies and available experimental evidence suggest that adding clindamycin and immunoglobulins as adjunctive therapies in the management of invasive group A streptococcal infections may reduce mortality. Household contacts should be warned about the increased risk of secondary infection, and chemoprophylaxis may be considered in certain situations.
A Double-blind, Randomized Trial to Evaluate Miltefosine and Topical Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor in the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania braziliensis in Brazil
Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2021;73(7):e2465-e2469
BACKGROUND The treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Brazil using pentavalent antimony (Sbv) is associated with a high rate of failure. Miltefosine has proven efficacy for CL caused by L. braziliensis, with a cure rate (CR) of 75%. A combined treatment with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and miltefosine could increase CR and decrease healing time. METHODS A randomized, double-blind clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of miltefosine combined with topical GM-CSF (M + GM) vs miltefosine and placebo (M + P) vs Sbv in 133 patients with CL caused by L. braziliensis in Bahia, Brazil. RESULTS The final CR at 180 days after the initiation of treatment was 44.4% in the Sbv group, 76.6% in the M + P group (P = .003 vs Sbv), and 75.6% in the M + GM group (P = .004 vs Sbv). The median healing time for cure was 102 days for the Sbv group and 60 days for both miltefosine groups (P = .0009). During the 6-month follow-up period, 4 relapses were documented: 1 in the Sbv group, 1 in the M + P group, and 2 in the M + GM group. Mild adverse events occurred in 65% of patients from the Sbv group, 76% and 79% from the M + P and M + GM groups respectively. CONCLUSIONS Miltefosine is more effective than Sbv for the treatment of CL caused by L. braziliensis in Brazil and accelerates the healing time. Association with GM-CSF does not improve therapeutic outcome. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION NCT03023111.
Adherence to community versus facility-based delivery of monthly malaria chemoprevention with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the post-discharge management of severe anemia in Malawian children: A cluster randomized trial
PloS one. 2021;16(9):e0255769
BACKGROUND The provision of post-discharge malaria chemoprevention (PMC) in children recently admitted with severe anemia reduces the risk of death and re-admissions in malaria endemic countries. The main objective of this trial was to identify the most effective method of delivering dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine to children recovering from severe anemia. METHODS This was a 5-arm, cluster-randomized trial among under-5 children hospitalized with severe anemia at Zomba Central Hospital in Southern Malawi. Children were randomized to receive three day treatment doses of dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine monthly either; 1) in the community without a short text reminder; 2) in the community with a short message reminder; 3) in the community with a community health worker reminder; 4) at the facility without a short text reminder; or 5) at the facility with a short message reminder. The primary outcome measure was adherence to all treatment doses of dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine and this was assessed by pill-counts done by field workers during home visits. Poisson regression was utilized for analysis. RESULTS Between March 2016 and October 2018, 1460 clusters were randomized. A total of 667 children were screened and 375 from 329 clusters were eligible and enrolled from the hospital. Adherence was higher in all three community-based compared to the two facility-based delivery (156/221 [70·6%] vs. 78/150 [52·0%], IRR = 1·24,95%CI 1·06-1·44, p = 0·006). This was observed in both the SMS group (IRR = 1·41,1·21-1·64, p<0·001) and in the non-SMS group (IRR = 1·37,1·18-1·61, p<0·001). Although adherence was higher among SMS recipients (98/148 66·2%] vs. non-SMS 82/144 (56·9%), there was no statistical evidence that SMS reminders resulted in greater adherence ([IRR = 1·03,0·88-1·21, p = 0·68). When compared to the facility-based non-SMS arm (control arm), community-based delivery utilizing CHWs resulted in higher adherence [39/76 (51·3%) vs. 54/79 (68·4%), IRR = 1·32, 1·14-1·54, p<0·001]. INTERPRETATION Community-based delivery of dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine for post-discharge malaria chemoprevention in children recovering from severe anemia resulted in higher adherence compared to facility-based methods. TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT02721420; ClinicalTrials.gov.
Characteristics and therapy of enteroviral encephalitis: case report and systematic literature review
International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases. 2021
OBJECTIVES Enterovirus (EV) is a frequent cause of encephalitis. The optimal therapeutic approach remains a matter of debate. We present the case of an immunosuppressed patient with EV encephalitis successfully treated with IVIG and conduct a systematic review on the characteristics of EV encephalitis as well as the safety and efficacy of IVIG-therapy. METHODS We conducted a systematic review assessing PubMed, Cochrane Database, Biosis Previews and the ClinicalTrials.gov website to identify all reports on patients with EV encephalitis as of December 31, 2020. Main outcomes assessed were efficacy and safety of the respective therapeutic approach. RESULTS We included a total of 73 papers: one prospective trial, one retro- and prospective case series, one purely retrospective case series, and 70 case reports. The case reports cover a total of 101 patients. The immunosuppressed were at higher risk of contracting EV encephalitis and experiencing lethal courses. Hypogammaglobulinaemia particularly predisposes for EV disease, even with moderate reduction of serum IgG levels. IVIG therapy in the immunosuppressed may confer a survival advantage. CONCLUSIONS IVIG therapy is rarely associated with severe adverse events and may be considered in immunosuppressed patients with EV encephalitis. Future trials should investigate optimal IVIG dosing and route of application, the benefit of antibody-enriched IVIG preparations and the serum immunoglobulin level that should trigger prophylactic replacement.
Effectiveness and safety of autologous platelet-rich plasma therapy with total contact casting versus total contact casting alone in treatment of trophic ulcer in leprosy: An observer-blind, randomized controlled trial
Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology. 2020
Background: Trophic ulcers secondary to leprosy pose a great stigma to patients and remain a challenge to the treating dermatologists. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) introduces growth factors directly into the wound and aids in rapid healing. The role of PRP in the treatment of trophic ulcers in leprosy patients has not yet been established by randomized controlled trials. Aims: To study the effectiveness and safety of autologous PRP therapy with total contact casting versus total contact casting alone in the treatment of trophic ulcers in leprosy. Methods: In an observer-blind, randomized (1:1) controlled study, 118 patients were enrolled. PRP was prepared by the manual double-spin method (1600 rpm for 10 min followed by 4000 rpm for 10 min). After wound bed preparation, activated PRP was injected intra- and perilesionally, and platelet-poor plasma gel was applied over the ulcer bed. Occlusive dressings and total contact casting were then applied in Group A, and only total contact casting was applied in Group B. The same procedure was repeated every 2 weeks for 8 weeks. Results: In all, 56 patients were analyzable in Group A and 52 in Group B. The surface area of the ulcer decreased significantly from first follow-up onward in both the groups (P < 0.001 in both the groups). Intergroup comparison showed that the reduction in the surface area of the ulcer was significantly more in Group A than in Group B from the first follow-up onward (P = 0.038) and the difference was maintained till the fifth follow-up (P < 0.001). At the end of the study, 91.10 +/- 9.65% ulcer surface area reduction had occurred in Group A, whereas it was 79.77 +/- 17.91% in Group B (P < 0.001). Trophic ulcers healed completely more often in paucibacillary leprosy patients (P < 0.001) and in those with a lower initial surface area of the ulcer (P < 0.001). Limitation: Short duration of treatment (8 weeks). Conclusion: PRP combined with total contact casting accelerates the healing of trophic ulcers of leprosy and is more effective than total contact casting alone. Complete remission is more likely to occur when the duration and surface area of ulcer are less and in the paucibacillary spectrum.
Association of Miltefosine with Granulocyte and Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) in the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Amazon Region: a randomized and controlled trial
International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases. 2020
OBJECTIVES To compare topical GM-CSF and miltefosine (G + M) versus placebo and miltefosine (P + M) or parenteral meglumine antimoniate (MA) in the treatment of 150 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania guyanensis in the Amazon. DESIGN A randomized and double-blinded clinical trial. RESULTS At 90 days after initiation of therapy the cure rates were 66%, 58% and 52% for the groups P + M, G + M, and MA respectively (p > 0.05). Cure rates at 180 days did not differ. Healing time was similar in the 3 groups, but faster in the MA group compared to the G + M group (p = 0.04). Mild and transitory systemic adverse events were frequent in all groups (above 85%). Nausea (85%) and vomiting (39%) predominated in the miltefosine groups; arthralgia (51%) and myalgia (48%) in the MA group. One patient (group MA) stopped treatment after presenting fever, exanthema, and severe arthralgia. CONCLUSIONS Miltefosine did not present a higher cure rate than MA, and the association of GM-CSF did not improve the therapeutic response. Nevertheless, due to its less toxicity, easier administration, and a similar cure rate when compared with MA, miltefosine should remain as one of the main drugs for treating CL due to L. guyanensis. (Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT03023111).
Efficacy of convalescent plasma for the treatment of severe influenza
Crit Care. 2020;24(1):469
BACKGROUND Convalescent plasma administration may be of clinical benefit in patients with severe influenza, but reports on the efficacy of this therapy vary. METHODS We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis assessing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving the administration of convalescent plasma to treat severe influenza. Healthcare databases were searched in February 2020. All records were screened against eligibility criteria, and the risks of bias were assessed. The primary outcome was the fatality rate. RESULTS A total of 2861 studies were retrieved and screened. Five eligible RCTs were identified. Pooled analyses yielded no evidence that using convalescent plasma to treat severe influenza resulted in significant reductions in mortality (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.51-2·23; P = 0.87; I(2) = 35%), number of days in the intensive care unit, or number of days on mechanical ventilation. This treatment may have the possible benefits of increasing hemagglutination inhibition titers and reducing influenza B viral loads and cytokine levels. No serious adverse events were reported. The included studies were generally of high quality with a low risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS The administration of convalescent plasma appears safe but may not reduce the mortality, number of days in the intensive care unit, or number of days on mechanical ventilation in patients with severe influenza.
Patients hospitalized with severe influenza (5 studies, n= 598).
Convalescent plasma or hyperimmune intravenous immunoglobulin (H-IVIG).
Various comparators (normal intravenous immunoglobulin, standard care, low-titre anti-influenza, placebo).
Pooled analyses yielded no evidence that using convalescent plasma to treat severe influenza resulted in significant reductions in mortality, number of days in the intensive care unit, or number of days on mechanical ventilation.
Anti-influenza hyperimmune intravenous immunoglobulin for adults with influenza A or B infection (FLU-IVIG): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial
The Lancet. Respiratory medicine. 2019
BACKGROUND Since the 1918 influenza pandemic, non-randomised studies and small clinical trials have suggested that convalescent plasma or anti-influenza hyperimmune intravenous immunoglobulin (hIVIG) might have clinical benefit for patients with influenza infection, but definitive data do not exist. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of hIVIG in a randomised controlled trial. METHODS This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was planned for 45 hospitals in Argentina, Australia, Denmark, Greece, Mexico, Spain, Thailand, UK, and the USA over five influenza seasons from 2013-14 to 2017-18. Adults (≥18 years of age) were admitted for hospital treatment with laboratory-confirmed influenza A or B infection and were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive standard care plus either a single 500-mL infusion of high-titre hIVIG (0.25 g/kg bodyweight, 24.75 g maximum; hIVIG group) or saline placebo (placebo group). Eligible patients had a National Early Warning score of 2 points or greater at the time of screening and their symptoms began no more than 7 days before randomisation. Pregnant and breastfeeding women were excluded, as well as any patients for whom the treatment would present a health risk. Separate randomisation schedules were generated for each participating clinical site using permuted block randomisation. Treatment assignments were obtained using a web-based application by the site pharmacist who then masked the solution for infusion. Patients and investigators were masked to study treatment. The primary endpoint was a six-category ordinal outcome of clinical status at day 7, ranging in severity from death to resumption of normal activities after discharge. The choice of day 7 was based on haemagglutination inhibition titres from a pilot study. It was analysed with a proportional odds model, using all six categories to estimate a common odds ratio (OR). An OR greater than 1 indicated that, for a given category, patients in the hIVIG group were more likely to be in a better category than those in the placebo group. Prespecified primary analyses for safety and efficacy were based on patients who received an infusion and for whom eligibility could be confirmed. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02287467. FINDINGS 313 patients were enrolled in 34 sites between Dec 11, 2014, and May 28, 2018. We also used data from 16 patients enrolled at seven of the 34 sites during the pilot study between Jan 15, 2014, and April 10, 2014. 168 patients were randomly assigned to the hIVIG group and 161 to the placebo group. 21 patients were excluded (12 from the hIVIG group and 9 from the placebo group) because they did not receive an infusion or their eligibility could not be confirmed. Thus, 308 were included in the primary analysis. hIVIG treatment produced a robust rise in haemagglutination inhibition titres against influenza A and smaller rises in influenza B titres. Based on the proportional odds model, the OR on day 7 was 1.25 (95% CI 0.79-1.97; p=0.33). In subgroup analyses for the primary outcome, the OR in patients with influenza A was 0.94 (0.55-1.59) and was 3.19 (1.21-8.42) for those with influenza B (interaction p=0.023). Through 28 days of follow-up, 47 (30%) of 156 patients in the hIVIG group and in 45 (30%) of 152 patients in the placebo group had the composite safety outcome of death, a serious adverse event, or a grade 3 or 4 adverse event (hazard ratio [HR] 1.06, 95% CI 0.70-1.60; p=0.79). Six (4%) patients in the hIVIG group and five (3%) in the placebo group died, but these deaths were not necessarily related to treatment. INTERPRETATION When administered alongside standard care (most commonly oseltamivir), hIVIG was not superior to placebo for adults hospitalised with influenza infection. By contrast with our prespecified subgroup hypothesis that hIVIG would result in more favourable responses in patients with influenza A than B, we found the opposite effect. The clinical benefit of hIVIG for patients with influenza B is supported by antibody affinity analyses, but confirmation is warranted. FUNDING NIAID and NIH. Partial support was provided by the Medical Research Council (MRC_UU_12023/23) and the Danish National Research Foundation.
Hospitalised adults with laboratory-confirmed influenza A or B infection (n= 308).
Single 500-mL infusion of high-titre hIVIG (0.25 g/kg bodyweight, 24.75 g maximum (hIVIG group, n=156).
Saline placebo (placebo group, n=152).
hIVIG treatment produced a robust rise in haemagglutination inhibition titres against influenza A and smaller rises in influenza B titres. Based on the proportional odds model, the OR on day 7 was 1.25). In subgroup analyses for the primary outcome, the OR in patients with influenza A was 0.94 and was 3.19 for those with influenza B. Through 28 days of follow-up, 47 (30%) of 156 patients in the hIVIG group and in 45 (30%) of 152 patients in the placebo group had the composite safety outcome of death, a serious adverse event, or a grade 3 or 4 adverse event (hazard ratio [HR] 1.06). Six (4%) patients in the hIVIG group and five (3%) in the placebo group died, but these deaths were not necessarily related to treatment.
Lack of Efficacy of High-Titered Immunoglobulin in Patients with West Nile Virus Central Nervous System Disease
Emerging infectious diseases. 2019;25(11):2064-2073
West Nile Virus (WNV) can result in clinically severe neurologic disease. There is no treatment for WNV infection, but administration of anti-WNV polyclonal human antibody has demonstrated efficacy in animal models. We compared Omr-IgG-am, an immunoglobulin product with high titers of anti-WNV antibody, with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and normal saline to assess safety and efficacy in patients with WNV neuroinvasive disease as part of a phase I/II, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study in North America. During 2003-2006, a total of 62 hospitalized patients were randomized to receive Omr-IgG-am, standard IVIG, or normal saline (3:1:1). The primary endpoint was medication safety. Secondary endpoints were morbidity and mortality, measured using 4 standardized assessments of cognitive and functional status. The death rate in the study population was 12.9%. No significant differences were found between groups receiving Omr-IgG-am compared with IVIG or saline for either the safety or efficacy endpoints.
The Effectiveness of Different Doses of Intravenous Immunoglobulin on Severe Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: A Meta-Analysis
Medical principles and practice : international journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre. 2019
OBJECTIVE To conduct a meta-analysis of evidence from randomized controlled trails (RCTs) of different doses of Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) in children with severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) to provide the scientific basis for clinical practice. METHODS A search of PubMed-Medline, CNKI, Wanfang, and VIP database (until 30 June 2017) was performed and Software RevMan5.3 was used to evaluate the effect of different doses of IVIG on HFMD in RCTs, We used random effects models (or fixed effects models) and generic inverse variance methods to process quantitative data, followed by a leave-one-out method for sensitivity analysis. RESULTS From a total of 420 entries identified via searches, 8 RCTs involving 1450 patients were included in the final analysis. The results of the meta-analysis showed that compared with conventional therapy alone, conventional therapy combined with IVIG had shorter fever clearance time, shorter rash regression time and shorter clinical cure time. Subgroup analyses showed that the high-dose group (1g/kg per day) had shorter fever clearance time (p < 0.05), shorter rash regression (p < 0.05), shorter remission time of neurological symptoms (p < 0.05), but longer clinical cure time (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION The high-dose group has a better prognosis, however, the advantages and disadvantages should be carefully considered when deciding the doses in the treatment of severe HFMD.