Pharmacometric Analysis Linking Immunoglobulin Exposure to Clinical Efficacy Outcomes in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy
CPT: pharmacometrics & systems pharmacology. 2021
The two main objectives of this analysis were to (i) characterise the relationship between immunoglobulin (Ig) exposure and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) disease severity using data from 171 patients with CIDP who received either subcutaneous Ig (IgPro20; Hizentra®) or placebo (PATH study), and to (ii) simulate and compare exposure coverage with various dosing approaches considering weekly dosing to be the reference dose. IgG PK parameters including those from a previous population PK model were used to predict individual IgG profile and exposure metrics. Treatment-related changes in inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment (INCAT) scores were best described by an E(max) model as a function of ΔIgG (total serum IgG at INCAT score assessment minus baseline IgG levels before intravenous Ig restabilisation). Simulations indicate that flexible dosing from daily to biweekly (every other week) provide an exposure coverage equivalent to that of a weekly Ig dose.
Efficacy of Local Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma in the Treatment of Pressure Ulcer in Spinal Cord Injury Patients
BACKGROUND Pressure ulcer is one of the common complications occurring in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been found useful in the treatment of pressure ulcers in few studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of PRP in pressure ulcer healing in comparison to hydrogel dressing in SCI patients. METHODS In this randomized interventional study, 52 patients of SCI having pressure ulcers of grade III/IV were randomized into two groups of 26 each. In group A patients, hydrogel dressing was done while freshly prepared PRP was used in patients of group B. Pressure ulcers were evaluated at baseline and after three weeks and six weeks in terms of ulcer surface area, volume, Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) score, histopathology, and ulcer healing parameters. Data were collected and quantitative variables were compared using unpaired t-test or Mann-Whitney test between the two groups and qualitative variables were compared using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS Baseline characteristics were comparable in both groups. There was a significant improvement in ulcers in terms of surface area, volume, and PUSH score in both the groups but it was comparable (p-value >0.05). There was a significant improvement in the PRP group as compared to the other group in terms of epithelization, granulation, and neovascularization at three and six-week follow-up. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that PRP is a possible and better alternative to conventional dressing methods for the treatment of pressure ulcers.
Treatment of central disorders of hypersomnolence: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine systematic review, meta-analysis, and GRADE assessment
Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. 2021;17(9):1895-1945
INTRODUCTION This systematic review provides supporting evidence for the accompanying clinical practice guideline on the treatment of central disorders of hypersomnolence in adults and children. The review focuses on prescription medications with U.S. Food & Drug Administration approval and nonpharmacologic interventions studied for the treatment of symptoms caused by central disorders of hypersomnolence. METHODS The American Academy of Sleep Medicine commissioned a task force of experts in sleep medicine to perform a systematic review. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies addressing pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for central disorders of hypersomnolence were identified. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the clinical significance of all outcomes. Finally, the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) process was used to assess the evidence for the purpose of making specific treatment recommendations. RESULTS The literature search identified 678 studies; 144 met the inclusion criteria and 108 provided data suitable for statistical analyses. Evidence for the following interventions is presented: armodafinil, clarithromycin, clomipramine, dextroamphetamine, flumazenil, intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), light therapy, lithium, l-carnitine, liraglutide, methylphenidate, methylprednisolone, modafinil, naps, pitolisant, selegiline, sodium oxybate, solriamfetol, and triazolam. The task force provided a detailed summary of the evidence along with the quality of evidence, the balance of benefits and harms, patient values and preferences, and resource use considerations. CITATION Maski K, Trotti LM, Kotagal S, et al. Treatment of central disorders of hypersomnolence: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine systematic review, meta-analysis, and GRADE assessment. J Clin Sleep Med. 2021;17(9):1895-1945.
Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Patients With Painful Idiopathic Small Fiber Neuropathy
OBJECTIVE This is the first double-blind, randomized, controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) versus placebo in patients with idiopathic small fiber neuropathy (I-SFN). METHODS Between July 2016 and November 2018, 60 Dutch patients with skin-biopsy proven idiopathic SFN randomly received a starting dose of IVIg (2 g/kg body weight) or matching placebo (0.9% saline). Subsequently, 3 additional infusions of IVIg (1 g/kg) or placebo were administered at 3-weekly intervals. The primary outcome was a 1-point change in Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale (PI-NRS) at 12 weeks compared to baseline. RESULTS Thirty patients received IVIg, and 30 received placebo. In both groups, 29 patients completed the trial. In 40% of patients receiving IVIg, the mean average pain was decreased with at least 1 point, compared to 30% of the patients receiving placebo (p-value 0.588, OR 1.56, 95%CI 0.53-4.53). No significant differences were found on any of the other pre-specified outcomes including general wellbeing, autonomic symptoms, and overall functioning and disability. CONCLUSIONS This RCT showed that IVIg treatment had no significant effect on pain in patients with painful idiopathic SFN.
Lactoferrin versus iron hydroxide polymaltose complex for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial
European journal of pediatrics. 2021
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is common among children with cerebral palsy (CP), and studies on the efficacy of lactoferrin (Lf) in the treatment of IDA are limited. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of Lf with that of iron hydroxide polymaltose complex (IPC) in the treatment of IDA in children with CP. This randomized controlled study, conducted at Alexandria University Children's Hospital, enrolled 70 children aged 1-10 years with CP and IDA; 35 children randomly received IPC, whereas the other 35 received Lf. Four children withdrew from the study; thus, only 66 children were analyzed (32 in the IPC group and 34 in the Lf group). At baseline, the hemoglobin level and other blood parameters were similar between the two intervention groups. After four weeks of treatment, both the IPC and Lf groups showed significant improvements in hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin (SF), serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin from baseline. Upon comparing the two treatment groups, adjusted mean Hb and SF changes in the Lf group were significantly higher than that of the IPC group (p =0.001and p= 0.033, respectively), and constipation was less likely to occur in the Lf group than the IPC group (p = 0.049 ).Conclusion: Lactoferrin is effective and superior to IPC as an oral iron replacement therapy in children with CP and IDA, as it has fewer side effects. What is Known: • Lactoferrin (LF) is a natural glycoprotein capable of treating iron deficiency anemia (IDA). • Studies on the efficacy of Lf in the treatment of IDA in children with cerebral palsy (CP) are limited. What is New? • This trial compared the efficacy of Lf and iron hydroxide polymaltose complex (IPC) as treatments of IDA in children with CP. • Lf is effective and even better than IPC as a treatment of IDA in children with CP, as it has fewer side effects.
Effects of ultrasound-guided platelet rich plasma injection in patients with piriformis syndrome
Journal of back and musculoskeletal rehabilitation. 2021
BACKGROUND Piriformis syndrome (PS) is the common entrapment neuropathy causing buttock pain. Patients are conventionally treated with lifestyle modification, exercise, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid or botulinum toxin injections. However, some patients may not respond to these conventional treatment methods. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) injection has been shown to be beneficial in various muscular injuries, but its effects have not yet been investigated in PS. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to explore the effect of PRP on pain and functional status in patients with PS, and to identify any correlations between clinical changes and demographic features. METHODS A total of 60 patients with PS were randomly separated into two groups (PRP and control groups). All patients received one session of either PRP or saline injection performed under ultrasound guidance. The pain was measured with a visual analog scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were noted at three intervals in both groups: before treatment, 1 week after treatment and 1 month after treatment. RESULTS The VAS and ODI scores were improved in both groups. The improvement was more obvious in the PRP group in the first week, and the results were similar for both groups when measured 1 month after the treatment. CONCLUSION Ultrasound-guided PRP injection provided greater improvements in both pain and functional status in patients with PS, starting in the early period after treatment. A repeat injection might be needed for a long-term effect.
Second intravenous immunoglobulin dose in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome with poor prognosis (SID-GBS): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial
The Lancet. Neurology. 2021;20(4):275-283
BACKGROUND Treatment with one standard dose (2 g/kg) of intravenous immunoglobulin is insufficient in a proportion of patients with severe Guillain-Barré syndrome. Worldwide, around 25% of patients severely affected with the syndrome are given a second intravenous immunoglobulin dose (SID), although it has not been proven effective. We aimed to investigate whether a SID is effective in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome with a predicted poor outcome. METHODS In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (SID-GBS), we included patients (≥12 years) with Guillain-Barré syndrome admitted to one of 59 participating hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients were included on the first day of standard intravenous immunoglobulin treatment (2 g/kg over 5 days). Only patients with a poor prognosis (score of ≥6) according to the modified Erasmus Guillain-Barré syndrome Outcome Score were randomly assigned, via block randomisation stratified by centre, to SID (2 g/kg over 5 days) or to placebo, 7-9 days after inclusion. Patients, outcome adjudicators, monitors, and the steering committee were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was the Guillain-Barré syndrome disability score 4 weeks after inclusion. All patients in whom allocated trial medication was started were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. This study is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register, NTR 2224/NL2107. FINDINGS Between Feb 16, 2010, and June 5, 2018, 327 of 339 patients assessed for eligibility were included. 112 had a poor prognosis. Of those, 93 patients with a poor prognosis were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis: 49 (53%) received SID and 44 (47%) received placebo. The adjusted common odds ratio for improvement on the Guillain-Barré syndrome disability score at 4 weeks was 1·4 (95% CI 0·6-3·3; p=0·45). Patients given SID had more serious adverse events (35% vs 16% in the first 30 days), including thromboembolic events, than those in the placebo group. Four patients died in the intervention group (13-24 weeks after randomisation). INTERPRETATION Our study does not provide evidence that patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome with a poor prognosis benefit from a second intravenous immunoglobulin course; moreover, it entails a risk of serious adverse events. Therefore, a second intravenous immunoglobulin course should not be considered for treatment of Guillain-Barre syndrome because of a poor prognosis. The results indicate the need for treatment trials with other immune modulators in patients severely affected by Guillain-Barré syndrome. FUNDING Prinses Beatrix Spierfonds and Sanquin Plasma Products.
Five-year outcomes after IVIG for mild cognitive impairment due to alzheimer disease
BMC neuroscience. 2021;22(1):49
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to assess the five-year treatment effects of a short course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS Fifty subjects 50 to 84 years of age with MCI due to AD were administered 0.4 g/kg 10% IVIG or 0.9% saline every two weeks x five doses in a randomized double-blinded design as part of a two-year study. Twenty-seven subjects completed an additional three-year extension study. MRI brain imaging, cognitive testing, and conversion to dementia were assessed annually. Participants were stratified into early MCI (E-MCI) and late MCI (L-MCI). The primary endpoint was brain atrophy measured as annualized percent change in ventricular volume (APCV) annually for five years. ANOVA was used to compare annualized percent change in ventricular volume from baseline between the groups adjusting for MCI status (E-MCI, L-MCI). RESULTS Differences in brain atrophy between the groups, which were statistically significant after one year, were no longer significant after five years. IVIG-treated L-MCI subjects did demonstrate a delay in conversion to dementia of 21.4 weeks. CONCLUSION An eight-week course of IVIG totaling 2 g/kg in MCI is safe but is not sufficient to sustain an initial reduction in brain atrophy or a temporary delay in conversion to dementia at five years. Other dosing strategies of IVIG in the early stages of AD should be investigated to assess more sustainable disease-modifying effects. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01300728. Registered 23 February 2011.
Neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric, and quality-of-life assessments in Alzheimer's disease patients treated with plasma exchange with albumin replacement from the randomized AMBAR study
Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. 2021
INTRODUCTION We report the effects of plasma exchange (PE) with albumin replacement on neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric, and quality-of-life (QoL) outcomes in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients in a phase 2b/3 trial (Alzheimer's Management by Albumin Replacement [AMBAR] study). METHODS Three hundred forty-seven patients were randomized into placebo (sham-PE) and three PE-treatment arms with low/high doses of albumin, with/without intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Specific test measurements were performed at baseline; month 2 (weekly conventional PE); months 6, 9, and 12 (monthly low-volume PE [LVPE]); and month 14. RESULTS The PE-treated mild-AD cohort improved their language fluency and processing speed versus placebo at month 14 (effect sizes: >100%; P-values: .03 to .001). The moderate-AD cohort significantly improved short-term verbal memory (effect sizes: 94% to >100%; P-values: .02 to .003). The progression of the neuropsychiatric symptoms of PE-treated was similar to placebo. Mild-AD patients showed improved QoL (P-values: .04 to .008). DISCUSSION PE-treated AD patients showed improvement in memory, language abilities, processing speed, and QoL-AD. No worsening of their psychoaffective status was observed.
Electrophysiological predictors of response to subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. 2021;132(9):2184-2190
OBJECTIVE To assess axonal function prior to subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) therapy or placebo in relation to relapse in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) to determine whether axonal damage can predict therapy response. METHODS Relapse rates in patients from the Polyneuropathy and Treatment with Hizentra (PATH) study, where patients were treated with placebo or SCIG (IgPro20), were analyzed by baseline (post-intravenous immunoglobulin stabilization) axonal damage (≤1 mV peroneal compound muscle action potential) status. RESULTS In patients with non-axonal damage, relapses were significantly higher with placebo (73.0%) than IgPro20 (0.2 g/kg: 39.1%, 0.4 g/kg: 19.2%). In patients with axonal damage, IgPro20 had no effect on relapse (placebo: 25.0%, IgPro20: 0.2 g/kg: 30.0%, 0.4 g/kg: 19.4%). Patients with axonal damage relapsed significantly less on placebo versus non-axonal damage, but they also demonstrated higher baseline disability. CONCLUSION Axonal damage may correspond to relapse upon treatment withdrawal; patients with axonal damage relapse less, possibly reflecting poor response to immunoglobulin therapy, while non-axonal damage patients may experience more relapse, perhaps indicating better treatment response. SIGNIFICANCE In CIDP patients with axonal loss, immunoglobulin therapy may not be as effective. Assessing axonal damage could help guide therapy, with immunoglobulins ideally used before substantial axonal damage arises.