A prospective assessment of outcomes following the use of autologous blood for the management of recurrent temporomandibular joint dislocation
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 2017;22((1):):53-57
PURPOSE The objective of the study was to compare results of treatment for chronic recurrent temporomandibular joint dislocation (CRTMD) by autologous blood injection (ABI) using two different methods of administration (combination intra- and peri-articular, and peri-articular alone). MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty patients diagnosed with CRTMD were randomly divided into two groups of 20 each (A and B). Group A were treated by intra- and peri-articular blood injection, group B were treated by peri-articular injection alone. The follow-up was done at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. The study assessed presence of dislocations, pain (VAS, 0-10), interincisal mouth opening (IMO), and the presence of sound phenomena. The treatment was considered successful in patients without the persistence of CRTMD symptoms, as well as with a VAS of 0-1. RESULT After 12 months, a beneficial therapeutic effect in group B was seen in 11 patients, while 16 patients from group A had a therapeutic effect. CONCLUSION Intra- and peri-articular ABI is more effective than peri-articular blood application alone in the treatment of CRTMD, although the difference was not statistically significant.
Autologous whole blood or corticosteroid injections for the treatment of epicondylopathy and plantar fasciopathy? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Physical Therapy in Sport : Official Journal of the Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Sports Medicine. 2016;22:114-122
OBJECTIVES To compare the efficacy of autologous whole blood with that of corticosteroid injections on epicondylopathy and plantar fasciopathy. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS The databases of PubMed, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and Scopus were searched up to 6th May 2015. Randomized trials comparing the effects of autologous whole blood and corticosteroid injections on epicondylopathy or plantar fasciopathy were included. Trials exploring the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma were excluded. The primary outcome was pain relief. The secondary outcome included the assessment of composite outcomes. All outcomes were assessed at 2-6 (short-term) weeks, 8-13 (intermediate-term) weeks and 24-26 (medium-term) weeks. Quality assessment was performed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. RESULTS Nine trials were included. For pain relief, there was a statistically significant difference in favour of corticosteroids in the short term (SMD 0.52; 95%CIs 0.18 to 0.86; I2 = 53%; p < 0.01). A statistically significant difference in favour of autologous whole blood was indicated in the medium-term assessment of pain relief on epicondylopathy. CONCLUSIONS Corticosteroids were marginally superior to autologous whole blood in relieving pain on plantar fasciopathy at 2-6 weeks. Autologous whole blood provided significant clinical relief on epicondylopathy at 8-24 weeks. Conclusions were limited by the risk of bias.
Autologous whole blood versus corticosteroid local injection in treatment of plantar fasciitis: a randomized, controlled multicenter clinical trial
Clinical Rheumatology. 2016;36((3):):661-669
Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain. Local injection modalities are among treatment options in patients with resistant pain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of local autologous whole blood compared with corticosteroid local injection in treatment of plantar fasciitis. In this randomized controlled multicenter study, 36 patients with chronic plantar fasciitis were recruited. Patients were allocated randomly into three treatment groups: local autologous blood, local corticosteroid injection, and control groups receiving no injection. Patients were assessed with visual analog scale (VAS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and plantar fasciitis pain/disability scale (PFPS) before treatment, as well as 4 and 12 weeks post therapy. Variables of pain and function improved significantly in both corticosteroid and autologous blood groups compared to control group. At 4 weeks following treatment, patients in corticosteroid group had significantly lower levels of pain than patients in autologous blood and control groups (higher PPT level, lower PFPS, and VAS). After 12 weeks of treatment, both corticosteroid and autologous blood groups had lower average levels of pain than control group. The corticosteroid group showed an early sharp and then more gradual improvement in pain scores, but autologous blood group had a steady gradual drop in pain. Autologous whole blood and corticosteroid local injection can both be considered as effective methods in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis. These treatments decrease pain and significantly improve function compared to no treatment.
Local corticosteroid versus autologous blood injections in lateral epicondylitis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. 2016;53((3):):483-491.
BACKGROUND Lateral epicondylitis is a common painful elbow disorder. Several approaches to treatment have been proposed, with a local injection of corticosteroids being the most frequently used. Recent insights into the pathophysiology encouraged the introduction of autologous blood injections as an alternative treatment method. AIM: The aim of this meta-analysis is to summarize quantitatively the evidence regarding the efficacy of corticosteroids and autologous blood injections for treatment of pain in lateral epicondylitis. DESIGN Meta-analysis. SETTING Outpatient treatment. POPULATION Studies were considered eligible based on the following inclusion criteria: adult human, diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis, randomized controlled trials comparing corticosteroids versus autologous blood injections, pain assessment. Exclusion criteria were previous surgery for lateral epicondylitis or for other elbow disorders, concurrent treatment with drugs or physiotherapy, diagnosis of musculoskeletal systemic disorder. METHODS A systematic search of literature was performed according to PRISMA statement. Effect size of each included study was calculated and analyzed in a random-effects model. RESULTS Four studies, enrolling total of 218 patients (139 females and 79 males), were included in quantitative analysis. At 2 weeks there was a trend towards a reduction of VAS score in the corticosteroid group (WMD = 2.12 [95% CI: 4.38 to 0.14], P=0.07). No significant differences were recorded in the medium-term (4-12 weeks; WMD = 0.85 [95% CI: -0.44 to 2.15], P= 0.19) and long-term (24 weeks; WMD = 0.63 [95% CI: -2.40 to 3.66], P= 0.68) follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Few high-quality trials compare the efficacy of corticosteroid and autologous blood injections in the control of pain related to lateral epicondylitis. Available data indicate that corticosteroids tend to reduce VAS score in short-term follow-up, although these data are not statistically significant. No differences were recorded in the medium and long term. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT Contrary to popular opinion among medical professionals, and despite pathophysiological cues, the currently available data offer no support for the effectiveness of autologous blood injections in medium- and long- term follow-up. Further studies are necessary to establish which treatment has more impact on pain in lateral epicondylitis. These data could be then used as a basis for practical guidelines and new protocols of treatment.
Double-blind randomized controlled trial: injection of autologous blood in the treatment of chronic patella tendinopathy - a pilot study
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine : Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine. 2016;26((1)):17-23.
OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of autologous blood injections (ABIs) against saline in patients with chronic recalcitrant patella tendinopathy (PT). DESIGN Double-blind randomized controlled study. SETTING Homerton Hospital Sports Medicine department. PATIENTS Those with a diagnosis of refractory patellar tendinopathy were recruited between March 2010 and March 2012. INTERVENTIONS Using 2 practitioners, patients were randomized to either receive ABIs or saline injections. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES All patients completed the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), a visual analog scale (VAS), and a Victoria Institute of Sport Assessment for Patella Tendinopathy scale over a 12-month period. RESULTS Twenty-two patients completed the final review at 12 months and were included in the study. Subjects ranged in age from 22 and 61 years and were randomized to 11 in each ABI and saline groups. Autologous blood injection group had a mean duration of symptoms of 16.7 months, whereas that of the saline group was 19.2 months. The saline group mean VAS score was reduced from 7.9 to 4.5 at 1 month (P = 0.003) and 3.3 (P = 0.005) at 1 year. With ABI, the score was reduced from 7.5 to 4.5 (P = 0.005) at 1 month and 3.1 (P = 0.003) at 1 year. Victoria Institute of Sport Assessment for Patella Tendinopathy, MPQ, and VAS scores improved significantly in both groups. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrated that both the ABI and saline groups experienced a significant improvement in symptoms. However, when the results were compared, there was no statistical difference between the 2 groups. CLINICAL RELEVANCE This research showed that tendon fenestration is an alternative cost-effective treatment for recalcitrant PT.
Comparison of corticosteroid, autologous blood or sclerosant injections for chronic tennis elbow
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2016;20((6):):528-533
OBJECTIVES To compare three different ultrasound-guided injections for chronic tennis elbow. DESIGN Assessor-blinded, randomized controlled comparative trial. METHODS 44 patients with clinically diagnosed tennis elbow, confirmed by Doppler ultrasound, received under ultrasound guidance, a single corticosteroid injection (n=14), or two injections (separated by 4 weeks) of either autologous blood (n=14) or polidocanol (n=16). Clinical and ultrasound examination was performed at baseline, 4, 12 and 26 weeks. RESULTS Complete recovery or much improvement was greater for corticosteroid injection than autologous blood and polidocanol at 4 weeks (p<0.001, number needed to treat 1 (95% CI 1-2)). In contrast, at 26 weeks corticosteroid was significantly worse than polidocanol (p=0.004, number needed to harm 2 (1-6)). Recurrence after corticosteroid injection was significantly higher than autologous blood or polidocanol (p=0.007, number needed to harm 2 (1-4)). Corticosteroid injection produced greater reduction in tendon thickness and vascularity than autologous blood at 4 weeks only. Compared to autologous blood, polidocanol reduced tendon thickness at 4 and 12 weeks and reduced echogenicity and hyperaemia after 12 or 26 weeks respectively. CONCLUSIONS Injections of corticosteroid cannot be recommended over polidocanol or autologous blood, because despite beneficial short-term effect there were inferior long-term effects. Whether polidocanol or autologous blood injections are effective is unknown, especially as their global effect profiles are not unlike previously reported for wait-and-see.
Efficacy and safety of autologous blood products compared with corticosteroid injections in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Pm & R : the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation. 2016;8((8):):780-91
OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy and safety between autologous blood products (ABPs) and corticosteroid injections (CSIs) in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis (LE). TYPE Meta-analysis. LITERATURE SURVEY We systematically searched the EMBASE, PubMed, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ABPs versus CSIs for the treatment of LE without language and publication date restriction through April 2015. METHODOLOGY Two investigators independently included and assessed the quality of each eligible study according to the method recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. Available data about the main outcomes were extracted from each study and heterogeneity was assessed using the Q statistic and the inconsistency index (I2). We also evaluated the publication bias and conducted a subgroup analysis. The Review Manager 5.2 software was used for data syntheses and analyses, the standardized mean difference (SMD) or mean difference (MD) were estimated by using random effects models with 95% confidence interval (CI). To investigate the efficacy among different trial durations, the follow-up times were therefore divided into short (2-4 weeks), intermediate (6-24 weeks) and long term (≥ 24 weeks). SYNTHESIS Ten RCTs (n = 509) were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled analysis showed that CSIs were more effective than ABPs on pain relief (SMD = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.31to1.46%; P = .003) in the short term. However, in the intermediate term, ABPs exhibited a better therapeutic effect for pain relief (SMD = -0.38; 95% CI = -0.70 to -0.07%; P = .02), function (SMD = -0.60; 95% CI = -1.13 to -0.08%; P = .03), DASH (MD = -11.04; 95% CI = -21.72 to -0.36%; P = .04), and Nirschl stage (MD = -0.81; 95% CI = -1.11 to -0.51%; P < .0001). In the long term, ABPs were superior to CSIs for pain relief (SMD = -0.94; 95% CI = -1.32 to -0.57%; P < .0001) and Nirschl stage (MD = -1.04; 95% CI = -1.66 to -0.42%; P = .001). Moreover, for grip strength recovery, there was no significant difference between the two therapies (p > .05). CONCLUSIONS There was limited evidence supporting the conclusion that CSIs were superior to ABPs for pain relief in the short term; however, this result was reversed in the intermediate and long term. ABPs seemed to be more effective at restoring function in the intermediate term. Due to the small sample size and the limited number of high-quality RCTs, more high-quality RCTs with large sample sizes are required to further validate this result.
Autologous blood injection to treat achilles tendinopathy? A randomized controlled trial
Journal of Sport Rehabilitation. 2012;21((3):):218-24.
CONTEXT Achilles tendinopathy is a common and often debilitating condition, and autologous blood injection is a promising treatment option. OBJECTIVE To determine whether autologous blood injection added to standard management was effective in alleviating symptoms of Achilles tendinopathy. DESIGN A prospective randomized controlled trial. SETTING Private sports medicine clinic. PATIENTS 33 patients (18 women, 15 men) of mean age 50 y (SD 9) with 40 cases of Achilles tendinopathy of mean duration of 11 mo (SD 7). INTERVENTION Participants were randomized to blind peritendinous autologous blood injection added to standard treatment (eccentric-loading exercises) or standard treatment alone for 12 wk. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment for Achilles (VISA-A) score and ratings of discomfort during and after the injection were measured at baseline and 6 and 12 wk. Analytically derived effect-size thresholds of 5 (small) and 15 (moderate) VISA-A units were used as the reference values for clinical inference. RESULTS Improvements in VISA-A of 7.7 units (95%CL: +/- 6.7) and 8.7 units (+/- 8.8) were observed in the treatment and control groups, respectively, at 6 wk relative to baseline, with no clear effect of blood injection. At 12 wk VISA-A score improved to 18.9 units (+/- 7.4) in the treatment group, revealing a blood-injection effect of 9.6 units (+/- 11.5), relative to a comparatively unchanged condition in control (9.4 units; +/- 9.0). Predictors of response to treatment were unremarkable, and a 21% rate of postinjection flare was the only noteworthy side effect. CONCLUSIONS There is some evidence for small short-term symptomatic improvements with the addition of autologous blood injection to standard treatment for Achilles tendinopathy, although double-blinded studies with longer follow-up and larger sample size are required.
Autologous blood versus corticosteroid local injection in the short-term treatment of lateral elbow tendinopathy: a randomized clinical trial of efficacy
American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists. 2010;89((8):):660-7.
OBJECTIVE To compare local corticosteroid with autologous blood injections for the short-term treatment of lateral elbow tendinopathy. DESIGN A single blind, randomized clinical trial was performed in an outpatient clinic at a university hospital. Sixty patients aged 27-64 yrs with a new episode of tennis elbow were recruited. Thirty patients were randomized to methylprednisolone and 30 to autologous blood group over 1 yr. Severity of pain within last 24 hrs; limb function; pain and strength in maximum grip; disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand quick questionnaire (Quick DASH) scores; modified Nirschl scores; and pressure pain threshold were evaluated before injection and at 4 and 8 wks after injection. We analyzed our data with the chi and t test. RESULTS Within-group analyses showed better results for autologous blood (all P values <0. 001 except for grip strength, P = 0. 005). In the corticosteroid group, differences in severity of pain (P = 0. 008) and grip strength (P = 0. 001) were significant. At 4 wks, between-group analyses showed superiority of autologous blood for severity of pain (P = 0. 001), pain in grip (P = 0. 002), pressure pain threshold (P = 0. 031), and Quick DASH questionnaire score (P = 0. 004). There were no significant differences in modified Nirschl score, grip strength, and limb function. At 8 wks, autologous blood was more effective in all the outcomes (all P values <0. 001). CONCLUSIONS Autologous blood was more effective in short term than the corticosteroid injection.
Successful blood conservation during craniosynostotic correction with dual therapy using procrit and cell saver
The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. 2008;19((1):):101-5.
BACKGROUND Craniosynostotic correction typically performed around infant physiologic nadir of hemoglobin (approximately 3-6 months of age) is associated with high transfusion rates of packed red blood cells and other blood products. As a blood conserving strategy, we studied the use of 1) recombinant human erythropoietin or Procrit (to optimize preoperative hematocrit) and 2) Cell Saver (to recycle the slow, constant ooze of blood during the prolonged case). METHODS UCLA Patients with craniosynostosis from 2003-2005 were divided into 1) the study group (Procrit and Cell Saver) or 2) the control group (n = 79). The study group 1) received recombinant human erythropoietin at 3 weeks, 2 weeks, and 1 week preoperatively and 2) used Cell Saver intraoperatively. Outcomes were based on morbidities and transfusion rate comparisons. RESULTS The 2 groups were comparable with regards to age (5. 66 and 5. 71 months), and operative times (3. 11 vs 2. 59 hours). In the study group there was a marked increase in preoperative hematocrit (56. 2%). The study group had significantly lower transfusions rates (5% vs 100% control group) and lower volumes transfused than in the control group (0. 05 pediatric units vs 1. 74 pediatric units). Additionally, of the 80% of patients in the study group who received Cell Saver blood at the end of the case, approximately 31% would have needed a transfusion if the recycled blood were unavailable. CONCLUSION Our data showed that for elective craniosynostotic correction, successful blood conserving dual therapy with Procrit and Cell Saver might be used to decrease transfusion rates and the need for any blood products.