The efficacy and safety of roxadustat for the treatment of anemia in non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease patients: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials
PloS one. 2022;17(4):e0266243
BACKGROUND Roxadustat (ROX) is a new medication for anemia as a complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our meta-analysis aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ROX, especially on the cardiovascular risks, for anemia in NDD-CKD patients. METHODS Electronic databases were searched systematically from inception to July 2021 to look for randomized control trials (RCTs) that evaluated ROX NDD-CKD patients. Hemoglobin level and iron utilization parameters, including ferritin, serum iron, transferrin saturation (TSAT), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin, and hepcidin were analyzed for efficacy. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) and standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated and presented with their 95% confidential intervals (CIs). RESULTS Nine RCTs included a total of 3,175 patients in the ROX group and 2,446 patients in the control group. When compared the control group, ROX increased Hb level significantly (SMD: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.22; P< 0.00001) and improved iron utilization parameters by decreasing ferritin (SMD: -0.32; 95% CI: -0.51, -0.14; P = 0.0006), TSAT (SMD: -0.19; 95% CI: -0.32, -0.07; P = 0.003), and hepcidin (SMD: -0.74; 95% CI: -1.09, -0.39; P< 0.0001) and increasing TIBC (SMD: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.22; P< 0.00001) and transferrin (SMD: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.71; P< 0.00001). As for safety, ROX was associated with higher serious adverse effects (RR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.13; P = 0.01), deep venous thrombosis (DVT) (RR: 3.80; 95% CI: 1.5, 9.64; P = 0.08), and hypertension (HTN) (RR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.65; P = 0.001). CONCLUSION We concluded that ROX increased Hb level and improved iron utilization parameters in NDD-CKD patients, but ROX was associated with higher serious adverse effects, especially DVT and HTN. Our results support the use of ROX for NDD-CKD patients with anemia. However, higher-quality RCTs are still needed to ensure its safety and risk of thrombosis.
Efficacy and Safety of Daprodustat Vs rhEPO for Anemia in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2022;13:746265
Introduction: Daprodustat, a novel hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitor (HIF-PHI), its efficacy and safety remain unclear. Thus, we conducted this meta-analysis aiming at investigating its efficacy and safety on the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related anemia. Methods: We systematically searched for relevant studies in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Clinical Trial Registries databases from inception until December 2021. We selected randomized controlled trials comparing daprodustat with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in anemia patients with CKD with or without dialysis. Results: Seven studies including 7933 patients met the inclusion criteria. For both nondialysis-dependent (NDD-) CKD and dialysis-dependent (DD-) CKD patients, the pooled results showed that there was no significant difference in the changes in hemoglobin levels between the daprodustat and rhEPO groups (mean difference (MD) = -0.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.38, 0.35, p = 0.95; MD = 0.15, 95% CI = -0.29, 0.60, p = 0.50; respectively). In addition, a significant increase in transferrin saturation (TSAT), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and total iron was observed in daprodustat groups compared with rhEPO groups in DD-CKD patients (p < 0.05). As for safety, the overall frequency of adverse events was similar between the daprodustat and rhEPO groups in DD-CKD patients (relative risk (RR) = 0.99, 95%CI = 0.92, 1.06, p = 0.76), and the trial sequential analysis (TSA) confirmed this result. But for NDD-CKD patients, the incidence of adverse events in the daprodustat groups was significantly higher than that of rhEPO groups (RR = 1.04, 95%CI = 1.01,1.07, p = 0.02), while the TSA corrected this result. No trend of increasing incidence of serious adverse events was found in all daprodustat treated patients, but the TSA could not confirm this result. Conclusion: Although daprodustat was noninferior to rhEPO in correcting anemia in both NDD-CKD and DD-CKD patients, it seemed to have a better effect on optimizing iron metabolism in DD-CKD patients. Daprodustat may be a promising alternative for the treatment of anemia in patients with CKD. However, due to the lack of included studies, future researches are needed to further evaluate the therapeutic effect of daprodustat. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, identifier CRD42021229636.
Use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in children with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review
Clinical kidney journal. 2022;15(8):1483-1505
BACKGROUND Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) revolutionized the management of anaemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) when introduced in the late 1980s. A range of ESA types, preparations and administration modalities now exist, with newer agents requiring less frequent administration. Although systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been published in adults, no systematic review has been conducted investigating ESAs in children. METHODS The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses statement for the conduct of systematic reviews was used. All available literature on outcomes relating to ESAs in children with CKD was sought. A search of the MEDLINE, CINAHL and Embase databases was conducted by two independent reviewers. Inclusion criteria were published trials in English, children with chronic and end-stage kidney disease and use of any ESA studied against any outcome measure. An assessment of risk of bias was carried out in all included randomized trials using the criteria from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Two tables were used for data extraction for randomized and observational studies. Study type, participants, inclusion criteria, case characteristics, follow-up duration, ESA type and dosage, interventions and outcomes were extracted by one author. RESULTS Of 965 identified articles, 58 were included covering 54 cohorts. Six were randomized trials and 48 were observational studies. A total of 38 studies assessed the efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO), 11 of darbepoetin alpha (DA) and 3 of continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA), with 6 studies appraising secondary outcome measures exclusively. Recruitment to studies was a consistent challenge. The most common adverse effect was hypertension, although confounding effects often limited direct correlation. Two large cohort studies demonstrated a greater hazard of death independently associated with high ESA dose. Secondary outcome measures included quality of life measures, growth and nutrition, exercise capacity, injection site pain, cardiovascular function, intelligent quotient, evoked potentials and platelet function. CONCLUSIONS All ESA preparations and modes of administration were efficacious, with evidence of harm at higher doses. Evidence supports individualizing treatments, with strong consideration given to alternate treatments in patients who appear resistant to ESA therapy. Further research should focus on randomized trials comparing the efficacy of different preparations, treatment options in apparently ESA-resistant cohorts and clarification of meaningful secondary outcomes to consolidate patient-relevant indices.
The Effect of Iron Supplementation on FGF23 in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: a Systematic Review and Time-Response Meta-Analysis
Biological trace element research. 2021;199(12):4516-4524
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) gene is found to be responsible for autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, and is highly expressed in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). We evaluated the efficacy of different iron treatments on FGF23 levels in dialysis-dependent and non-dialysis-dependent CKD patients with IDA. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different types of iron treatment versus placebo in CKD patients up to May 2020. We investigated the efficacy of iron treatment on the levels of FGF23 and C-terminal FGF23 (cFGF23) in CKD patients. We estimated weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the random-effects model. Nine studies with 11 arms were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, iron treatment showed a significant reduction in FGF23 levels compared to control group (WMD: - 60.56 pg/ml, 95% CI: - 92.17, - 28.95). Compared to placebo, subgroup analysis showed that oral iron therapy (WMD: - 6.98 pg/ml, 95% CI: - 10.66, - 3.31) was more effective than intravenous (IV) iron therapy (WMD: 4.90 pg/ml, 95% CI: - 12.03, 21.83) on FGF23 levels. There was no significant change in cFGF23 levels between iron treatment and control group (WMD: - 64.72 Ru/ml, 95% CI: - 147.69, 18.25). Subgroup analysis showed that oral iron therapy resulted in a significant reduction in cFGF23 levels compared to control group (WMD: - 150.48 RU/ml, 95% CI: - 151.31, - 149.65). In conclusion, iron treatment was associated with a significant decrease in FGF23 levels in CKD patients.
The efficacy of Roxadustat for the treatment of anemia in dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease patients: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials
Annals of translational medicine. 2021;9(23):1714
BACKGROUND Anemia is a common complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) with increased morbidity and mortality. Recently published RCTs were conducted to compare the effect of the new medication roxadustat (ROX) with erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) in dialysis-dependent CKD (DD-CKD) patients. Our article aimed to meta-analyze published RCTs to investigate the efficacy and safety of ROX for anemia in DD-CKD patients and update the effect of the new studies on overall analysis with subsequent impact on management. METHODS Electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Central, and Google Scholar) were searched systematically from inception to July 2021 by using this search term (Roxadustat OR ASP1517 OR FG4592 OR "FG-4592") AND (kidney OR renal) AND (Anemia). We only included randomized control trials (RCTs) that reported the primary outcome of change in hemoglobin (Hb) level and iron utilization parameters, including ferritin, serum iron, TSAT, TIBC, transferrin, and hepcidin. RESULTS Ten RCTs were finally included with 3031 patients in the ROX group and 2737 patients in the control group. ROX was associated with increase in Hb level (SMD: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.39; P=0.03), TIBC (SMD: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.98; P<0.00001), serum iron (SMD: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.36; P<0.00001), transferrin (SMD: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.15; P<0.00001) and decrease in hepcidin (SMD: -15.53; 95% CI: -28.07, -3.00; P<0.02) when compared with control group. There was no difference between ROX and the control group regarding ferritin level and TSAT. Sensitivity analysis by removing the most recent studies, Chen et al. or Hou et al. did not show significant difference in regard to change in Hb level. There was no difference between both groups regarding the serious side effects. However, ROX showed higher TEAEs when compared to the control group (RR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.05; P=0.002). DISCUSSION Our updated meta-analysis concluded that ROX increased Hb level and improved iron utilization parameters in DD-CKD patients, but ROX was associated with higher TEAEs. Our results support the use of ROX for DD-CKD patients with anemia. However, higher-quality RCTs are still needed to confirm the results of our review.
Roxadustat for the treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney diseases: a meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Treating renal anemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) or erythropoietin analogs is effective but has side effects. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of roxadustat in treating CKD-induced anemia. METHODS We searched publications online and conducted a meta-analysis and calculated relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs for continuous data. RESULTS Of 110 articles, nine were included that contained 12 data sets and 11 randomized control trials on roxadustat. In the non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) high-dose/low-dose subgroups, the change in hemoglobin (Hb) levels was significantly higher in the roxadustat group than in the placebo group (P<0.0001, P=0.001, respectively). The Hb response rate of the roxadustat is higher in the NDD subgroup than in the placebo group (P<0.00001, MD=6.92, 95% CI: 4.03, 11.89). However, in the dialysis-dependent subgroup, there was no significant difference in the change in Hb levels or the Hb response rate between the roxadustat and ESA groups. There was no change in the mortality in the roxadustat group compared to that in the placebo/ESA group. Hyperkalemia may be a side effect of roxadustat. CONCLUSIONS Roxadustat elevated the serum Hb levels in a manner similar to that observed for ESAs. Roxadustat raised the Hb levels more significantly than the placebo and showed a higher Hb response rate than the placebo group in NDD patients. Roxadustat is a safe and effective drug for anemia in CKD patients.
Patients with chronic kidney disease-induced anaemia (9 studies).
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) or erythropoietin analogues or placebo.
In the non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) high-dose/low-dose subgroups, the change in haemoglobin (Hb) levels was significantly higher in the roxadustat group than in the placebo group. The Hb response rate of the roxadustat is higher in the NDD subgroup than in the placebo group (MD=6.92). In the dialysis-dependent subgroup, there was no significant difference in the change in Hb levels or the Hb response rate between the roxadustat and ESA groups. There was no change in the mortality in the roxadustat group compared to that in the placebo/ESA group.
The efficacy and safety of roxadustat treatment for anemia in patients with kidney disease: a meta-analysis and systematic review
International urology and nephrology. 2021
BACKGROUND Anemia is a common complication for patients with kidney disease. Roxadustat is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (PHI), which is a newly approved oral drug for anemia. We performed this study to build evidence regarding efficacy and safety of roxadustat in kidney disease patients with or without dialysis. METHODS We searched the databases of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library and clinicaltrials.gov from the inception to July 20, 2020. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared roxadustat with placebo or other therapies in the treatment of anemia in kidney disease patients were included. Data were extracted from eligible studies and pooled in a meta-analysis model using RevMan5.3 and stata13.0 software. RESULTS Eight RCTs with 1010 patients were included in our analysis. We found that roxadustat significantly increased hemoglobin (Hb) level (1.10 g/dL, 95% CI [0.52 g/dL, 1.67 g/dL], p = 0.0002), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) (58.71 µg/dL, 95% CI [44.10 µg/dL, 73.32 µg/dL], p < 0.00001), iron level (9.28 µg/dL, 95% CI [0.11 µg/dL, 18.45 µg/dL], p = 0.05) compared with control group in kidney disease patients. In addition, our result showed that a significant reduction in hepcidin level (- 31.96 ng/mL, 95% CI [- 35.05 ng/mL, - 28.87 ng/mL], p < 0.00001), ferritin (- 44.82 ng/mL, 95% CI [- 64.42 ng/mL, - 25.23 ng/mL], p < 0.00001) was associated with roxadustat. No difference was found between roxadustat and control group in terms of oral iron supplementation, adverse events (AEs), serious adverse events (SAEs), infection, myocardial infraction, stroke, heart failure and death. CONCLUSIONS Roxadustat has higher mean Hb level than placebo or EPO. Due to the short follow-up period and the lack of critical data, more RCTs are needed to prove long-term safety and effectiveness of roxadustat in the future.
Efficacy and safety of HIF prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitor vs epoetin and darbepoetin for anemia in chronic kidney disease patients not undergoing dialysis: a network meta-analysis
Pharmacol Res. 2020;:105020
Hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (HIF-PHIs) are a new class of oral medicines being developed for the treatment of anemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of HIF-PHI vs epoetin and darbepoetin in CKD patients with anemia not undergoing dialysis. The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and http://clinicaltrials.gov/ clinicaltrials.gov databases were searched from inception to October 2019 for randomized controlled trials investigating different agents (six HIF-PHIs, epoetin, darbepoetin, and placebo) for treating CKD patients with anemia that did not undergo dialysis. The outcomes included a change in hemoglobin (Hb) levels and all-cause mortality. A total of 19 studies were included. Compared with the placebo, except for vadadustat (mean differences: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11-2.35), the other drugs significantly increased Hb levels, with mean differences of 2.46 (95% CI: 0.933.99) for desidustat, 1.81 (0.872.75) for enarodustat, 1.68 (0.642.72) for molidustat, 1.66 (0.892.44) for epoetin, 1.63 (0.692.56) for darbepoetin, 1.61 (0.992.22) for roxadustat, and 1.55 (0.742.36) for daprodustat. No differences were found in the Hb level elevations among these eight drugs. Compared with the placebo, there also was no significant association between the drugs and all-cause mortality (molidustat of RR, 0.39 [95% CI, 0.062.59]; roxadustat, 0.40 (0.062.84); enarodustat, 0.33 (0.0116.25); desidustat, 0.34 (0.0117.00); epoetin, 0.50 (0.181.42); daprodustat, 0.54 (0.093.31); darbepoetin, 1.03 (0.651.65); and vadadustat, 1.43 (0.1513.27)). No differences were observed in the all-cause mortality among the drugs. In conclusion, these HIF-PHIs are effective and relatively tolerant for treating anemia patients with CKD not undergoing dialysis. Further research should consider the limitations of our study to evaluate the value of these HIF-PHIs in clinical settings.
Efficacy and Safety of Daprodustat for Anemia Therapy in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2020;11:573645
Objective: Daprodustat is a novel oral agent in treating anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and several clinical trials have been conducted to compare daprodustat with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) or placebo. Our systematic review aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of daprodustat for anemia treatment in both dialysis-dependent (DD) and non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) patients. Methods: Six databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting daprodustat vs. rhEPO or placebo for anemia patients in CKD. The outcome indicators were focused on hemoglobin (Hb), ferritin, transferrin saturation (TSAT), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and serious adverse events (SAEs). Results: Eight eligible studies with 1,516 participants were included. For both NDD and DD patients, changes in Hb levels from baseline were significantly higher in daprodustat group than that in the placebo (mean difference (MD) = 1.73, [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34 to 3.12], p = 0.01; MD = 1.88, [95% CI, 0.68 to 3.09], p = 0.002; respectively), and there was no significant difference between daprodustat and rhEPO group (MD = 0.05, [95% CI, -0.49 to 0.59], p = 0.86; MD = 0.12, [95% CI, -0.28 to 0.52], p = 0.55; respectively). The indexes of iron metabolism were improved significantly in the daprodustat group compared to placebo- or rhEPO-treated patients, while there was no similar change in terms of TSAT for DD patients. Furthermore, no trend of increasing plasma VEGF was observed in daprodustat-treated subjects. As for safety, there was no significant difference in the incidence of SAEs between daprodustat and placebo treatment, while the incidence of SAEs in the daprodustat group was significantly lower than that in the rhEPO group. Conclusion: Daprodustat was efficacious and well tolerated for anemia in both NDD and DD patients in the short term based on current RCTs. And daprodustat may become an effective alternative for treatment of anemia with CKD. Since the application of daprodustat is still under exploration, future researches should consider the limitations of our study to evaluate the value of daprodustat.
Physical health-related quality of life at higher achieved hemoglobin levels among chronic kidney disease patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMC Nephrol. 2020;21(1):259
BACKGROUND The impact of anemia treatment with erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESA) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is controversial, particularly regarding optimal hemoglobin (Hb) target ranges. METHODS We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCT) with ESA to estimate the effect of different achieved Hb values on physical HRQOL and functionality. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, PEDro, PsycINFO and Web of Science databases, until May 2020. Two authors independently extracted data from studies. We included observational and RCTs that enrolled CKD patients undergoing anemia treatment with ESA with different achieved Hb levels among groups. We excluded studies with achieved Hb < 9 g/dL. For the meta-analysis, we included RCTs with control groups achieving Hb 10-11.5 g/dL and active groups with Hb > 11.5 g/dL. We analyzed the standardized mean difference (SMD) between groups for physical HRQOL. RESULTS Among 8496 studies, fifteen RCTs and five observational studies were included for the systematic review. We performed the meta-analysis in a subset of eleven eligible RCTs. For physical role and physical function, SMDs were 0.0875 [95% CI: - 0.0025 - 0.178] and 0.08 [95% CI: - 0.03 - 0.19], respectively. For fatigue, SMD was 0.16 [95% CI: 0.09-0.24]. Subgroup analysis showed that trials with greater achieved Hb had greater pooled effects sizes - 0.21 [95% CI: 0.07-0.36] for Hb > 13 g/dL vs. 0.09 [95% CI: 0.02-0.16] for Hb 11.5-13 g/dL. Proportion of older and long-term diabetic patients across studies were associated with lower effect sizes. CONCLUSION Achieved hemoglobin higher than currently recommended targets may be associated with small but potentially clinically significant improvement in fatigue, but not in physical role or physical function. Younger and non-diabetic patients may experience more pronounced benefits of higher Hb levels after treatment with ESAs.