Comparison of a Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection and a Conventional Steroid Injection for Pain Relief and Functional Improvement of Partial Supraspinatus Tears
Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine. 2021;9(9):23259671211024937
BACKGROUND Partial supraspinatus tendon tears have frequently been treated using a subacromial corticosteroid injection or surgery. The clinical use of a platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection is an alternative treatment method for the condition, despite the paucity of evidence of its efficacy. PURPOSE To compare pain relief, functional improvement, and complications after an intratendinous PRP injection versus a subacromial corticosteroid injection for partial supraspinatus tears. STUDY DESIGN Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS A total of 32 patients with partial supraspinatus tears were randomly assigned to receive a leukocyte-poor PRP (LP-PRP) injection or a corticosteroid injection. One patient withdrew from the PRP group, leaving 15 patients in the PRP group and 16 patients in the corticosteroid group. The ultrasound-guided procedures were performed by a single experienced pain physician. Pain relief and functional improvement were evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), respectively. Treatment efficacy and complications were documented, and the 2 groups were compared at 1- and 6-month follow-up. RESULTS There were no differences in VAS and OSS scores between the PRP and corticosteroid groups at 1-month follow-up. However, the PRP group had better scores than the corticosteroid group had on both the VAS and OSS at 6-month follow-up (VAS: 14.5 ± 15.4 vs 37.5 ± 24.9, respectively; OSS: 16.2 ± 3.9 vs 25.0 ± 10.2, respectively; P < .01 for both). Both groups showed significant improvement in VAS and OSS scores from before treatment to 1-month follow-up (mean difference, 35.67 and 11.47 points, respectively, for the PRP group; mean difference, 29.69 and 11.13 points, respectively, for the corticosteroid group; P < .01 for all). The VAS and OSS scores did not change significantly at 6-month follow-up in the corticosteroid group; however, the PRP group showed continued improvement in both VAS and OSS scores between 1- and 6-month follow-up (mean difference, 15.87 and 7.40 points, respectively; P < .01 for both). There were no complications in either group. CONCLUSION An injection using either a corticosteroid or LP-PRP resulted in a similar reduction in pain and improvement in function at 1 month in patients with a partial supraspinatus tear. However, PRP showed superior benefits over the corticosteroid at 6-month follow-up.
Comparing Intra-articular Injections of Leukocyte-Poor Platelet-Rich Plasma Versus Low-Molecular Weight Hyaluronic Acid for the Treatment of Symptomatic Osteoarthritis of the Hip: A Double-Blind, Randomized Pilot Study
Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine. 2021;9(1):2325967120969210
BACKGROUND Hyaluronic acid (HA) and leukocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma (LP-PRP) are 2 nonoperative treatment options that have been studied in patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). PURPOSE To compare the efficacy of intra-articular injections of low-molecular weight (LMW) HA and LP-PRP in patients with hip OA. STUDY DESIGN Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS A total of 34 patients (36 hips) presenting with signs of hip OA were randomized to receive 3 blinded, weekly intra-articular injections of either LP-PRP or LMW-HA. Patients were prospectively evaluated before injections and at 6 weeks and then at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The primary outcome, conversion to total hip arthroplasty (THA) or a hip resurfacing procedure, was analyzed along with secondary outcomes including the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score and hip range of motion. RESULTS The final analysis included 33 hips (mean Kellgren-Lawrence grade, 2.73) (LMW-HA: n = 14; LP-PRP: n = 19) in 31 patients (18 male; mean age, 53.8 years). Significantly more patients converted to THA or a hip resurfacing procedure in the LMW-HA group (7/14; 50.0%) (mean, 1.3 years after first injection) than the LP-PRP group (3/19; 15.8%) (mean, 0.73 years after first injection) (P = .035). There was no significant improvement or decline in any outcome scores within the LMW-HA group from before injections to 6 weeks or 3, 6, and 12 months. For the LP-PRP group, WOMAC overall (P = .032), joint (P = .030), and function scores (P = .025) significantly improved from before injections to 6 weeks, and WOMAC joint scores significantly improved from before injections to 6 months (P = .036). When comparing the difference between groups in internal rotation at 90° of hip flexion from before injections to 6 months, the LP-PRP group demonstrated a mean 5.0° improvement, while the LMW-HA group showed a mean 1.5° decrease (P = .028). CONCLUSION Intra-articular hip injections of LP-PRP in patients with hip OA resulted in an improvement in WOMAC scores and hip internal rotation at 6 months and delayed the need for THA or a hip resurfacing procedure compared with treatment with LMW-HA. A longer follow-up is necessary to further compare the effects of LP-PRP and LMW-HA injections in patients with hip OA. REGISTRATION NCT01920152 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).
Efficacy of platelet-rich plasma and plasma for symptomatic treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial
BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2021;22(1):822
BACKGROUND Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has a still conflicting efficacy for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and might be a minimally invasive and safe treatment alternative. The potential benefit of only plasma (non-enriched) has never been investigated. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and plasma to improve pain and function in participants with KOA over 24 weeks. METHODS Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 3 groups (n = 62): PRP (n = 20), plasma (n = 21) and saline (n = 21). Two ultrasound-guided knee injections were performed with a 2-week interval. The primary outcome was visual analog scale 0-10 cm (VAS) for overall pain at week 24, with intermediate assessments at weeks 6 and 12. Main secondary outcomes were: KOOS, OMERACT-OARSI criteria and TUGT. RESULTS At baseline, 92% of participants were female, with a mean age of 65 years, mean BMI of 28.0 Kg/m(2)and mean VAS pain of 6.2 cm. Change in pain from baseline at week 24 were -2.9 (SD 2.5), -2.4 (SD 2.5) and -3.5 cm (SD 3.3) for PRP, plasma and saline, respectively (p intergroup = 0.499). There were no differences between the three groups at weeks 6 and 12. Similarly, there were no differences between groups regarding secondary outcomes. The PRP group showed higher frequency of adverse events (65% versus 24% and 33% for plasma and saline, respectively, p = 0.02), mostly mild transitory increase in pain. CONCLUSIONS PRP and plasma were not superior to placebo for pain and function improvement in KOA over 24 weeks. The PRP group had a higher frequency of mild transitory increase in pain. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03138317 , 03/05/2017.
The role of VEGF, PDGF and IL-6 on diabetic foot ulcer after Platelet Rich Fibrin + hyaluronic therapy
BACKGROUND Current standard management of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) consists of surgical debridement followed by soak NaCl 0.9% gauzes tight infection and glycaemic control. Nowadays the use of advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF) has emerged as an adjunctive method for treating DFUs. This study was conducted to demonstrate the ability of combine A-PRF + HA as a complementary therapy in DFUs healing related with angiogenesis,inflammation and granulation index process. METHODS This open label randomized controlled trial was conducted in Koja District Hospital and Gatot Soebroto Hospital Jakarta, Indonesia on July 2019-April 2020. DFUs patients with wound duration of three months, Wagner-2, with size of ulcer less than 40 cm(2) were included in the study. The number of subjects was calculated based on the rule of thumb and allocated randomly into three groups, namely topical A-PRF + HA, A-PRF and Sodium Chloride 0.9% as a control, for each of 10 subjects. A-PRF made by 10 mL venous blood, centrifuge 200 G in 10 min, meanwhile A-PRF + HA though mix both them with vertex machine around 5 min. Biomarker such as VEGF, PDGF and IL-6 examined from DFU taken by cotton swab and analysis using ELISA. Granulation Index was measured using ImageJ. Biomarkers and granulation index were evaluated on day 0, 3, 7 and 14. Data were analysed using SPSS version 20 with Anova and Kruskal Wallis test to compare the angiogenesis and inflammation effect between the three groups. RESULT In topical dressing A-PRF + HA, there is an increase in delta VEGF on day-3 (43.1 pg/mg protein) and day-7 (275,8 pg/mg protein) compared to A-PRF on day-3 (1.8 pg/mg protein) and day-7 (104.7 pg/mg protein), also NaCl (control) on day-3 (-4.9 pg/mg protein) and day-7 (28.3 pg/mg protein). So that the delta VEGF of A-PRF + HA group increase significantly compared with others on day-3 (p = 0.003) and day- 7 (p < 0.001). Meanwhile A-PRF + AH group, there is also a decrease in delta IL-6 after therapy on day-3 (-10.9 pg/mg protein) and day-7 (-18.3 pg/mg protein) compared to A-PRF in delta IL-6 on day- 3 (-3.7 pg/mg protein) and on day-7 (-7.8 pg/mg protein). In NaCl (control) group there is a increase delta IL-6 on day-3 (4.3 pg/mg protein) and on day-7 (35.5 pg/mg protein). So that the delta IL-6 of A-PRF + HA group decrease significantly compared with others only on day- 7 (p = 0.015). In PDGF le level analysis, A-PRF + HA group increase significantly (p = 0.012) only in day -7 compare with other group (5.5 pg/mg protein). CONCLUSION The study shows the superior role of combined A-PRF + HA in the treatment DFU though increase angiogenesis and decrease inflammation pathway. The advantage of using A-PRF + HA is that it accelerates wound healing by increasing granulation tissue compared to A-PRF alone.
Comparison of midterm results of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) versus Steroid for plantar fasciitis: A randomized control trial of 118 patients
Journal of clinical orthopaedics and trauma. 2021;13:9-14
BACKGROUND Plantar fasciitis, which is a common cause of heel pain, often results in significant morbidity. In cases who are not responsive to initial conservative treatment, invasive procedures, often in the form of local infiltration of steroid are required. These procedures are associated with significant complications. Local Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) infiltration is an emerging addition to these treatments. However, whether it is more effective in reducing pain and improving function than other treatments (such as steroid injections or whole blood) remains controversial. METHODS Skeletally mature patients with plantar fasciitis who had failed conservative therapy were randomized using envelope method into 2 groups: PRP and Steroid group. The participants were assessed for pain using Visual Analog Scale on the day of presentation, and then after therapy at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. They were additionally assessed on final follow-up using AOFAS hind-foot Score. RESULTS 118 patients were randomized into 2 groups: 58 patients to the PRP group and 60 to the Steroid group. PRP was associated with greater improvement in VAS score and resulted in superior AOFAS score at 6 months as compared to steroid injection. The authors did not find any local or systemic complications in any of the groups. The result and difference were more pronounced as the time from injection increased and maximal benefit was observed at 6 months follow-up. None of the patients needed a repeat injection at 6 months. CONCLUSION Our study expands on the previous studies to provide a better evidence for superiority of PRP over local injection of steroid in plantar fasciitis, and the authors conclude that PRP provides better pain relief and function as compared to steroid injection. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level 1 Prospective Randomized Control Trial (RCT).
Comparing efficacy of intraarticular single crosslinked Hyaluronan (HYAJOINT Plus) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) versus PRP alone for treating knee osteoarthritis
Scientific reports. 2021;11(1):140
Intraarticular hyaluronan or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is widely used in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA). The efficacy of combined hyaluronan with PRP remained inconclusive. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of combined a single crosslinked hyaluronan (HYAJOINT Plus) and a single PRP versus a single PRP in patients with knee OA. In a prospective randomized-controlled trial, 85 patients with knee OA (Kellgren-Lawrence 2) were randomized to receive a single intraarticular injection of HYAJOINT Plus (3 ml, 20 mg/ml) followed by 3 ml PRP (the combined-injection group, N = 43) or a single injection of 3 ml PRP (the one-injection group, N = 42). The primary outcome was the change from baseline in the visual analog scale (VAS) pain (0-00 mm) at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC, Likert Scale), Lequesne index, single leg stance test (SLS), use of rescue analgesics and patient satisfaction at 1, 3 and 6 months. Seventy-eight patients were available for the intention-to-treat analysis at 6 months. Both groups improved significantly in VAS pain, WOMAC, Lequesne index and SLS at each follow-up visit (p < 0.001). Patients receiving a single PRP experienced significantly greater improvements in VAS pain than patients receiving combined injections at 1-month follow-up (adjusted mean difference: - 5.6; p = 0.017). There were no significant between-group differences in several of the second outcomes at each follow-up visit, except the WOMAC-pain and WOMAC-stiffness scores favoring the one-injection group at 1 month (p = 0.025 and p = 0.011). However, at 6-month follow-up, the combined-injection group achieved significantly better VAS pain reduction (p = 0.020). No serious adverse events occurred following injections. In conclusion, either combined injections of HYAJOINT Plus and PRP or a single PRP alone was safe and effective for 6 months in patients with Kellgren-Lawrence 2 knee OA. Combined injections of HYAJOINT Plus and PRP achieved better VAS pain reduction than a single PRP at 6 months. The results indicating a long term benefit effect of a combination of HYAJOINT Plus and PRP in a particular subset of patients with moderate knee OA need to be replicated in larger trials.ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT04315103.
Prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study evaluating efficacy and safety of octagam 10% in patients with dermatomyositis ("ProDERM Study")
INTRODUCTION Dermatomyositis (DM) is an inflammatory myopathy characterized by distinct skin manifestations and muscle weakness. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been used off-label as adjuvant therapy in DM, but is not indicated for DM, due to lack of proven efficacy in a large randomized controlled trial. The objective of the ProDERM (Progress in DERMatomyositis) study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and long-term tolerability of IVIg (Octagam 10%) in patients with DM in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, Phase III study. METHODS Adult patients with active DM who were continuing standard therapy at a stable dose were eligible for this study. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive either 2 g/kg of IVIg or placebo, administered every 4 weeks until week 16 (First Period). Patients were switched to the alternate treatment if they showed clinical deterioration in the First Period. After response assessment at week 16, all patients on placebo and those without deterioration on IVIg entered the open-label Extension Period, receiving 2 g/kg IVIg every 4 weeks for 24 weeks. RESULTS The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of responders in the IVIg vs placebo arm at week 16, where response was defined per 2016 ACR/EULAR Myositis Response Criteria of at least minimal improvement [Total Improvement Score (TIS) ≥20] and without deterioration at 2 consecutive visits up to week 16. TIS consists of composite response criteria, combining weighted improvement in 6 core set measures (CSMs), Global Disease Activity (Physician and Patient), manual muscle testing-8 (MMT-8), Health Assessment Questionnaire, extra-muscular disease activity, and muscle enzymes. Secondary endpoints included the mean change in individual CSMs, time to improvement in TIS, time to confirmed deterioration in the First Period, and the overall proportion of patients with deteriorations. Adverse events, including infusion reactions and thromboembolic events, were recorded. CONCLUSIONS The ProDERM study was the first to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of IVIg (Octagam 10%) in a placebo-controlled, blinded, randomized trial in DM. The study aimed to inform on the use of IVIg in the treatment of DM, and results are expected in Q3 2020. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER NCT02728752.
Efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma gel in the treatment of refractory pressure injuries and its effect on wound healing time and patient quality of life
Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil). 2021;76:e2355
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) gel in the treatment of refractory pressure injuries and its effect on wound healing time and quality of life of patients. METHODS A random number table method was used to group 102 patients with refractory pressure injuries into either a control group (CG) (51 cases) receiving negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) or a study group (SG) (51 cases) receiving NPWT+PRP gel. RESULTS The total efficacy rate in the SG (92.16%) was higher than that in the CG (76.47%) (p<0.05). The SG exhibited lower visual analog scale (VAS) scores and pressure ulcer scale for healing (PUSH) scores, smaller wound sizes and depths, and shorter wound healing times than the CG after 21 days of treatment (p<0.05). After 6 months of treatment, the SG scored higher than the CG on the psychological, physiological, social functions, and daily activity domains on the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) scale (p<0.05). The incidence of postoperative complications in the SG (13.73%) was not significantly different from that of the CG (7.84%) (p>0.05). CONCLUSION In the treatment of refractory pressure injuries, PRP gel can accelerate wound healing, reduce wound pain, shorten the treatment cycle, regulate tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels and the expression of specific proteins in granulation tissue, reduce the levels of the inflammatory factors interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and improve the quality of life of patients without increasing complications.
Corticosteroids or platelet-rich plasma injections for rotator cuff tendinopathy: a randomized clinical trial study
Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research. 2021;16(1):333
BACKGROUND Studies evaluating the role of both corticosteroids and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathies have been contradicting. We compared structural and clinical changes in RC muscles after corticosteroids and PRP injections. METHODS This is a randomized double-blind clinical trial. All individuals with diagnosis of RC tendinitis during 2014-2017 were considered. Individuals were randomly allocated to either receive PRP or corticosteroids. Overall, 3cc of PRP was injected within the subacromial joint and another 3cc was injected at the site of the tendon tear, under the guide of sonography. For the corticosteroid group, 1cc of Depo-medrol 40mg and 1cc of lidocaine (2%) was injected within the subacromial joint. RESULTS Overall, 58 patients entered the study. Comparison of pain, range of motion (ROM), Western Ontario RC (WORC), Disability of Arm-Hand-Shoulder (DASH) scores, and supraspinatus thickness showed significant improvement during follow-ups in both groups (p<0.05). During 3 months of follow-up, pain improvement was significantly better within the PRP group during (from 6.66±2.26 to 3.08±2.14 and 5.53±1.80 to 3.88±1.99, respectively; p=0.023). Regarding ROM, the PRP group had significant improvement in adduction (20.50°±8.23° to 28°±3.61° and 23.21°±7.09° to 28.46°±4.18° for the PRP and corticosteroid groups, respectively; p=0.011) and external rotation (59.66°±23.81° to 76.66°±18.30° and 57.14°±24.69° to 65.57°±26.39°, for the PRP and corticosteroid groups, respectively; p=0.036) compared to the corticosteroid group. CONCLUSION We found that PRP renders similar results to that of corticosteroids in most clinical aspects among patients with RC tendinopathies; however, pain and ROM may show more significant improvement with the use of PRP. Considering that the use of corticosteroids may be contraindicated in some patients and may be associated with the risk of tendon rupture, we suggest the use of PRP in place of corticosteroid-based injections among patients with RC tendinopathy. TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinical trial registration code: IRCT201302174251N9.
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in osteoarthritis (OA) knee: Correct dose critical for long term clinical efficacy
Scientific reports. 2021;11(1):3971
Despite encouraging results reported with regards to Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) application in osteoarthritis (OA) knee, still critical issues like conclusive structural evidence of its efficacy, standard dose and good manual method of preparation to obtain high yield remains unanswered. Present study is an attempt to optimise the dose and concentration of therapeutic PRP and its correlation with structural, physiologic efficacy with a new manual method of PRP preparation. A total of one hundred and fifty patients were randomized to receive either PRP (10 billion platelets) or hyaluronic acid (HA; 4 ml; 75 patients in each group) and followed up till 1 year. An addition of filtration step with 1 µm filter in manual PRP processing improved platelet recovery upto 90%. Significant improvements in WOMAC (51.94 ± 7.35 vs. 57.33 ± 8.92; P < 0.001), IKDC scores (62.8 ± 6.24 vs 52.7 ± 6.39; P < 0.001), 6-min pain free walking distance (+ 120 vs. + 4; P < 0.001) persisted in PRP compared to HA group at 1 year. Significant decline IL-6 and TNF-α levels observed in PRP group (P < 0.05) compared to HA at 1 month. Study demonstrated that an absolute count of 10 billion platelets is crucial in a PRP formulation to have long sustained chondroprotective effect upto one year in moderate knee OA.