Efficacy and Safety of Daprodustat for Treatment of Anemia of Chronic Kidney Disease in Incident Dialysis Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial
JAMA internal medicine. 2022
IMPORTANCE Daprodustat, a hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, is being evaluated as an oral alternative to conventional erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) therapy. Few studies of anemia treatment in an incident dialysis (ID) population have been reported. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of daprodustat vs darbepoetin alfa in treating anemia of chronic kidney disease in ID patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This prospective, randomized, open-label clinical trial was conducted from May 11, 2017, through September 24, 2020, in 90 centers across 14 countries. Patients with advanced CKD were eligible if they planned to start dialysis within 6 weeks from screening or had started and received hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD) within 90 days before randomization, had a screening hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of 8.0 to 10.5 g/dL (to convert to grams per liter, multiply by 10) and a randomization Hb of 8.0 to 11.0 g/dL, were ESA-naive or had received limited ESA treatment, and were iron-replete. INTERVENTIONS Randomized 1:1 to daprodustat or darbepoetin alfa. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary analysis in the intent-to-treat population evaluated the mean change in Hb concentration from baseline to evaluation period (weeks 28-52) to assess noninferiority of daprodustat vs darbepoetin alfa (noninferiority margin, -0.75 g/dL). The mean monthly intravenous (IV) iron dose from baseline to week 52 was the principal secondary end point. Rates of treatment-emergent and serious adverse events (AEs) were also compared between treatment groups to assess safety and tolerability. RESULTS A total of 312 patients (median [IQR] age, 55 [45-65] years; 194 [62%] male) were randomized to either daprodustat (157 patients; median [IQR] age, 52.0 [45-63] years; 96 [61%] male) or darbepoetin alfa (155 patients; median [IQR] age, 56.0 [45-67] years; 98 [63%] male); 306 patients (98%) completed the trial. The mean (SD) Hb concentration during the evaluation period was 10.5 (1.0) g/dL for the daprodustat and 10.6 (0.9) g/dL for the darbepoetin alfa group, with an adjusted mean treatment difference of -0.10 g/dL (95% CI, -0.34 to 0.14 g/dL), indicating noninferiority. There was a reduction in mean monthly IV iron use from baseline to week 52 in both treatment groups; however, daprodustat was not superior compared with darbepoetin alfa in reducing monthly IV iron use (adjusted mean treatment difference, 19.4 mg [95% CI, -11.0 to 49.9 mg]). Adverse event rates were 76% for daprodustat vs 72% for darbepoetin alfa. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This randomized clinical trial found that daprodustat was noninferior to darbepoetin alfa in treating anemia of CKD and may represent a potential oral alternative to a conventional ESA in the ID population. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03029208.
Erythropoietic effects of vadadustat in patients with anemia associated with chronic kidney disease
American journal of hematology. 2022
Patients with chronic kidney disease develop anemia largely because of inappropriately low erythropoietin production and insufficient iron available to erythroid precursors. In four phase 3, randomized, open-label, clinical trials in dialysis-dependent and non-dialysis-dependent patients with chronic kidney disease and anemia, the hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, vadadustat, was non-inferior to the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, darbepoetin alfa, in increasing and maintaining target hemoglobin concentrations. In these trials, vadadustat increased the concentrations of serum erythropoietin, the numbers of circulating erythrocytes, and the numbers of circulating reticulocytes. Achieved hemoglobin concentrations were similar in patients treated with either vadadustat or darbepoetin alfa, but compared with patients receiving darbepoetin alfa, those receiving vadadustat had erythrocytes with increased mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, while the red cell distribution width was decreased. Increased serum transferrin concentrations, as measured by total iron-binding capacity, combined with stable serum iron concentrations, resulted in decreased transferrin saturation in patients randomized to vadadustat compared with patients randomized to darbepoetin alfa. The decreases in transferrin saturation were associated with relatively greater declines in serum hepcidin and ferritin in patients receiving vadadustat compared with those receiving darbepoetin alfa. These results for serum transferrin saturation, hepcidin, ferritin, and erythrocyte indices were consistent with improved iron availability in the patients receiving vadadustat. Thus, overall, vadadustat had beneficial effects on three aspects of erythropoiesis in patients with anemia associated with chronic kidney disease: increased endogenous erythropoietin production, improved iron availability to erythroid cells, and increased reticulocytes in the circulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Darbepoetin alfa injection versus epoetin alfa injection for treating anemia of Chinese hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney failure: A randomized, open-label, parallel-group, non-inferiority Phase III trail
Chronic diseases and translational medicine. 2022;8(1):59-70
BACKGROUND Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein that mainly regulates erythropoiesis. In patients with chronic renal failure with anemia, darbepoetin alfa can stimulate erythropoiesis, correct anemia, and maintain hemoglobin levels. This study was designed to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alfa injections as being not inferior to epoetin alfa injections (Recombinant Human Erythropoietin injection, rHuEPO) when maintaining hemoglobin (Hb) levels within the target range (10.0-12.0 g/dL) for the treatment of renal anemia. METHODS Ninety-five patients were enrolled in this study from April 15, 2013 to April 10, 2014 at 25 sites. In this study, patients (n = 95) aged 18-70 years were randomized into a once per week intravenous darbepoetin alfa group (n = 56) and a twice or three times per week intravenous epoetin alfa group (n = 39) for 28 weeks, who had anemia with hemoglobin levels between 6 g/dL and 10 g/dL due to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and were undergoing hemodialysis or hemofiltration with ESA-naive (erythropoiesis stimulating agent-naive). The primary efficacy profile was the mean Hb level (the non-inferiority margin was -1.0 g/dL, week 21-28); the secondary efficacy profiles were the Hb increase rate (week 0-4), the target Hb achievement cumulative rate and time, the change trends of the Hb levels, and the target Hb maintenance ratio. Adverse events (AEs) were observed and compared, and the efficacy and safety were analyzed between the two treatment groups. Additionally, the frequencies of dose adjustments between the darbepoetin alfa and epoetin alfa groups were compared during the treatment period. SAS® software version 9.2 was used to perform all statistical analyses. Descriptive statistics were used for all efficacy, safety, and demographic variable analyses, including for the primary efficacy indicators. RESULTS The mean Hb level was 11.3 g/dL in the darbepoetin alfa group and 10.7 g/dL in the epoetin alfa group, respectively; the difference of the lower limits of the 95% confidence intervals (CI) between the two groups was 0.1 g/dL (>-1.0 g/dL), and non-inferiority was proven; the Hb levels started to increase in the first four weeks at a similar increase rate; no obvious differences were observed between the groups in the target Hb achievement cumulative rates, and the Hb levels as well as the target Hb level maintenance rate changed over time. The incidence of AEs was 62.5% in the darbepoetin alfa group and 76.9% in the epoetin alfa group. All the adverse events observed in the study were those commonly associated with hemodialysis. CONCLUSION Darbepoetin alfa intravenously once per week can effectively increase Hb levels and maintain the target Hb levels well, which makes it not inferior to epoetin alfa intravenously twice or three times per week. Darbepoetin alfa shows an efficacy and safety comparable to epoetin alfa for the treatment of renal anemia.
Efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alfa injection replacing epoetin alfa injection for the treatment of renal anemia in Chinese hemodialysis patients: A randomized, open-label, parallel-group, noninferiority phase III trial
Chronic diseases and translational medicine. 2022;8(2):134-144
BACKGROUND This study was to explore the clinical efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alfa injection replacing epoetin alfa injection (recombinant human erythropoietin injection, rHuEPO) for the treatment of anemia associated with chronic kidney failure in Chinese patients undergoing hemodialysis. METHOD This study was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, intergroup parallel control phase III noninferiority trial from April 19, 2013 to September 9, 2014 at 25 sites. In this study, the members of the darbepoetin alfa group underwent intravenous administration once per week or once every two weeks. The members of the control drug epoetin alfa group underwent intravenous administration two or three times per week. All subjects underwent epoetin alfa administration during the 8-week baseline period. After that, subjects were randomly assigned to the darbepoetin alfa group or epoetin alfa group. The noninferiority in the changes of the average Hb concentrations from the baseline to the end of the evaluation period (noninferiority threshold: -1.0 g/dl) was tested between the two treatments. The time-dependent hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and the maintenance rate of the target Hb concentration (the proportion of subjects with Hb concentrations between 10.0 and 12.0 g/dl) were also evaluated. Iron metabolism, including changes in the serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, ferritin, transferrin saturation, and comparisons of the dose adjustments between the two groups during the treatment period were analyzed further. Adverse events (AEs) were also observed and compared, and the safety was analyzed between the two treatment groups. The conversion rate switching from epoetin alfa to darbepoetin alfa was also discussed. SAS® software version 9.2 was used to perform all statistical analyses. Descriptive statistics were used for all efficacy, safety, and demographic variable analyses, including for the primary efficacy indicators. RESULTS Four hundred and sixty-six patients were enrolled in this study, and ultimately 384 cases were analyzed for safety, including 267 cases in the darbepoetin alfa group and 117 cases in the epoetin alfa group. There were 211 cases in the per-protocol set, including 152 cases in the darbepoetin alfa group and 59 cases in the epoetin alfa group. The changes in the average Hb concentrations from the baseline to the end of the evaluation period were -0.07 and -0.15 g/dl in the darbepoetin alfa group and epoetin alfa group respectively. The difference between the two groups was 0.08 g/dl (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.22 to 0.39), and the lower limit of the 95% CI was -0.22 > -1.0 g/dl. The average Hb concentrations of the two groups were 10.88-11.43 g/dl (darbepoetin alfa) and 10.91-11.38 g/dl (epoetin alfa) during the study period of Weeks 0-28, with the maintenance rates of the target Hb concentration ranging within 71%-87% and 78%-95% in the darbepoetin alfa group and epoetin alfa group respectively. During the period of comparison between the two groups, the incidence of AEs in the darbepoetin alfa group was 61.42%, while in the epoetin alfa group it was 56.41%. All of the adverse events and reactions in the study were those commonly associated with hemodialysis. CONCLUSION The overall efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alfa for the treatment of Chinese renal anemia patients undergoing hemodialysis are consistent with those of epoetin alfa.
Predictors of iron versus erythropoietin responsiveness in anemic hemodialysis patients
Hemodialysis international. International Symposium on Home Hemodialysis. 2022
Anemia protocols for hemodialysis patients usually titrate erythropoietin (ESA) according to hemoglobin and iron according to a threshold of ferritin, with variable response seen. A universally optimum threshold for ferritin may be incorrect, and another view is that ESA and iron are alternative anemia treatments, which should be selected based on the likely response to each. Hemodialysis patients developing moderate anemia were randomised to treatment with either an increase in ESA or a course of intravenous iron. Over 2423 patient-months in 197 patients, there were 133 anemia episodes with randomized treatment. Treatment failure was seen in 20/66 patients treated with ESA and 20/67 patients treated with iron (30.3 vs. 29.9%, p = 1.0). Successful ESA treatment was associated with lower C-reactive protein (13.5 vs. 28.6 mg/L, p = 0.038) and lower previous ESA dose (6621 vs. 9273 μg/week, p = 0.097). Successful iron treatment was associated with lower reticulocyte hemoglobin (33.8 vs. 35.5 pg, p = 0.047), lower hepcidin (91.4 vs. 131.0 μg/ml, p = 0.021), and higher C-reactive protein (29.5 vs. 12.6 mg/L, p = 0.085). A four-variable iron preference score was developed to indicate the more favorable treatment, which in a retrospective analysis reduced treatment failure to 17%. Increased ESA and iron are equally effective, though treatment failure occurs in almost 30%. Baseline variables including hepcidin can predict treatment response, and a four-variable score shows promise in allowing directed treatment with improved response rates.
Two Phase 3 Studies on Ophthalmologic Effects of Roxadustat Versus Darbepoetin
Kidney international reports. 2022;7(4):763-775
INTRODUCTION Roxadustat is an orally administered hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor that represents a novel therapeutic option for patients with anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS Conducted in Japan, CL-0307 (NCT02952092) and CL-310 (NCT02988973) were phase 3, darbepoetin alfa (DA)-controlled studies conducted in dialysis-dependent (DD) and non-DD (NDD) patients with CKD, respectively, where patients were randomized to receive roxadustat or DA. Ophthalmic imaging and assessments of visual acuity were performed up to week 24 or at study discontinuation. Ophthalmic imaging was centrally evaluated by independent readers masked to the study treatment. RESULTS In CL-0307, 302 patients (roxadustat, n = 150; DA, n = 152) received ≥1 dose of the study drug and were included in this analysis. In CL-0310, 262 patients (roxadustat, n = 131; DA, n = 131) received ≥1 dose of the study drug and were included in this analysis. Proportions of DD patients with new or worsening retinal hemorrhages (RHs) in the roxadustat group and DA group were 32.4% (46 of 142) and 36.6% (53 of 145), respectively. Proportions of NDD patients with CKD with new or worsening RH in the roxadustat and DA groups were 31.4% (38 of 121) and 39.8% (51 of 128), respectively. Similar trends were apparent in subgroup analyses: patients with/without RH at baseline and with/without diabetes mellitus at baseline. In both studies, there were no differences in retinal thickness, visual acuity, presence of hard exudates or cotton wool spots, or presence of intra- and subretinal fluid between groups, at any given time point. CONCLUSION In these studies, roxadustat, compared with DA, was not associated with an increased risk of adverse ophthalmologic events in these cohorts.
Roxadustat Versus Epoetin Alfa for Treating Anemia in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease on Dialysis: Results from the Randomized Phase 3 ROCKIES Study
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 2022;33(4):850-866
BACKGROUND Concerns regarding cardiovascular safety with current treatments for anemia in patients with dialysis-dependent (DD)-CKD have encouraged the development of alternatives. Roxadustat, an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, stimulates erythropoiesis by increasing endogenous erythropoietin and iron availability. METHODS In this open-label phase 3 study, patients with DD-CKD and anemia were randomized 1:1 to oral roxadustat three times weekly or parenteral epoetin alfa per local clinic practice. Initial roxadustat dose depended on erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dose at screening for patients already on them and was weight-based for those not on them. The primary efficacy end point was mean hemoglobin change from baseline averaged over weeks 28‒52 for roxadustat versus epoetin alfa, regardless of rescue therapy use, tested for noninferiority (margin, -0.75 g/dl). Adverse events (AEs) were assessed. RESULTS Among 2133 patients randomized (n=1068 roxadustat, n=1065 epoetin alfa), mean age was 54.0 years, and 89.1% and 10.8% were on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, respectively. Mean (95% confidence interval) hemoglobin change from baseline was 0.77 (0.69 to 0.85) g/dl with roxadustat and 0.68 (0.60 to 0.76) g/dl with epoetin alfa, demonstrating noninferiority (least squares mean difference [95% CI], 0.09 [0.01 to 0.18]; P<0.001). The proportion of patients experiencing ≥1 AE and ≥1 serious AE was 85.0% and 57.6% with roxadustat and 84.5% and 57.5% with epoetin alfa, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Roxadustat effectively increased hemoglobin in patients with DD-CKD, with an AE profile comparable to epoetin alfa. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NAME AND REGISTRATION NUMBER Safety and Efficacy Study of Roxadustat to Treat Anemia in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease, on Dialysis. CLINICALTRIALS gov Identifier: NCT02174731.
Erythropoietin in Acute Kidney Injury (EAKI): a pragmatic randomized clinical trial
BMC nephrology. 2022;23(1):100
BACKGROUND Treatment with erythropoietin is well established for anemia in chronic kidney disease patients but not well studied in acute kidney injury. METHODS This is a multicenter, randomized, pragmatic controlled clinical trial. It included 134 hospitalized patients with anemia defined as hemoglobin < 11 g/dL and acute kidney injury defined as an increase of serum creatinine of ≥ 0.3 mg/dL within 48 h or 1.5 times baseline. One arm received recombinant human erythropoietin 4000 UI subcutaneously every other day (intervention; n = 67) and the second received standard of care (control; n = 67) during the hospitalization until discharge or death. The primary outcome was the need for transfusion; secondary outcomes were death, renal recovery, need for dialysis. RESULTS There was no statistically significant difference in transfusion need (RR = 1.05, 95%CI 0.65,1.68; p = 0.855), in renal recovery full or partial (RR = 0.96, 95%CI 0.81,1.15; p = 0.671), in need for dialysis (RR = 11.00, 95%CI 0.62, 195.08; p = 0.102) or in death (RR = 1.43, 95%CI 0.58,3.53; p = 0.440) between the erythropoietin and the control group. CONCLUSIONS Erythropoietin treatment had no impact on transfusions, renal recovery or mortality in acute kidney injury patients with anemia. The trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03401710, 17/01/2018).
The comparative effects of intravenous iron on oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with chronic kidney disease and iron deficiency: a randomized controlled pilot study
Kidney research and clinical practice. 2021
BACKGROUND Concerns exist regarding the pro-oxidant and inflammatory potential of intravenous (IV) iron due to labile plasma iron (LPI) generation. This IRON-CKD trial compared the effects of different IV irons on oxidative stress and inflammation. METHODS In this randomized open-label explorative single-center study in the United Kingdom, non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with iron deficiency were randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive a single infusion of 200 mg iron dextran, or 200 mg iron sucrose (IS), or 200 mg or 1,000 mg ferric derisomaltose (FDI) and were followed up for 3 months. The primary outcomes measured were induction of oxidative stress and inflammation. Secondarily, efficacy, vascular function, quality of life, and safety were monitored. RESULTS Forty patients were enrolled. No significant rise in oxidative stress existed, regardless of preparation or dose. There was a significant rise in LPI with 1,000 mg FDI at 2 hours that normalized within a week, not impacting oxidative stress or inflammation. A delayed rise in C-reactive protein was noted with IS. High-dose FDI produced a sustained serum ferritin increase (mean ± standard error of the mean of predose: 69.1 ± 18.4 μg/L, 3 months: 271.0 ± 83.3 μg/L; p = 0.007). Hemoglobin remained stable throughout. No adverse drug reactions were recorded during the study. CONCLUSION A single dose of IV iron in CKD patients does not trigger oxidative stress or inflammation biomarkers. Third-generation IV irons have a reassuring safety profile, and high-dose FDI produced a sustained serum ferritin rise and more efficient iron repletion, with no significant pro-oxidant or inflammatory signals when compared to a lower dose and other IV irons.
Roxadustat for the Maintenance Treatment of Anemia in Patients with End-Stage Kidney Disease on Stable Dialysis: A European Phase 3, Randomized, Open-Label, Active-Controlled Study (PYRENEES)
Advances in therapy. 2021
INTRODUCTION Roxadustat is an orally administered hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor being developed for the treatment of anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This European, phase 3, randomized, open-label, active-controlled study investigated efficacy and safety of roxadustat in patients with end-stage kidney disease on dialysis for at least 4 months. METHODS Patients were randomized to switch from an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) (epoetin alfa or darbepoetin alfa) to roxadustat three times/week or to continue their previous ESA. Roxadustat and ESA doses were adjusted to maintain hemoglobin within 10.0-12.0 g/dL during the treatment period (day 1 up to 52-104 weeks). Primary endpoints were hemoglobin change from baseline (CFB) to the average of weeks 28-36 without rescue therapy and hemoglobin CFB to the average of weeks 28-52 regardless of rescue therapy. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were assessed descriptively. RESULTS Of 1081 screened patients, 836 were randomized and received treatment (roxadustat, n = 415; ESA, n = 421). The least squares means (95% CI) of the treatment difference (roxadustat - ESA) for hemoglobin CFB to weeks 28-36 (without rescue therapy) and CFB to weeks 28-52 (regardless of rescue therapy) were 0.235 (0.132, 0.339) g/dL and 0.171 (0.082, 0.261) g/dL, respectively, demonstrating non-inferiority of roxadustat to ESA (non-inferiority margin of - 0.75 g/dL). The proportions of patients who achieved target hemoglobin without rescue therapy during weeks 28-36 were 84.2% (roxadustat) and 82.4% (ESA). Roxadustat was superior to ESA in decreasing LDL cholesterol from baseline to the average of weeks 12-28. Serious TEAEs occurred in 50.7% (roxadustat) and 45.0% (ESA) of patients. Common TEAEs in both treatment groups included hypertension, arteriovenous fistula thrombosis, headache, and diarrhea. CONCLUSION Roxadustat was non-inferior to ESAs in maintaining hemoglobin levels in this cohort of patients with anemia of CKD on dialysis for at least 4 months who were previously treated with ESAs. Observed TEAEs were consistent with previous studies.
Patients with end-stage kidney disease on dialysis enrolled in the European multicentre PYRENEES study (n= 836).
Roxadustat (n= 415).
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), (n= 421).
The least squares means of the treatment difference (roxadustat - ESA) for haemoglobin change from baseline to weeks 28-36 (without rescue therapy) and CFB to weeks 28-52 (regardless of rescue therapy) were 0.235 (0.132, 0.339) g/dL and 0.171 (0.082, 0.261) g/dL, respectively. The proportions of patients who achieved target haemoglobin without rescue therapy during weeks 28-36 were 84.2% (roxadustat) and 82.4% (ESA). Serious treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) occurred in 50.7% (roxadustat) and 45.0% (ESA) of patients. Common TEAEs in both treatment groups included hypertension, arteriovenous fistula thrombosis, headache, and diarrhoea.