Economic Burden and Health-Related Quality of Life Associated with Current Treatments for Anaemia in Patients with CKD not on Dialysis: A Systematic Review
PharmacoEconomics - open. 2019
BACKGROUND The cost and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) burden associated with treatments for anaemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not well characterized among non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) patients. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to review the literature on costs and HRQoL associated with current treatments for anaemia of CKD among NDD patients. METHODS The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, NHS EED, and NHS HTA databases were searched for original studies published in English between 1 January 2000 and 17 March 2017. The following inclusion criteria were applied: adult population; primary focus was anaemia of CKD; patients received iron supplementation, red blood cell transfusion, or erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs); and reported results on HRQoL and/or costs. Studies that included NDD patients, did not compare different treatments, and had relevant designs were retained. HRQoL and cost outcomes were summarized in a narrative synthesis. RESULTS In total, 16 studies met the inclusion criteria: six randomized controlled trials, four prospective single-arm trials, three retrospective studies, one prospective observational study, one simulation study, and one cross-sectional survey. All included ESAs. Treatment of anaemia (compared with no treatment) was associated with HRQoL improvements in five of six studies and lower costs in four of four studies. Treatment aiming for higher haemoglobin targets (compared with lower targets) resulted in modest HRQoL improvements, higher healthcare resource utilization (HRU), and higher costs. CONCLUSIONS In NDD patients, untreated anaemia of CKD leads to higher costs, higher HRU, and lower HRQoL compared with initiating anaemia treatment. Relative to aiming for lower haemoglobin targets with ESAs, higher targets conferred modest HRQoL improvements and were associated with higher HRU.
Cost-effectiveness of continuous erythropoietin receptor activator in anemia
Clinicoeconomics & Outcomes Research. 2014;6:319-30.
BACKGROUND Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are the mainstay of anemia therapy. Continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) is a highly effective, long-acting ESA developed for once-monthly dosing. A multitude of clinical studies has evaluated the safety and efficiency of this treatment option for patients with renal anemia. In times of permanent financial pressure on health care systems, the cost-effectiveness of CERA should be of particular importance for payers and clinicians. OBJECTIVE To critically analyze, from the nephrologists' point of view, the published literature focusing on the cost-effectiveness of CERA for anemia treatment. METHODS The detailed literature search covered electronic databases including MEDLINE, PubMed, and Embase, as well as international conference abstract databases. RESULTS Peer-reviewed literature analyzing the definite cost-effectiveness of CERA is scarce, and most of the available data originate from conference abstracts. Identified data are restricted to the treatment of anemia due to chronic kidney disease. Although the majority of studies suggest a considerable cost advantage for CERA, the published literature cannot easily be compared. While time and motion studies clearly indicate that a switch to CERA could minimize health care staff time in dialysis units, the results of studies comparing direct costs are more ambivalent, potentially reflecting the differences between health care systems and variability between centers. CONCLUSION Analyzed data are predominantly insufficient; they miss clear evidence and have to thus be interpreted with great caution. In this day and age of financial restraints, results from well-designed, head-to-head studies with clearly defined endpoints have to prove whether CERA therapy can achieve cost savings without compromising anemia management.
Probabilistic cost-minimisation analysis of darbepoetin alpha versus epoetin alpha in treating anaemia secondary to chronic renal failure. Assessment in Spanish clinical practice
Farmacia Hospitalaria. 2009;33((4):):208-16.
INTRODUCTION The direct transfer of the results of pharmaco-economic studies between countries may not be suitable if the proper adaptations are not made to take into account differences in treatment patterns, resource use and costs from country to country. OBJECTIVE To estimate the cost in Spain of treating anaemia secondary to chronic renal failure with darbepoetin alpha or epoetin alpha from a review and analysis of available current information. In addition, the role of the route of administration as a main driver of the cost will be analysed. METHOD population: patients with chronic kidney failure induced anaemia. Data: Medline and Embase search of studies directly comparing erythropoiesis stimulating agents. ANALYSIS Cost minimization analysis from the perspective of a hospital pharmacy department. The main outcome chosen was the difference between the average cost per patient undergoing a 30-day treatment with epoetin alpha versus darbepoetin alpha. RESULTS (a) haemodialysis: changing from epoetin alpha to darbepoetin alpha is associated with a cost reduction of 8.67%; CI 95%, -1.34 to 17.92 (euro 17.48; CI 95%, -2.70 to 36.13); probabilistic analysis showed that the use of darbepoetin alpha could be associated with a cost-saving probability of 94.9%. The IV administration yielded a decrease in costs of about 16.00%; CI 95%, -2.38 to 36.77 (euro 41.78, CI 95%: -6.21 to 96.04). (b) Pre-dialysis: darbepoetin alpha is associated with a cost reduction of about 11-32%. CONCLUSIONS The use of darbepoetin alpha for the treatment of chronic renal failure induced anaemia (haemodialysis and pre-dialysis) shows higher cost efficiency than epoetin alpha in Spain; these differences increase with IV administration.