Platelet-Rich Plasma, Mesenchymal Stem Cell, and Non-metallic Suture-Based Fixation Technique in a Patellar Fracture Nonunion: A Technical Note and Systematic Review
Clinics in orthopedic surgery. 2021;13(3):344-351
BACKGROUD We performed a systematic review on the management of patellar fracture nonunion and report a novel suture-based non-metallic fixation technique associated with platelet-rich plasma and mesenchymal stem cell injections in the management of this injury. METHODS A systematic search was performed up to August 2020 in PubMed and Scopus electronic databases of scholarly articles evaluating different surgical techniques used for nonunion of patellar fractures, with no restrictions on language or year of publication. Furthermore, we describe our novel non-metallic suture fixation technique and a patient in whom this technique was applied. RESULTS A total of 9 articles were included in the systematic review. Tension band wiring was the most commonly used procedure (62.7%). Nonoperative procedures (8.1%) resulted in nonunion in all patients. The most common complication after open reduction and internal fixation was infection (7.8%). Our patient at the latest follow-up reported full functional recovery and full extension and flexion of the affected knee with no pain and subjectively normal strength. CONCLUSIONS The management of patella nonunions is still a challenge. The technique reported here can be used in patellar fracture nonunion, as well as in primary patellar fractures.
The effect of platelet-rich plasma injection on chronic Achilles tendinopathy and acute Achilles tendon rupture
Several clinical trials exploring the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) or Achilles tendinopathy (AT) have been published. However, current evidence is limited to small-sized trials. This study aims to evaluate whether PRP improves the outcomes of ATR or AT. PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials comparing PRP injection versus placebo for ATR or AT. Eleven studies with 574 patients were included. Quantitative synthesis suggested that compared with placebo, AT patients in PRP group had higher VISA-A score improvement at six-week follow-up (mean difference (MD) = 2.64; 95% CI) = 1.12 to 4.15). However, there was no significant difference between two groups for VISA-A score improvement at three-month follow-up (MD = 0.93; 95% CI = -2.75 to 4.62), or 6-month follow-up (MD = 5.46; 95% CI = -1.19 to 12.11). In ATR patients, quantitative synthesis suggested that no significant difference was seen between PRP and control group at 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year follow-up. In addition, no significant difference was detected between the two groups in improving tendon thickness and pain for AT patients, and no significant difference was seen in improving heel-rise work, maximum heel-rise height, dorsal and plantar flexion, rate of returning to sports activities, and complication for ATR patients. To conclude, no evidence indicates that PRP injection can improve the patient-reported/clinical/functional outcomes of AT or ATR. The increasing times of PRP injection could improve the outcomes, and further clinical randomized controlled trials are expected to be conducted to verify this hypothesis.
Treatment of knee osteoarthritic pain with platelet-rich plasma: a systematic review of clinical studies
Pain management. 2021
Introduction: Knee osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that is secondary to degradation of articular cartilage, reformation of subchondral bone through degradation and proliferation as well as presence of synovitis. Materials & methods: This systematic review was conducted and reported as per Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Results: A total of 30 of the 48 comparators showed statistically significant superiority with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) compared with a control, while the other 16 comparators showed no significant difference between PRP and the comparator. Conclusion: We can only recommend PRP for patients with early-stage osteoarthritis (I or II) and who are aged below 65, based on our findings. Based on the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) recommendations, while studies reviewed were randomized controlled studies, and therefore, high grade, due to variance in imprecision, risk of bias and inconsistency among the 37 studies, it would be reasonable to rate this paper as subjectively moderate.
Does the Intradiscal Injection of Platelet Rich Plasma Have Any Beneficial Role in the Management of Lumbar Disc Disease?
Global spine journal. 2021;:2192568221998367
STUDY DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. OBJECTIVES We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate whether intradiscal Platelet Rich Plasma(PRP) injection has any beneficial role in the management of lumbar disc disease. METHODS We conducted independent and duplicate electronic database searches including PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library till September 2020 for studies investigating the role of intradiscal PRP in the management of lumbar disc disease. The analysis was performed in the R platform using OpenMeta[Analyst] software. RESULTS 13 studies including 2 RCTs, 5 prospective, and 6 retrospective studies involving 319 patients were included in the meta-analysis. A single-arm meta-analysis of the included studies showed a beneficial effect of the intervention in terms of pain relief outcomes like VAS score (p < 0.001), pain component of SF-36 (p = 0.003) while such improvement was not seen in functional outcome measures like ODI score (p = 0.071), the physical component of SF-36 (p = 0.130) with significant heterogeneity noted among the included studies. No structural improvement in magnetic resonance imaging was observed (p = 0.106). No additional procedure-related adverse events were noted in the included studies (p = 0.662). CONCLUSION There is a paucity of high-quality studies to give conclusive evidence on the benefits of intradiscal PRP for lumbar disc disease. Although intradiscal PRP injection has shown some beneficial effect in controlling pain for lumbar disc disease, we could not find structural or functional improvement from the included studies. Hence, we recommend large double-blind double-arm randomized controlled studies to analyze the benefits of the intervention being analyzed.
Comparative analysis of leucocyte poor vs leucocyte rich platelet-rich plasma in the management of lateral epicondylitis: Systematic review & meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
Journal of clinical orthopaedics and trauma. 2021;19:96-107
STUDY DESIGN Systematic Review & Meta-analysis. OBJECTIVES We aim to comparatively analyse the efficacy and safety of using leucocyte-poor platelet rich plasma (LP-PRP) against leucocyte-rich platelet rich plasma (LR-PRP) in the management of lateral epicondylitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted independent and duplicate electronic database searches including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library till September 2020 for randomised controlled trials analyzing the efficacy and safety of LP-PRP and LR-PRP in the management of lateral epicondylitis. Visual Analog Score(VAS) for pain, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) Score, Patient Reported Tennis-Elbow Evaluation (PRETEE) Score, Mayo Elbow Performance Score(MEPS) and adverse events were the outcomes analyzed. Analysis was performed in R-platform using OpenMeta[Analyst] software. RESULTS We performed a single arm meta-analysis of 26 studies involving 2034 patients. On analysis it was noted that significant improvement was noted in the VAS for pain (p < 0.001), DASH score (p < 0.001), PRETEE score (p < 0.001) and MEPS (p < 0.027) compared to their pre-operative state. No significant increase in adverse events were noted compared to the control group (p = 0.170). While stratifying the results based on the type of PRP used, no significant difference was noted between the use of LP-PRP or LR-PRP in any of the above-mentioned outcome measures. CONCLUSION PRP is a safe and effective treatment option for lateral epicondylitis with clinical improvements in pain and functional scores and both types of PRP (LR-PRP & LP-PRP) offer similar results.
Effectiveness of Platelet-Rich Plasma in the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials
Orthopaedic journal of sports medicine. 2021;9(3):2325967120973284
BACKGROUND The effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections for knee osteoarthritis and the effects of leukocyte-poor PRP (LP-PRP) versus leukocyte-rich PRP (LR-PRP) are still controversial. PURPOSE To assess the effectiveness of different PRP injections through a direct and indirect meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS A systematic literature search of electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE) was performed to locate randomized controlled trials published through March 2019 that compared PRP with control treatment. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to synthesize the evidence, and meta-regression analyses were conducted to determine the influence of trial characteristics. An indirect comparison was performed to assess the effects of LP-PRP and LR-PRP compared with hyaluronic acid (HA). RESULTS A total of 21 trials were included. A clinically important benefit for pain relief was seen for intra-articular PRP compared with intra-articular saline (standardized mean difference [SMD] = -1.38 [95% CI, -2.07 to -0.70]; P < .0001; I (2) = 37%) and corticosteroid solution injection (SMD = -2.47 [95% CI, -3.34 to -1.61]; P < .00001; I (2) = 47%). As a result of heterogeneity (I (2) = 89%), there was no conclusive effect compared with HA, even though the pooling effect provided clinically relevant pain relief (SMD = -0.59 [95% CI, -0.97 to -0.21]; P = .003). Indirect meta-analysis showed that there was no significant difference between LR-PRP and LP-PRP. CONCLUSION PRP injections are beneficial for pain relief and functional improvement in knee osteoarthritis. Larger, randomized high-quality studies are needed to compare the effects of LP-PRP and LR-PRP.
The Effect of Intradiscal Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection for Management of Discogenic Lower Back Pain: A Meta-Analysis
Journal of pain research. 2021;14:505-512
OBJECTIVE Although several researches of animal and human subjects have yielded promising results regarding intradiscal injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for the management of intervertebral disc (IVD) pathologies, small sample sizes and unstandardized graft preparation procedures hampered these research efforts. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of intradiscal PRP injection for the treatment of discogenic lower back pain. METHODS The PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for relevant studies published from January 01, 1980 to December 14, 2020. The keywords used for the search were (platelet-rich plasma) AND (intradiscal OR back pain OR lumbar spine OR discogenic). Filters were used to select studies with human participants; all study designs were included. RESULTS After the systematic review, three articles, including one randomized control trial and two prospective observational studies, were included in the final analysis. Analysis of changes in visual analogue scale (VAS) scores showed that VAS scores were significantly reduced two and six months after intradiscal PRP injection (two months: standardized mean difference [SMD] = -0.837, 95% CI = -1.158 to -0.516, P < 0.001; six months: SMD = -1.430, 95% CI = -2.209 to -0.652, P < 0.001), but not after one month (SMD = -0.661, 95% CI = -1.346 to 0.023, P = 0.058). Regarding changes in Owestry Disability Index (ODI), ODI scores were significantly reduced after six months (SMD = -0.964, 95% CI = -1.885 to -0.043, P = 0.040). CONCLUSION Intradiscal PRP injections are effective in relieving pain and improving disabilities caused by discogenic lower back pain. However, the pain-reducing effect significantly manifests two or six months after the injections, but not after one month.
Efficacy and Safety of Intra-Articular Platelet-Rich Plasma in Osteoarthritis Knee: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
BioMed research international. 2021;2021:2191926
BACKGROUND Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common disease in aged adults. Intra-articular (IA) injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy is an effective minimally invasive treatment for KOA. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with placebo or other conservative treatments. METHODS We conducted a meta-analysis to identify relevant articles from online register databases such as PubMed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. The primary outcomes were the visual analogue scale (VAS) score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) score, and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective score. The secondary outcome was the adverse event rate. RESULTS A total of 895 articles were identified, of which 23 randomized controlled trials that met the inclusion criteria were determined as eligible. Compared with placebo, PRP had a lower VAS score and higher IKDC subjective score at the 6(th) month after treatment and significantly less WOMAC score during the follow-up period. Compared with oral NSAIDs, PRP gained a lower WOMAC score at the 6(th) month after treatment. The VAS score decreased after treatment when reaching PRP and CS. As compared to the HA, the VAS score, WOMAC score, and IKDC subjective score all revealed better PRP results. There were no significant differences in adverse event rates comparing PRP versus placebo or HA. Different PRP applications did not show significant differences in VAS score in the 1(st) month and WOMAC score in the 3(rd) month after treatment. CONCLUSION To compare with the conservative treatments mentioned above, PRP is more effective in relieving symptoms. There were no significant differences between triple PRP application and single PRP application in short-term curative effect.
The Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Improving Pain and Function for Lateral Epicondylitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis with Risk-of-Bias Assessment
Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association. 2021
PURPOSE To assess the efficacy of PRP for lateral epicondylitis and evaluate its impact on pain and functional outcomes. METHODS This study followed Preferred Reporting Items and Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in September 2019 and repeated in April 2020 using electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library. Baseline, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month data were extracted for visual analog scale (VAS), disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH), and modified Mayo Clinic performance index for the elbow (MAYO) scores. Only level 1 studies with patients who had not undergone surgery were included. Outcomes data, study design, demographic variables, PRP formulation, and comparator treatments were recorded. Statistical analyses of pooled weighted mean differences (WMD) were performed and compared to estimated minimal clinically important difference (MCID) values. The Coleman Methodology Score (CMS) was used to assess methodological quality and the Cochrane risk-of-bias assessment was performed. RESULTS This review included sixteen level I studies, 9 (581 total patients, 281 receiving single injections of PRP) of which were quantitatively analyzed. Average age was 41.5 years, 56.8% of patients were female, and mean follow-up was 7.5 months. The mean CMS was 78.94 ± 12.74 (range 59-97) and 5 of 16 studies were at a low risk for bias. Patients who received PRP reported significantly improved VAS scores at 3 months (WMD: -0.85; 95% CI: -1.03, -0.66; p<0.01) and 6 months (WMD: -0.74; 95% CI: -0.98, -0.50; p<0.01) compared to those who received autologous whole blood, though MAYO scores were statistically equivalent. Comparing PRP to corticosteroids, VAS and DASH scores were not significantly different at 3 months, though PRP was superior at 6 months for VAS (WMD: -1.70; 95% CI: -2.65, -0.75; p<0.01) and DASH (WMD: -6.23; 95% CI: -10.78, -1.69; p<0.01). Most differences in VAS and DASH scores exceeded the 5% absolute difference estimate for their respective MCIDs but fell short of the 10% estimate. CONCLUSION Considering the small number of comparable studies, lack of quantification of specific PRP content, considerable heterogeneity between each RCT, and that most effect sizes were equivocal within the framework of two estimated MCID values, the authors can neither scientifically support nor discourage the usage of PRP for lateral epicondylitis despite finding statistically significant improvements in pain and functional outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level I Prognostic.
Conservative treatment of partial-thickness rotator cuff tears and tendinopathy with platelet-rich plasma: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Clinical rehabilitation. 2021;:2692155211011944
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of platelet-rich plasma as a conservative therapy in individuals with partial-thickness rotator cuff tears or tendinopathy on pain, and function. DATA SOURCES Embase, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Web of Science, CINAHL, PEDro, and the grey literature (to 31 March 2021). METHODS Randomized controlled trials in English that reported short-term (6 ± 1 months), or long-term (⩾1 year) outcomes (shoulder pain or function) were conducted. Two independent reviewers screened the literature, completed the assessment of the Cochrane's risk of bias and extracted the data. Mean difference or standardized mean difference was used for continuous data. Heterogeneity was identified with I(2) test. RESULTS A total of 11 studies were eligible, and nine studies (n = 629) were included in this meta-analysis, that showed statistically significant short-term effects of platelet-rich plasma on pain relief (MD = -1.56; 95% CI -2.82 to -0.30), Constant-Murley score (MD = 16.48; 95% CI 12.57 to 20.40), and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (MD = -18.78; 95% CI -36.55 to -1.02). Nonetheless, no long-term effect was observed on pain and function, except Constant-Murley score (MD = 24.30; 95% CI 23.27 to 25.33). The results of minimal important difference reached the minimal clinically important difference, except American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons. For subgroup analysis, differences of pain relief were statistically significant in platelet-rich plasma-treated groups with double centrifugation, single injection, and post-injection rehabilitation. CONCLUSION Our results suggested platelet-rich plasma had positive effects on pain relief and functional improvement for partial-thickness rotator cuff tears and rotator cuff tendinopathy, although the effects may not last for a long time.