Economic Costs of Myasthenia Gravis: A Systematic Review
OBJECTIVES The objective of our study was to conduct a systematic literature review of economic costs (henceforth costs) associated with myasthenia gravis (MG). METHODS We searched MEDLINE (through PubMed), CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, and Web of Science for studies reporting costs of MG published from inception up until March 18, 2020, without language restrictions. Two reviewers independently screened records for eligibility, extracted the data, and assessed included studies for risk of bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Costs were inflated and converted to 2018 United States dollars ($). RESULTS The search identified 16 articles for data extraction and synthesis. Estimates of costs of MG were found for samples from eight countries spanning four continents (Europe, North America, South America, and Asia). Across studies, the mean per-patient annual direct medical cost of illness was estimated at between $760 and $28,780, and cost per hospitalization between $2550 and $164,730. The indirect cost of illness was estimated at $80 and $3550. Costs varied considerably by patient characteristics, and drivers of the direct medical cost of illness included intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange, myasthenic crisis, mechanical ventilatory support, and hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS We show that the current body of literature of costs of MG is sparse, limited to a few geographical settings and resource categories, mostly dated, and subject to non-trivial variability, both within and between countries. Our synthesis will help researchers and decision-makers identify gaps in the local health economic context of MG and inform future cost studies and economic evaluations in this patient population.
Use of intravenous immunoglobulin in the Department of Neurology at Ninewells Hospital, 2008-2009: Indications for utilization and cost-effectiveness
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology. 2010;13((4):):271-5.
This study was designed to identify the indications for prescription of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in neurology and the cost effectiveness of this therapy. OBJECTIVES IVIg is a relatively costly therapy and the annual budget spent on providing this therapy for various indications at Ninewells Hospital was close to 1.5 million. In today's economic times, a cost-benefit analysis of all therapies is prudent. This is of relevance to countries in the developing world as well where perhaps not everybody could afford such cost-intensive therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS We audited 2 time periods over 12 months each in 2004-2005 and 2008-2009 to look at the patterns of utilization of IVIg over these periods. We searched the literature for alternative and cost-effective therapies for the most common indications for use of IVIg. RESULTS Fiscal costs on prescription of IVIg have rocketed up by almost 300% in this Neurology Department comparing data from 2004-2005 vs 2008-2009 and this is disproportionate to the increase in the annual admission rate (bed usage), partly because of the soaring costs of the drug available in the market and also because of the increased prescription of IVIg for numerous indications where clinical trials data are yet not so robust. CONCLUSION We have looked at the cost of alternative therapies and offer some proposals that if implemented could potentially save 330,000 annually from the health budget at this NHS Trust. Perhaps similar models could evolve for better cost-effective utilization of IVIg in countries in the developing world where health budgeting is more acutely relevant.
Treatment of Guillain-Barré syndrome: a cost-effectiveness analysis
Journal of Clinical Apheresis. 1999;14((3):):107-13.